A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city, usually one that contains substantial visible remains. Some ghost towns, especially those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions, writing about, and photographing ghost towns is a minor industry. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town that is the de jure capital of Montserrat and it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, and between cultures, lindsey Baker, author of Ghost Towns of Texas, defines a ghost town as a town for which the reason for being no longer exists. Some believe that any settlement with visible tangible remains should not be called a ghost town, others say, whether or not the settlement must be completely deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Generally, the term is used in a sense, encompassing any. The American author Lambert Florins preferred definition of a ghost town was simply a shadowy semblance of a former self, a town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes.
Ghost towns may result when the activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a bust. Boomtowns can often decrease in size as fast as they initially grew, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town, resulting in a ghost town. The dismantling of a boomtown can often occur on a planned basis, modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would often bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, in other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a towns intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place. This happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be socially or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon.
The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise, such examples include China and Canada, where housing is often used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town. This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontarios historic Opeongo Line, some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is another factor, one example being the towns along the Aral Sea, Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government and residents are required to relocate
Kelso Dunes, known as the Kelso Dune Field, is the largest field of eolian sand deposits in the Mojave Desert. The region is protected by the Mojave National Preserve and is located near the town of Baker, San Bernardino County, the dune field covers 45 square miles and includes migrating dunes, vegetation-stabilized dunes, sand sheets, and sand ramps. The tallest dunes rise up to 650 feet above the surrounding terrain, the dunes are composed predominantly of light-colored quartz and feldspar, most likely eroded from the granitics of the San Bernardino Mountains to the southwest. Magnetite and amphibole can be found, often accumulating at the dune crests, Kelso Dunes represent part of a much larger sand transport system, which includes the nearby Devils Playground region. The composition and morphology of the sand grains indicate that most originated from the Mojave River sink near Afton Canyon, the sand has accumulated at the southeastern end of the Soda Lake-Kelso basin, where the Granite Mountains and Providence Mountains form a barrier to prevailing winds.
At present, only the area around the Mojave River sink, the Kelso Dunes are composed of five stacked sets of dunes, each set corresponding to a period of climate change over the last 25,000 years. During dry climate episodes, a decrease in stabilizing vegetation exposed surface sand to wind erosion, once the sand was emplaced, vegetation began to grow, locking much of it into place. The Kelso Dunes are notable for the known as singing sand. Enthusiasts sometimes climb to the top of the dunes and slide down slowly and this effect has been noted at the Eureka Dunes in California, Sand Mountain in Nevada, and the Booming Dunes in the Namib Desert of Africa. The booming is much more pronounced when the dunes are extremely dry, Kelso Dunes are closed to off-road vehicles, but are open to hikers. The trailhead is at the end of a graded dirt road splitting from Kelbaker Road. This road can be accessed from both Interstate 15 and Interstate 40, the dunes themselves lie just southwest of the Kelso ghost town and the Parks Visitor Center located in the historic Kelso Depot.
Like many southern California dune systems, the Kelso dunes have a number of animal species. The list includes at least ten species of insects, such as the Kelso giant sand treader cricket, the Kelso Jerusalem cricket, Rhaphiomidas tarsalis, although not strictly endemic, several plant and reptile species are rare outside of these dunes. One example is the Mojave fringe-toed lizard, which is specialized in its ability to swim under sand, California Kelso Wash Amboy Crater Official Mojave National Preserve website Kelso Depot Visitors Center Photo tour of Mojave National Preserve, from USGS Afton Canyon Natural Area website
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Ivanpah is in the Mojave National Preserve in San Bernardino County, California. There are several residences in the area, but no real village, Ivanpah is located on the bajada below the northeast side of the New York Mountains overlooking the broad Ivanpah Valley. The Ivanpah Mountains lie across the valley to the northwest, Ivanpah is located at the crossing of Ivanpah Road and the Union Pacific Railroad, which was the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad until 1921 when it was bought out by Union Pacific. There was once a store located here. The original name for this crossing was Leastalk, the California Eastern Railway crossed the LA&SL railroad at this location. The California Eastern Railway became part of California and Santa Fe Railway, Ivanpah is the home of the largest thermal solar power facility in the world which opened officially on February 13,2014
The Marl Mountains are located in the Mojave National Preserve in eastern California in the United States, northeast of the Kelso Mountains. The Marl Mountains lie just east of Kelbaker Road, which connects the town of Baker with the community of Kelso. Like the Beale Mountains to the east, the range is one of the smallest mountain ranges in the nation, the Marl Mountains are often visited by travelers on the historic Mojave Road wagon trail, which passes Marl Spring on the east side of the mountains. Marl Spring was an important source of water to travelers crossing the dry Mojave Desert, the cistern at Marl Spring is still often full of water today, although the water should be treated by a water filter before drinking it
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is located in the southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California and southern Nevada, very small areas extend into Utah and Arizona. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Palmdale, the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, and the San Gabriel Mountains, the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults. The Mojave Desert displays typical basin and range topography and it occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is often referred to as the desert, in contrast to the low desert. However, the Mojave Desert is generally lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north, the spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English.
The Mojave Desert receives less than 13 in of rain a year and is generally between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation, zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, and the Colorado Plateau. Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater. The Mojave is a desert of temperature extremes and two distinct seasons, winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which dip precipitously to around 20 °F on valley floors, and below 0 °F at higher elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in places even snow. More often, the shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the regions weather, summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 120 °F and above 130 °F at the lowest elevations, low humidity, high temperatures, and low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
Autumn is generally pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events, october is one of the driest and sunniest months in the Mojave, and temperatures usually remain between 70 °F and 90 °F on the valley floors. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave, during the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed out into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows out into the Los Angeles basin, wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds. The other major factor in the region is elevation
New York Mountains
The New York Mountains are a small mountain range found in northeastern San Bernardino County in California, USA. The ranges northeastern area lies in southeastern Nevada, the range lies just south of the small community of Ivanpah, and north of the Lanfair Valley. The mountains are part of the ranges, mountains. The New York Mountains are part of the southeast border of the Great Basin Divide, the Piute Wash Watershed empties eastward into the Colorado River. The New York Mountains are a southwest by northeast trending range, searchlight and Cal-Nev-Ari, Nevada lie to the northeast and east, across the Piute Valley. The Castle Mountains lie to the southeast with the Piute Range adjacent to the southeast, the northeast flowing Ivanpah Valley drains the northwest side of the New York Mountains with the Ivanpah Mountains across the valley to the northwest. The McCullough Range of Nevada lies adjacent to the north, Mojave National Preserve New York Mountains, Peakbagger Crescent Peak, northeast Castle Peaks subregion, summitpost.
Piute Wash Watershed, EPA, Nevada to California
Kelso is a ghost town and defunct railroad depot in the Mojave National Preserve in San Bernardino County, California, USA. It was named after railroad worker John H. Kelso, whose name was placed into a hat along with two workers to decide the name of the town. Starting off as what was a train depot in the 1920s, the town of Kelso boomed briefly to as many as 2000 residents in the 1940s. Gold and silver were discovered in the nearby hills of what became known as the Kelso district. The town shrank again when the mines closed after about a decade, trains were watered and helper locomotives were attached to assist the regular trains in climbing the steep Cima Hill. The distance between Las Vegas and the connection with the Santa Fe line at Daggett was too far for trains without a meal car, the depot building itself was built in 1923 using a Spanish California mission building style. It contained boarding rooms for employees and a restaurant for both employees and passengers. It had an office and waiting room.
Later, a restaurant nicknamed the Beanery that served home-style meals was housed in the building, the large rooms in the basement served as a community center for local residents. About 1944 the railroad brought in an old jail to detain local drunks. It is now on display just outside the Kelso Depot, the depot remained in operation until 1986. Left to the conditions in the desert, the building began to deteriorate. By the mid-1990s the railroad was on the verge of demolishing the depot, preservationists stepped in to save it. It was recently renovated to become the Mojave National Preserves visitor center, renovation was completed in 2005 and the depot is now open to the public. During the 1970s Kelso was known as the town without television, about 75 residents lived in Kelso, many with school age children. Television signals could not reach the town meant that residents found other methods of recreation. However, with the advent of satellite dishes, television was introduced to Kelso. The ZIP Code is 92309 and the community is inside area codes 442 and 760, the Kelso Mountains are located north of Kelso, the Kelso Dunes lie to the southwest, and the entire area lies within the boundary of the Mojave National Preserve
Mojave Memorial Cross
The Mojave Memorial Cross is a cross formerly on public land in the Mojave desert that was at the center of the Salazar v. Buono legal case before the U. S. Supreme Court. The original cross was erected in 1934 to honor those killed in war, the cross has been maintained by volunteers and was reconstructed after being destroyed. It was boarded up after lower court rulings declared it illegal because of separation of church, on April 28,2010, the US Supreme Court ruled on Salazar v. Buono in a 5-4 decision sent the case back to a lower court. The high court ruled there was no violation of the separation of church, writing for the majority, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote, The goal of avoiding governmental endorsement does not require eradication of all religious symbols in the public realm. On the night of May 9–10,2010, the cross was cut down, National Park Service spokeswoman Linda Slater said a $125,000 reward has been offered for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the thieves.
The VFW promised that the memorial would be rebuilt and this was a legal fight that a vandal just made personal to 50 million veterans, military personnel and their families, said National Commander Thomas J. Tradewell. In April 2012, an exchange to remove Sunrise Rock from the Mojave National Preserve was approved by the U. S. District Court for the Central District of California. On Veterans Day, November 11,2012, the cross was rededicated by Henry Sandoz in a ceremony, the area is a saddle between Cima Dome and the Ivanpah Mountains, both of which are part of the Mojave National Preserve. The cross was erected in 1934, the current caretakers of the spot were introduced to it by a prospector named John Riley Bembry, who served as a medic in World War I and was one of the veterans who established the monument. The Desert Dispatch was contacted by someone claiming to have a message from the person who removed the cross, the message claimed that the cross had not been damaged or destroyed but moved by a veteran who objected to the cross being on public land.
The message claimed that a non-sectarian memorial had been brought to the site, on May 20,2010, park rangers discovered that a replica of the cross stolen 10 days earlier was now bolted to the base of the original. Park personnel removed it and placed it into evidence, Mojave National Park spokesperson, Linda Slater, said that since the replica is not the original disputed cross, it had to come down. The park service has regulations about people putting up memorials and you cant just go to a park and put up a memorial to a family member. The cross was found, over 500 miles away, in Half Moon Bay
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Lanfair Valley is located in the Mojave Desert in southeastern California near the Nevada state line. It is bounded on the north by the New York Mountains and Castle Mountains, on the east by the Piute Range, joshua Trees can be found in most of the valley. The dual valley drainage is a U-shape, and the first major dry wash drainage from the west, into the Colorado, the Old Mojave Road traverses the valley center, west to east. The Castle Mountains National Monument is part of the north and northeast perimeter of Lanfair Valley, the Castle Mountains proper is on the water divide between the headwaters of a south-flowing section of Lanfair Valley, and a northwesterly section of the south-flowing Piute Wash of Piute Valley. The central part of the valley contains the Grotto Hills and Lanfair Buttes, the valley is home to the Lanfair ghost town at the intersection of Cedar Canyon Road and Lanfair Road. While once thriving, all that is now left of the town of Lanfair is rubble, both Lanfair Valley, and its ghost town, are named for Ernest L.
Lanfair, a settlement owner. Tens of thousand of acres in the valley are privately held, few people live in the valley today, but at one time there were schools, post offices, and even a railroad. The Hart ghost town site in the northeast of the Lanfair Valley is located at 35°17′20″N 115°6′12″W, Lanfair ghost town site is located at 35°07′36″N 115°11′00″W. Sacramento Wash Mojave National Preserve Mojave Road Piute Valley & Wash Allan, Dennis G. Lanfair Valley - A Black Homesteading Experience - Ghost Towns of Mojave National Preserve
Interstate 15 in California
The route consists of the southernmost 287.26 miles of I-15, a major Interstate Highway that extends north through Nevada, a short section of Arizona, Utah and Montana to the Canada–US border. It is a thoroughfare for traffic between San Diego and the Inland Empire, as well as between Southern California, Las Vegas and points beyond. South of its junction at Interstate 8 in San Diego, the highway becomes SR15, extending 5.59 miles to Interstate 5, about 12 miles from the Mexican border. This segment was signed as a state route instead of an Interstate. Including this segment, the length of Route 15 is 293.64 miles. Wetterling and San Bernardino County Sheriffs Lieutenant Alfred E. Stewart Memorial Highway, SR15 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. SR15 begins south of I-5 at 32nd Street near Harbor Drive, after this, SR15 has an interchange with SR94, which has been cited as not being up to Interstate standards. Between the Polk Avenue and Orange Avenue overpasses, the freeway goes under a city park that was built on top of the freeway during construction in 2001, pedestrian bridges were built at Monroe Avenue and Landis Street to reduce the effects of the freeway geographically dividing the community.
Between I-8 and I-805, SR15 follows the alignment of 40th Street. It continues seamlessly into the terminus of I-15 at I-8 in San Diego. On the northbound conversion to I-15 at I-8, there is no End SR15 sign, there are various local names for the highway, such as the Escondido Freeway between San Diego and Escondido. I-15 between SR163 and Pomerado Road/Miramar Road is known as the Semper Fi Highway in recognition of the nearby Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. I-15 between Scripps Poway Pkwy and Camino Del Norte is known as the Tony Gwynn Memorial Freeway in recognition of Tony Gwynn who played in the San Diego Padres, North of the Escondido city limits it is known as the Avocado Highway, whose designation ends upon entering Temecula. There are other names as noted below. Heading northward, I-15 currently begins at I-8, at the place that its continuation, SR15. I-15 goes through Mission Valley and intersects with SR52, before merging with SR163, after traversing the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, I-15 comes into Rancho Peñasquitos, where it intersects with the end of SR56.
Northward, the route crosses Lake Hodges inside the upper San Diego city limits, I-15 continues north into Escondido, where it interchanges with SR78. In Riverside County, SR79 joins I-15 and runs concurrently with the route for a 3. 2-mile portion in Temecula, then, I-15 intersects with the southern end of I-215, which continues the designation of the Escondido Freeway