A National Parkway is a designation for a protected area in the United States. The designation is given to a protected corridor of surrounding parkland. National Parkways connect cultural or historic sites; the U. S. National Park Service manages the parkways; the first parkways in the United States were developed in the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Beatrix Farrand as roads segregated for pedestrians, bicyclists and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway and Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn, New York. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux and Olmsted in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads." Newer roads such as the Bidwell and Lincoln Parkways in Buffalo, New York, were designed for automobiles and are broad and divided by large landscaped central medians. Parkways can be the approach to large urban parks, such as the Mystic Valley Parkway to Boston Common in Boston; some separated express lanes from local lanes.
During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include controlled-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles with landscaping. These parkways provided scenic routes without at-grade intersections slow vehicles, or pedestrian traffic, their success led to more development however, expanding a city's boundaries limiting their recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway between Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena, California, is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics, it and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name parkway. In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal, the U. S. federal government constructed national parkways designed for recreational driving, to commemorate historic trails and routes. As with other roads through national parks, these undivided and two-lane parkways have lower speed limits, are maintained by the National Park Service and the Federal Highway Administration jointly through the Federal Lands Transportation Program.
An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps-built Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia. Others are: Skyline Drive in Virginia; the George Washington Memorial Parkway and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River near Washington, D. C. were constructed during this era. The Great River Road was envisioned as a National Parkway. List of United States federally maintained roads Scenic byways in the United States United States National Parkways travel guide from Wikivoyage
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is a U. S. National Monument and National Preserve, consisting of the region around the Aniakchak volcano on the Aleutian Range of south-western Alaska; the 601,294-acre monument is one of the least-visited places in the National Park System due to its remote location and difficult weather. The area was proclaimed a National Monument on December 1, 1978, established as a National Monument and Preserve on December 2, 1980; the National Monument encompasses the preserve 464,118 acres. Visitation to Aniakchak is the lowest of all areas of the U. S. National Park System, according to the NPS, with only 100 documented recreational visits in 2017. Most visitors fly into Surprise Lake inside Aniakchak Crater, but the frequent fog and other adverse weather conditions make landing in the lake difficult, it is possible to fly into the nearby village of Port Heiden and proceed overland to the Aniakchak Crater. The core of the national monument lands encompasses the 6-mile wide Aniakchak Crater.
The high point on the caldera rim is Aniakchak Peak. The lake within the caldera, Surprise Lake, is the source of the Aniakchak River. Multiple rivers within the caldera flow into Surprise Lake to form it. In addition to Surprise Lake, the other prominent feature inside the caldera is Vent Mountain, the site of the most recent eruption within the caldera; the preserve lands flank the monument on either side. Subsistence hunting is allowed in both the monument and preserve, sport hunting is allowed in the preserve; the region was unexplored until the 1920s, when exploration for oil brought reports of an un-described volcano. A moderate eruption in 1931 forming Vent Mountain resulted in significant publicity, spurring studies to declare the region a national monument, it was not until 1978 that a monument was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter under the Antiquities Act. The monument and preserve were established within their final boundaries in 1980 with the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act.
Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve is located about 450 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, on the Alaska Peninsula. It is not accessible by road, except from Port Heiden, a nearby village, only to the outer flanks of the caldera; the only ways to reach the monument are by floatplane to lakes Surprise Lake, or sheltered coastal waters, or by boat or airplane to coastal towns near preserve lands followed by overland or overwater traverse. There are no permanent facilities in the monument and the NPS does not require visitor registration. Visitor services are provided by the interagency King Salmon Visitor Center in King Salmon, shared with Lake Clark National Park, Katmai National Park and Preserve, other National Park Service and U. S. Fish and Alaska local and state agencies; the monument adjoins the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge on its northeast and southwest sides. Monument lands amount to 137,000 acres, preserve lands 465,000 acres; the national monument is centered on the 6-mile diameter crater of ancient Mount Aniakchak, destroyed and the resulting crater formed during a caldera collapse event about 3,700 years ago.
The original mountain, about 7,000 feet tall, collapsed into its magma chamber, leaving an approximate 3,300-foot deep summit crater. The monument and surrounding preserve include the volcanic feature, the wild Aniakchak River, the Bristol Bay coastal habitat, portions of the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Prominent features within Aniakchak crater include the Gates and Vent Mountain; the monument and preserve include four major physiographic regions. The monument is centered on the mountains of the Aleutian Aniakchak Crater; the volcano's caldera presents an active volcanic and geothermal landscape and Surprise Lake, the source of the Aniakchak River. Extending outward from the mountains are the glacially altered river valleys; the coastline region extends for 52 miles along the southeastern side of the peninsula where it faces the Pacific Ocean. The mountain spine of the Aleutian Range consists of uplifted mountains of moderate height, reaching 2,500 metres; the mountain environment is predominantly alpine tundra.
Superimposed on the mountain chain are a series of volcanoes, the largest of, the remnant of Mount Aniakchak, now collapsed into its caldera, the floor of which lies about 1,100 feet above sea level. The caldera was once filled by a crater lake that covered about 50% of the crater; the caldera wall was breached, leading to a catastrophic flood as the lake drained. Its remnant is the source of the Aniakchak River; the river valley zones are subdivided into northwestern areas. On the southeast side, the rivers fall steeply through volcanic ash deposits where vegetation has recolonized the areas devastated by the volcano's eruption. On the northwest side, the rivers are more sloped and the land is boggy with lush vegetation; the southeast coastal region is indented, with coastal cliffs and islands. Three large bays are the remnants of earlier volcanic craters; the two larger bays are Aniakchak and Amber Bays, the smaller is Kejulik Bay. All have
The Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve is a U. S. National Preserve in Jacksonville, Florida, it comprises 46,000 acres of wetlands and other habitats in northeastern Duval County. Managed by the National Park Service in cooperation with the City of Jacksonville and Florida State Parks, it includes natural and historic areas such as the Fort Caroline National Memorial and the Kingsley Plantation; the preserve was expanded in 1999 by Preservation Project Jacksonville. The Fort Caroline National Memorial is located in the Timucuan Preserve, as is the Kingsley Plantation, the oldest standing plantation in the state; the Preserve is maintained through cooperation by the National Park Service, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the City of Jacksonville Department of Parks and Recreation. It is named for the Timucua Indians who had 35 chiefdoms throughout northern Florida and south Georgia at the time of Spanish colonization. Archeological excavation by a University of North Florida team has revealed more information about indigenous peoples in the area.
On Black Hammock Island, they have discovered remnants of the second-oldest pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BCE. They have excavated more recent artifacts contemporary with the Mocama chiefdom. In the last 25 years, these Native American people have been recognized as distinct from the Timucua, although they spoke a Timucuan dialect, their chiefdom extended from the St. Johns River to Georgia. Archeologists believe. San Juan del Puerto, one of the oldest Spanish missions in Florida, was established here during the 16th century. Franciscan brothers were missionaries to the Timucua and Guale Indians along the coast, whose territory included the Sea Islands in Georgia and up to the Savannah River. Media related to Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve at Wikimedia Commons Timucuan Preserve travel guide from Wikivoyage Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, National Park Service Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, at U. S. Department of State International Information Programs UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: Timucuan Ecological and Historical Preserve: Water Resources Management Plan
Katmai National Park and Preserve
Katmai National Park and Preserve is an American national park and preserve in southern Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its brown bears. The park and preserve encompass 4,093,077 acres, between the sizes of Connecticut and New Jersey. Most of the national park—more than 3,922,000 acres —is a designated wilderness area where all hunting is banned; the park is named after its centerpiece stratovolcano. The park is located on the Alaska Peninsula, across from Kodiak Island, with headquarters in nearby King Salmon, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage; the area was first designated a national monument in 1918 to protect the area around the major 1912 volcanic eruption of Novarupta, which formed the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, a 40-square-mile, 100-to-700-foot-deep pyroclastic flow. The park includes as many as 18 individual volcanoes, seven of which have been active since 1900. Designated because of its volcanic history, the monument was left undeveloped and unvisited until the 1950s.
The monument and surrounding lands became appreciated for their wide variety of wildlife, including an abundance of sockeye salmon and the brown bears that feed upon them. After a series of boundary expansions, the present national park and preserve were established in 1980 under the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Katmai occupies the Pacific Ocean side of the Alaska Peninsula, opposite Kodiak Island on the Shelikof Strait; the park's chief features are its coast, the Aleutian Range with a chain of fifteen volcanic mountains across the coastal southeastern part of the park, a series of large lakes in the flatter western part of the park. The closest significant town to the park is King Salmon, where the park's headquarters is located, about 5 miles down the Naknek River from the park entrance; the Alaska Peninsula Highway connects Naknek Lake near the entrance to King Salmon, continuing to the mouth of the river at Naknek. The road is not connected to the Alaska road system.
Access to the park's interior is by boat on Naknek Lake. Another road runs from Brooks Camp to Three Forks, which overlooks the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes; the 497-mile long coastline is indented, running from the entrance to the Cook Inlet at Kamishak Bay south to Cape Kubugakli. The mountains run from southwest to northeast, about 15 miles inland; the park includes Refuge on Kamishak Bay. The Alagnak River, designated a wild river, originates within the preserve at Kukaklek Lake; the Naknek River, which empties into Bristol Bay, originates within the park. The park adjoins Becharof National Wildlife Refuge to the south. Of the park and preserve's acres, 3,922,529 acres are in the national park where all sport and subsistence hunting is prohibited. 418,548 acres are preserve lands, where both subsistence hunting are permitted. The most hunted species in the preserve includes the brown bear, which has led to some problems about bear hunting due to small preserve population sizes and stalking bears to close limits.
The foundation rocks on the Alaska Peninsula are divided by the Bruin Bay Fault into fossiliferous sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age to the east and metamorphic and igneous rocks to the west. The granite Aleutian Range batholith has intruded through these rocks; the majority of the higher mountains in the park are of volcanic origin. The park has been extensively altered by glaciation, both in the high lands where the mountains have been sculpted by glaciers, in the lowlands where lakes have been excavated. Outwash plains and terminal moraines are featured in the park. Soil types vary from rock or volcanic ash of vary depth to wet soils overlain with peat. Although permafrost exists at higher elevations, it is not present in the lowlands. Two physiographic provinces cover the park; the Aleutian Range province is composed of the Shelikof Strait coastline, about 10 miles deep along the coast, the Aleutian Mountain zone, the lake, or Hudsonian zone. Farther west the Nushagak-Bristol Bay Lowlands province is separated from the Aleutian zone by the Bruin Bay Fault, occupying a small corner of the park.
The active volcanoes in the park are Mount Katmai, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin and Fourpeaked Mountain. Other volcanoes that have erupted in recent times in geological terms, but not in historical times, are Mount Douglas, Mount Griggs, Snowy Mountain, Mount Denison, Mount Kukak, Devils Desk, Mount Kaguyak, Mount Cerberus, Falling Mountain and Mount Kejulik. Martin and Mageik produce steam that can be seen from King Salmon, while Trident was active in 1957–1965 and 1968; the most significant volcanic event in historical times was the simultaneous eruption of Mount Katmai and Novarupta in June 1912. Novarupta's eruption produced a pyroclastic flow that covered a nearby valley with ash as much as 300 feet thick. At the same time the summit of Katmai collapsed into a caldera; as the valley deposits cooled, they emitted steam from fissures and fumaroles, earning the name "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." As heat has dissipated from the deposits the steam vents have subsided and the valley has been eroded.
At present streams have cut canyons as much as 100 feet deep, but only 5 to 10 feet wide. Katmai is 6,716 feet in height, with a large summit caldera. Several glaciers originate from the mountain, one in the caldera is the only glacier known to have formed in historical times; the caldera floor is about 250 metres below the rim. The mountain stands on Jurassic sedimentary rocks, its volcanic com
United States Secretary of the Interior
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Department of the Interior in the United States is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; the Secretary serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet; the U. S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond to the Department of Homeland Security in the U. S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice; because the policies and activities of the Department of the Interior and many of its agencies have a substantial impact in the Western United States, the Secretary of the Interior has come from a western state. The current Interior Secretary is David Bernhardt, who held the office in an acting capacity until April 2019.
He succeeded Ryan Zinke who resigned on January 2, 2019. The line of succession for the Secretary of Interior is as follows: Deputy Secretary of the Interior Solicitor of the Interior Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management Assistant Secretary for Water and Science Assistant Secretary for Fish and Parks Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs Director, Security and Law Enforcement, Bureau of Reclamation Central Region Director, US Geological Survey Intermountain Regional Director, National Park Service Region 6 Director, US Fish and Wildlife Service Colorado State Director, Bureau of Land Management Regional Solicitor, Rocky Mountain Region As of April 2019, eight former Secretaries of the Interior are alive, the oldest being Manuel Lujan Jr.. The most recent to die was Cecil D. Andrus, on August 23, 2017; the most serving Secretary to die was William P. Clark Jr. on August 10, 2013. Official website List of Secretaries of the Interior The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History