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Protected areas of the United States

The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. Federal protected areas include lands and waters owned outright, as well as areas that are secured by easements, etc. In addition to ownership-defined areas, there are numerous overlaying policy designations that apply management protections and use conditions on all or some of individual protected areas.

As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, they are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi; because U. S. federal protected areas include both ownership based names, names related to overlaying policy designations, the naming system for U.

S. protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service manage areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management manage areas called national monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies; those relying on U. S. protected areas data are advised to learn more about all of these conventions by reviewing the extensive PAD-US Help system. There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.

Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks as well as many other types of protected areas. State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks; some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park.

About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U. S. state and tribal wilderness areas List of Wildlife Ma

Dizmas

Dizmas is a Christian rock band from Lancaster, California. Nick Aranda, Clayton Hunt and brothers Zach and Josh Zegan began playing together as teenagers in 1998 while attending Desert Christian High School in Lancaster, California, they were joined by Jon Howard, from Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. Their debut album "On a Search in America" was released on June 21, 2005. Jon Howard's younger brother, joined Dizmas as a roadie/merch guy/techie in 2006, now serving as tour manager. On May 3, 2006 their song "Revolution" aired on "CSI: NY – Season 2: Stealing Home", their second album "Tension" was produced by Steve Wilson and released on May 5, 2007. On July 10, 2007 their song "Shake It Off" aired on ESPN. Soon after their hit single "Play It Safe" reached No. 1 on Radio & Records Christian Rock National Airplay chart of national broadcasters in the United States for the week ending Aug 03, 2007. In fall 2008, the band had their last tour in Czech Republic. In response to their rising success, The Miami New Times noted Dizmas's unique talents in their "2007 Music Year in Review" piece.

After returning from the Czech Republic the band said. Jon Howard went on to join Stellar Kart, but left in the summer of 2010 to tour as a stage guitarist for Paramore. Howard has continued in this position despite changes to the official line-up of Paramore. In spring 2009, Zach Zegan created a new band for playing in the Czech Republic on "EXIT Tour" - 2009 through 2013; the band continued to tour with EXIT Tour using various musicians Zegan had either toured with in the past or mentored. The band stayed in this style as EXIT Tour expanded from not only the Czech Republic but into Slovakia and Poland. In December 2013, the group went on an indefinite break to allow the group to explore other areas of ministry and music projects. Current Zach Zegan – lead vocalist Kevin Dickson – rhythm guitar, background vocals Tomaš Samiec – lead guitar Jeňa Pospíšil – bass guitar Jaime Hays – drumsFormer Josh Zegan – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Jon Howard – lead guitar Nick Aranda – bass guitar Clayton Hunt – drums Kevin Dickson - rhythm guitar, backing vocals Tomaš Samiec - lead guitar Jeňa Pospíšil – bass guitar Josh Redd – drums Jacob Cornell – rhythm guitar, background vocals Sam Ortega – guitar, background vocals Jaime Hays – drums Mario Gonzalez – bass guitar Keoni Chock – lead guitar Daniel Schaaff - lead guitar Studio albumsOn a Search in America Tension Dizmas EPsRedemption, Glory The Between EP CompilationsStereocilia Vol. 1 Official website Official Czech fan-site for Dizmas EXIT Tour website

NSP3

Rotavirus protein NSP3 is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral mRNAs in infected cells. Four nucleotides are the minimal requirement for RNA recognition by rotavirus non-structural protein NSP3: using short oligoribonucleotides, it was established that the minimal RNA sequence required for binding of NSP3A is GACC. Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly-binding protein from eIF4F, and NSP3A, by taking the place of PABP on eIF4GI, is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis. Expression of NSP3 in mammalian cells allows the efficient translation of virus-like mRNA: NSP3 forms a link between viral mRNA and the cellular translation machinery and hence is a functional analogue of cellular poly-binding protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry documented that NSP3 and PABP use analogous eIF4G recognition strategies, despite marked differences in tertiary structure. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, RoXan a novel cellular protein was found to bind NSP3.

The interaction between NSP3 and RoXaN does not impair the interaction between NSP3 and eIF4GI, a ternary complex made of NSP3, RoXaN, eIF4G I can be detected in rotavirus-infected cells, implicating RoXaN in translation regulation