The Piute Valley is a 45-mile-long north–south valley southeast of Las Vegas and northwest of Needles. The north of the valley is at Searchlight, with some of the valley extending northwest from Searchlight. At the center-north lies Cal-Nev-Ari, Nevada; the second valley southeast of Las Vegas borders to the north, the endorheic Eldorado Valley, with its dry lake. The next watershed north is the Las Vegas Wash Watershed; the northeast portion of the Mojave National Preserve makes up the northwestern region of the Piute Valley, at a four-valley water divide point. The Piute Valley Watershed is the first watershed southeast of Las Vegas–Lake Mead to meet the Colorado River; the mountain ranges south of Lake Mead, bordering the river and Lake Mohave are part of the Havasu-Mohave Lakes Watershed. Piute Valley is a 45-mile-long valley, about 10 miles wide at its southern end, it is drained by Piute Wash with the wash turning easterly at the south to join the Colorado River at Needles. The valley is bordered by three mountain ranges, all north–south ranges, with the Piute Range to the west.
To the northeast is the Newberry Mountains, to the southeast is the Dead Mountains range, where Piute Wash borders its southwest and south perimeter. Searchlight is at the north of the valley, with a 5-mile grade of U. S. Route 95 in Nevada north of Searchlight to the beginning of the Eldorado Valley. U. S. 95 is the route traversing the Piute Valley north–south, connecting at the south to the east–west Interstate 40 in California and the northern foothills of the Sacramento Mountains. The southern end of the extensive McCullough Range converges with four valleys and three mountain ranges. West of the McCullough's lie the endorheic Ivanpah Dry Lakes of Ivanpah Valley. Ivanpah Valley turns southeast to meet the water divide point. Northeast of the water divide point is the southwest Eldorado Valley endorheic with its Eldorado Dry Lake. Southwest the Piute Valley drains south Piute Wash turns east and descends steeply at the Dead Mountains to its outfall at the Colorado River and Needles; the Mojave National Preserve is endorheic with the west bordering on Baker and the twin dry lakes of Silver Dry Lake and Soda Dry Lake.
The northeast preserve corner is anchored by the water divide point. The northeast borders of the New York and smaller Castle Mountains meet the north of the Piute Range; the Piute Valley Watershed is the first major watershed southeast of Las Vegas to drain into the western side of the south-flowing Colorado River. Though Piute Wash drains Piute Valley, the entire watershed includes Sacramento Wash which covers an equivalent area west of the north–south Piute Range, drains the Lanfair Valley and surrounding mountain ranges. Piute Wash Watershed, Nevada to California Havasu-Mohave Lakes Watershed Las Vegas Wash Watershed
A dirt road or track is a type of unpaved road made from the native material of the land surface through which it passes, known to highway engineers as subgrade material. Dirt roads are suitable for vehicles. Unpaved roads with a harder surface made by the addition of material such as gravel and aggregate, might be referred to as dirt roads in common usage but are distinguished as improved roads by highway engineers. Compared to a gravel road, a dirt road is not graded to produce an enhanced camber to encourage rainwater to drain off the road, drainage ditches at the sides may be absent, they are unlikely to have embankments through low-lying areas. This leads to greater waterlogging and erosion, after heavy rain the road may be impassable to off-road vehicles. For this reason, in some countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, they are known as dry-weather roads. Dirt roads take on different characteristics according to the soils and geology where they pass, may be sandy, rocky or have a bare earth surface, which could be muddy and slippery when wet, baked hard when dry.
They are to become impassable after rain. They are common in rural areas of many countries very narrow and infrequently used, are found in metropolitan areas of many developing countries, where they may be used as major highways and have considerable width. Terms similar to dirt road are dry-weather road, earth road, or the "Class Four Highway" designation used in the People's Republic of China. A track, dirt track, or earth track would be similar but less suitable for larger vehicles. While most gravel roads are all-weather roads and can be used by ordinary cars, dirt roads may only be passable by trucks or four-wheel drive vehicles in wet weather, or on rocky or sandy sections, it is as easy to become bogged in sand. Driving on dirt roads requires great attention to variations in the surface and it is easier to lose control than on a gravel road. In addition to the hazards mentioned, potholes and ridges, problems associated with driving on gravel roads include: sharper and larger stones cutting and puncturing tires, or being thrown up by the wheels and damaging the underside puncturing the fuel tank if not shielded stones skipping up hitting the car body, lights or windshields when two vehicles pass each other dust thrown up from a passing vehicle reducing visibility'washboard' corrugations cause loss of control or damage to vehicle systems such as suspension and steering Skidding on mud after rain.
In Africa, parts of Asia, parts of America, laterite soils are used to build dirt roads. However laterite, called murram in East Africa, varies to earth and sand, it ranges from a hard gravel to a softer earth embedded with small stones. Not all laterite and murram roads are therefore gravel roads. Laterite and murram which contains a significant proportion of clay becomes slippery when wet, in the rainy season, it may be difficult for four-wheel drive vehicles to avoid slipping off cambered roads into the drainage ditches at the side of the road; as it dries out, such laterite can become hard, like sun-dried bricks. Byway Country lane Green lane
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
Hesperia is a city in San Bernardino County, United States 35 miles north of downtown San Bernardino in Victor Valley. This portion of the Mojave Desert is referred to as the High Desert due to the unique and moderate weather patterns. 2015 census estimates report that the City has a total population of 92,755. Hesperia began as a Spanish land grant: Rancho San Felipe, Las Flores y el Paso del Cajon, founded in 1781; the first inhabitants were Serrano Indians. They lived in the dormant Mojave River bed, the land was sparsely inhabited desert during Spanish-Mexican rule in the 19th century; the U. S. annexed the region along with Southern California after the Mexican-American War in 1848. The town site was laid out in 1891 by railroad company land developers of the US & Santa Fe Railroad completed that year. Hesperia was named for the Greek god of the west; the railroad land developers published pamphlets distributed across the country with boosterism of Hesperia, California, as a potential metropolis: to become "the Omaha of the West" or projections to have over 100,000 people by the year 1900, but only 1,000 moved in.
Hesperia grew slowly until the completion of US Routes 66, 91 and 395 in the 1940s followed by Interstate 15 in the late 1960s. A total of 30 square miles of land was laid out for possible residential development. In the early 1950s, land developer M. Penn Phillips and his silent financial partner, the famous boxer Jack Dempsey, financed the building of roads and land subdivisions, promoting lots sales on television, they built golf course which attracted a variety of Hollywood celebrities. The Hesperia Inn housed the Jack Dempsey Museum, but the main wave of newcomers arrived at Hesperia in the 1980s. Suburban growth transformed the small town of 5,000 people in 1970 to a moderate-sized community of over 60,000 by the year 2000. Hesperia is a city in the Mojave Desert, the California Aqueduct traverses the area. Much of the native flora of Hesperia is classified as California desert vegetation, dominated by junipers, joshua trees and sagebrush; the elevation rises from 3,200 feet in the north to about 4,000 feet above sea level to the south.
The San Andreas Fault, a major tectonic plate boundary of the Pacific and North American plates a few miles south of Hesperia in the Cajon Pass, has occasional seismic activity. Hesperia is located at 3,186 feet above sea level and is a neighbor of Victorville, Oak Hills and Apple Valley; the Mojave River flows northerly through the east side of the city, while the California Aqueduct splits the city from north to south en route to Silverwood Lake. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.2 square miles, with 73.1 square miles being land and 0.1 square miles being water. On the southern edge of Hesperia, where the city meets the desert by the airport to the east, is a somewhat pronounced mesa which the locals refer to as "The Mesa". According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hesperia has a Cold Desert Climate, abbreviated "BWk" on climate maps. Winter days are cool with high temperatures averaging around 60 °F. However, temperatures get cold overnight, as the average low temperatures for December and January are around freezing.
It is the area's wet season. The rain shadow caused by the mountain ranges to the south and west shields Hesperia from the majority of winter rainfall, but heavy rain is not uncommon. Winter snowfall is sporadic - the average yearly snowfall amount is 4.4 inches. Summer days are hot, with high temperatures nearing 100 °F on average; this excessive heat is typical of the Mojave Desert as a whole. However, the large diurnal temperature variation provides substantial relief overnight. In the part of the season, sporadic summer thunderstorms associated with the North American Monsoon can bring power outages and local flash floods; as of the 2000 census there were 62,582 people, 19,966 households, 15,773 families residing in the city. The population density was 929.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,348 housing units at an average density of 317.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.3% White, 4.0% African American, 1.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 6.5% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29.4% of the population. There were 19,966 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.0% were non-families. 16.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.1 and the average family size was 3.5. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,201, the median income for a family was $43,004. Males had a median income of $39,776 versus $25,665 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,487. About 11.1% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Hesperia had a population of 90,173. The population density was 1,231.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Hesperia was 55,129 White (41.1% Non-Hispa
Mojave National Preserve
Mojave National Preserve is a United States National Preserve located in the Mojave Desert of San Bernardino County, California, USA, between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The preserve was established October 31, 1994, with the passage of the California Desert Protection Act by the US Congress, it was the East Mojave National Scenic Area, under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. Mojave National Preserve is vast. At 1,600,000 acres, it is the third largest unit of the National Park System in the contiguous United States. Natural features include the Kelso Dunes, the Marl Mountains and the Cima Dome, as well as volcanic formations such as Hole-in-the-Wall and the Cinder Cone Lava Beds; the preserve encloses Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve, which are both managed by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. Impressive Joshua tree forests are found in parts of the preserve; the forest covering Cima Dome and the adjacent Shadow Valley is the largest and densest in the world.
The ghost town of Kelso is found in the preserve, with the defunct railroad depot serving as the Visitor Center. The preserve is traversed by 4 wheel drive vehicles traveling on the historic Mojave Road. Climate in the preserve varies greatly. Summer temperatures average 90 °F, with highs exceeding 105 °F. Elevations in the preserve range from 7,929 feet at Clark Mountain to 880 feet near Baker. Annual precipitation varies from 3.37 inches near Baker, to 9 inches in the mountains. At least 25% of precipitation comes from summer thunderstorms. Snow is found in the mountains during the winter; the California Desert Protection Act of 1994 designated a wilderness area within Mojave National Preserve of 695,200 acres. The National Park Service manages the wilderness in accordance with the Wilderness Act, the CDPA, other laws that protect cultural and historic sites in the wilderness; the following climate data is for a higher elevation area in the preserve. See Climate of the Mojave Desert. Mojave Memorial Cross Official website Photo tour of Mojave National Preserve - from USGS