Kings Avenue, Canberra
Kings Avenue is a road in Canberra which goes between New Parliament House, across Lake Burley Griffin at the Kings Avenue Bridge, to Russell near the Australian-American Monument. It begins at State Circle around Capital Hill and forms the border between the suburbs of Parkes and Barton and it passes the National Archives of Australia, Robert Garran offices, Edmund Barton Building, Australian Centre for Christianity and Culture, Bowen Place and Kings Park. It ends at the intersection with Russell Drive, the road was originally named Federal Avenue by the architect of Canberra, Walter Burley Griffin. Principal roads in Canberra are laid out in a pattern when viewed on a map. One of the predominant features forming this geometry is Capital Hill with major roads emanating radially from it, two of these roads form the Parliamentary Triangle incorporating bridges crossing Lake Burley Griffin. Walter Burley Griffin wanted to name these major avenues with grand names reflecting the reason for the creation of the city with the names Commonwealth Avenue, the government had different ideas, it renamed the road after the Sovereign at the time King George VI.
The act of renaming the road from Federal Avenue to Kings Avenue gives rise to two interpretations of the name of Commonwealth Avenue, the speed limit on Kings Avenue is 60 km/h from the State Circle end to the southwestern side of Kings Avenue Bridge. The speed limit over the bridge and up to the Parkes Way overpass is 80 km/h, the avenue is a property on the Australian edition of board game Monopoly Australian Roads portal
South Eastern Highlands
The South Eastern Highlands is an interim Australian bioregion in eastern Australia, that spans parts of the states and territories of New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, and Victoria. The bioregion comprises 8,375,961 hectares and is approximately 3,860 kilometres long, the Australian Alps as well as the South West Slopes bound the region from the south and west of the Sydney Basin, as well as the bioregions of the South East Corner. Several regional cities make up part of the such as Orange in the north and Yass in the centre, Goulburn in the east. The South Eastern Highlands are an important source of gold, tin, the region is known for the mountains and plateaus that parallel the east and southeast territory of Australia. This forms the Continental Divide, which includes Tasmania, and rises to Mount Kosciuszko, the South Eastern Highlands have been occupied by many groups of people within history. The region is divided into different groups, the Ngunawal and Gandangara groups occupy the northern part.
Ngarigo groups lives in the southern and center of the region, the Walbanga group live in the center along with the Ngarigo group. In the western part of the highlands, a group named the Wagal occupied that part of the highlands, the South Eastern Highlands have many resources that provide food for the groups that live there. Some of the foods that the people relied on were the quantity of vegetables that were available to the people. The highlands provided the people yam daisy and wattleseads that were useful during the months of July. Other resources were fish, crayfish and other animals that people could hunt. This really gave occupiers a reason to stay in the highlands because they had everything they needed to survive, during the 1820s, the Europeans began to settle in the South Eastern Highlands because they saw potential in the land. While the Europeans settled in the highlands, this disrupted the lifestyle of the living there. There resources were being affected by this. There were countless reports on how there was a shortage of water which would effect the animals that rely on this resource.
This change affected the people because now there was a shortage of water and animals such as fish and surrounding animals that would constantly come, having the Europeans settle in on this land not only affected the resources of the people but started to spread dangerous diseases to the population. Some of the diseases that were spread were the influenza epidemic, although there was a lot of damaging effects to having the Europeans settle in the highlands, there were a lot of positive things that came out of this. One of the things was that the Europeans discovered copper in the bioregion which became a place for cooper mining
The Palerang Council was a local government area located in the Southern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. On 12 May 2016 the Minister for Local Government announced dissolution of the Palerang Council with immediate effect, together with Queanbeyan City the combined council areas were merged to establish the Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council. Both Councils had opposed the amalgamation, elections for the new Council area will be held in September 2017. The former Mayor of Queanbeyan City Council was appointed by the NSW Government as Administrator until that date, the last Mayor of the Palerang Council was Cr. A2015 review of local government boundaries recommended that the Palerang Council merge with adjoining councils, the NSW Government considered three options. The alternative, proposed by Palerang Council on 29 January 2016, was for an amalgamation of the whole of Palerang with Queanbeyan City Council, on 12 May 2016 the Minister for Local Government announced dissolution of the Palerang Council with immediate effect.
Together with Queanbeyan City the combined areas were merged to establish the Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council. The former area was named after Mount Palerang, located close to the geographical centre, the Kings Highway and the Sydney-Canberra railway pass through the former Palerang Council area. Predominantly rural in nature, the Palerang Council area comprised the towns of Bungendore and Captains Flat, and it encompasses the rural residential areas of Wamboin, Burra, Hoskinstown and parts of Carwoola and Sutton. Cattle grazing is the primary agricultural pursuit in the area, with more recent development of niche rural industries such as vineyards, olive groves. About one quarter of the former Palerang Council area is managed for conservation, until its dissolution, Palerang Council was composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as one entire ward. All Councillors were elected for a fixed term of office. The Mayor was elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council
In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. The term is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water. A one-mile portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada is at the confluence of the Niagara River and Lake Ontario. The junction of the Green River and Colorado River forms the heart of Canyonlands National Park in Utahs Canyon Country, the Sangam, near Allahabad, where the sacred rivers Ganges and Yamuna meet to create one of the holiest places in Hinduism. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, located in Pittsburgh, the Madison and Gallatin Rivers in Three Forks, Montana form the confluence of the Missouri River, one of the longest rivers in the United States. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is at the confluence of the Gombak River and the Klang River. Passau known as the Dreiflüssestadt, because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, Brazil is on the Rio Negro near its confluence with the Amazon.
It is the port and a hub for the regions extensive river system. Osijek, Croatia, is on the bank of the river Drava 25 km upstream of its confluence with the Danube. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia lies at the confluence of the Sava, the Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located at the confluence of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River in Quebec, Canada. Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River, the area is referred to as The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over 6000 years. The confluence of the rivers Danube and Morava in Devín on the border between Slovakia and Austria, triangle of Three Emperors, former tripoint in Europe. Cairo, Illinois, in the United States, where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi River, St. Louis, Missouri, is built just south of the confluence of the Mississippi River and the Missouri River. Lyon, France is located on the confluence of the Saône and Rhone rivers, British Columbia, Canada, is located at the confluence of the muddy Fraser River and the clearer Thompson River.
The confluence between the Franklin River and Gordon River in south-western Tasmania The confluence of the Snake and Columbia River at the Tri-Cities of Washington, the confluence of the rivers Pivka and Rak is one of the largest subterranean confluences in Europe. The confluence at Lokoja, where the Niger and Benue rivers merge, the Sudanese capital of Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile. This merging point is the beginning of the Nile, Ohio, in the United States is at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers. Luang Prabang in Laos is at the confluence of the Mekong, River Kabul and River Swat at Attock, in Pakistan
A watercourse is the channel that a flowing body of water follows. In the UK, some aspects of law such as The Rivers Act 1951 specify that a watercourse includes those rivers which are dry for part of the year. In some jurisdictions owners of land over which the flows may have rights to some or much of the water in a legal sense. These include estuaries, streams and canals, if it is navigable it is a waterway. A navigable waterway may be defined under law in the United States differently from other countries. Environmental flow Hydrology Physical geography Wadi Watercourse at the Online Etymology Dictionary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from, distributaries are most often found in river deltas. Right tributary and left tributary are terms stating the orientation of the relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream, where tributaries have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction, for example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks. The Chicago Rivers North Branch has the East and Middle Fork, the South Branch has its South Fork, forks are sometimes designated as right or left.
Here, the handedness is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream, for instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river, the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary, another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure
Pialligo, Australian Capital Territory
Pialligo is a rural suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The name Pialligo has been used for the area since at least 1820 and it was the name for the parish in the area. Streets in Pialligo are named with Aboriginal words, beltana Road in Pialligo is home to many of Canberras nurseries. Canberra Airport is located adjacent to Pialligo across Pialligo Avenue, quaternary alluvium covers the main western part of Pialligo. Calcareous shales from the Canberra Formation are deep underneath, the Woolshed Creek runs into the north end of Pialligo. This is a significant place, because in the bed of the creek the Rev W B Clarke first recognised Silurian fossils and these fossils were brachiopods, mostly Atrypa duntroonensis. He discovered them around 1844 century and it was the first time that Silurian rocks were identified in Australia and this mudstone is from the Canberra Formation
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Acton, Australian Capital Territory
Acton is a suburb of Canberra, ACT, Australia. Acton covers an area west of the CBD, bordered by Black Mountain to the west and Lake Burley Griffin in the south. The Australian National University campus covers most of the suburb, though located in Acton is the National Film and Sound Archive, a branch of the CSIRO. The population of Acton on census night 2011 was 1993 people, the suburb is named in recognition of one of the regions original homesteads Acton which was sited near the present-day National Museum at the end of Liversidge Street. The chief Surveyor Scrivener occupied Acton Homestead at a stage during his survey of the capital site. The Bachelors Quarters above Lennox Crossing, now renamed Lennox House, the alignment of Liversidge Street and Lennox Crossing follows the original line of the pre-1911 road towards the major ford across the Molonglo River. A low bridge and causeway was erected in 1911, at the site of the river ford in an area subsequently inundated by Lake Burley Griffin.
In 2011 a proposal was launched to build the Australia Forum, in the 2011 census, the population of Acton was 1,993, including 11 Indigenous persons and 798 Australian-born persons. 56. 9% of the population was born, the highest for any Canberra suburb. The southern part of Acton has an arrangement of sediments that include the Pittman Formation greywacke. Then from the Silurian age there is mudstone, State Circle Shale, some limestone is found near the National Museum of Australia. Calcareous shales from the Canberra Formation are overlain by Quaternary alluvium on the north and this rock is the limestone of the original title of Canberra Limestone Plains. Tertiary age pebbly gravels are left from when the Molonglo river was at a higher level
Scrivener Dam, a concrete gravity dam that impounds Molongolo River, is located in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The dam creates Lake Burley Griffin, that was established for recreational and ornamental purposes, the dam wall is located on Lady Denman Drive and is adjacent to the National Zoo & Aquarium and a viewing area for the official residence of the Governor-General of Australia. Scrivener Dam, designed in Germany, holds back the waters of the Molongolo River within Lake Burley Griffin, about 55,000 cubic metres of concrete was used in the construction of the dam wall. The dam is 33 metres high and 319 metres long with a wall thickness of 19.7 metres. The dam is designed to handle a once in 5,000 year flood event and it utilised state-of-the-art post-tensioning techniques to cope with any problems or movements in the riverbed. The dam has five bay spillway controlled by 30.5 metres wide, hinge anchors support the flap gates, with six hinges per gate, and four anchors per hinge.
The fish-belly gates allow for a control of water level. As at November 2010, the five gates have only been opened simultaneously once in the dams history, the dam wall provides a crossing for the lake and consists of a roadway, called Lady Denman Drive, and a bicycle path. The roadway was possible because the dam gates are closed by pushing up from below, the Authority manages external contractors to deliver services that are competitively tendered. A routine annual audit of the dam wall undertaken during 2011 revealed that the anchor bolts and these bolts, of which there are 120 in total, are each 50 millimetres in diameter and 2 metres long. It wasanticipated that work would be completed by the end of 2013, Scrivener Dam is operated in an environment that minimises flooding of the environs of Lake Burley Griffin. Flows of 2,000 m3/s and above at the dam spillway are achieved with all five floodgates open and are able to maintain the level of the Lake at 555.93 metres. With three floodgates open, outflows of 55 m3/s can be achieved through either automatic or manual operation of the dam, a minimum base flow of 0.03 m3/s is required in the Molonglo River, downstream of Scrivener Dam at the gauging station below Coppins Crossing.
A prolonged drought coincided with and eased work on the lakes construction, the valves on the Scrivener Dam were closed on 20 September 1963 by Interior Minister Gordon Freeth, Prime Minister Menzies was absent due to ill health. Several months on, with no rain in sight, mosquito-infested pools of water were the visible sign of the lake filling. With the eventual breaking of the drought and several days of rain, the lake filled. On 17 October 1964, Menzies commemorated the filling of the lake and this was accompanied by fireworks display, and Griffins lake had finally come to fruition after five decades, at the cost of A$5,039,050. The dam, together with Lake Burley Griffin and adjacent lands, is listed on the Register of the National Estate, since 2012, the register has frozen
Bungendore is a town in the Queanbeyan Region of New South Wales, Australia, in Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council. It is on the Kings Highway near Lake George, the Molonglo River Valley and it has become a major tourist centre in recent years, popular with visitors from Canberra and some of it has heritage protection. It has expanded rapidly in recent years as a suburb of Canberra. Prior to European settlement, the area was occupied by the Ngarigo people, the first Europeans in the vicinity were members of the exploratory party of Dr Charles Throsby in 1820, along with Hamilton Hume, originally explored the Braidwood area. In 1824, explorer Allan Cunningham passed through Bungendore, a year later, the first European settlers arrived. The mail service to Bungendore was introduced in 1837, enhancing the importance of the village, by 1848,30 people populated the seven buildings in the town of Bungendore. When the railway arrived on 4 March 1885, the town began to more quickly. New buildings appeared rapidly, such as churches, the courthouse/police station, the first post office was built in Bungendore in 1840, an Anglican church c 1843, and the Bungendore Inn in 1847.
The latter became a Cobb and Co staging post, by 1851, the population was 63. The 1850s saw at least two other hotels established, a flour mill was built in 1861, St Marys Roman Catholic Church and two denominational schools in 1862, the courthouse in 1864 and a public school in 1868. In 1866, local crops grown were recorded as being wheat, barley, tourism is now a major contributor to the economy. The town remained a railhead from 1885 until the line reached Queanbeyan in 1887, partly because of the coming railway, the 1880s proved a boom period for the town and the population increased from 270 in 1881, to 700 by 1885. By then, Queanbeyan was emerging as the town in the area. In 1894, gold was discovered at Bywong, in 1901, Lake George and Bungendore were proposed as sites for the nations capital city. This did not eventuate, as the drawcard of Lake George failed to impress the visiting Commissioners of the time, by 1909 rabbit trapping had become an extremely valuable industry in the area around Bungendore.
The town itself had a plant that employed 14 workers. In the year ending 31 July 1909, over 1.5 million rabbits were frozen at Bungendore, in 1992 journalist Ian McPhedran wrote that Bungendores locals and business sector had developed a method of community cooperation superior to most other Australian small towns. Bungendore is quite near a known as Gibraltar Hill