A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines. Rocket planes can achieve higher speeds than similarly sized jet aircraft. Unhindered by the need for oxygen from the atmosphere, they are suitable for very high-altitude flight and they are capable of delivering much higher acceleration and shorter takeoffs. Rockets have been used simply to assist the main propulsion in the form of jet assisted take off known as rocket assisted take off, not all rocket planes are of the conventional takeoff like normal aircraft. Some types have been air-launched from another plane, while other types have taken off vertically - nose in the air, rocket-powered flight was pioneered in Germany. The first aircraft to fly under rocket power was the Lippisch Ente, the Ente had previously been flown as a glider. The next year, in 1929, the Opel RAK.1 became the first purpose-built rocket plane to fly. The Heinkel He 176 was the world’s first aircraft to be propelled solely by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, the first rocket plane ever to be mass-produced was the Messerschmitt Me 163 interceptor in 1944, one of several German World War II attempts at rocket-powered aircraft.
The Bachem Ba 349 Natter vertical takeoff manned rocket interceptor aircraft flew in prototype form, projects which never even reached the prototype stage include the Zeppelin Rammer, the Fliegende Panzerfaust and the Focke-Wulf Volksjäger. The Japanese produced approximately 850 Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka rocket-powered suicide attack aircraft in World War II, a rocket assisted P-51D Mustang was developed by North American Aviation that could attain 515 mph. The engine ran on fumaric acid and aniline which was stored in two 75 gallon under wing drop tanks, the plane was tested in flight in April 1945. The rocket engine could run for about a minute, in 1946, the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 was built partly using technology developed by Sergei Korolev in 1943 and 1932. In 1947 the rocket-powered Bell X-1 was the first aircraft to break the speed of sound in level flight, the North American X-15 and X-15A2 designs were used for around a decade and eventually reached Mach 6.7 and over 100 km in altitude.
In the 1950s the British developed mixed power designs to cover the gap that existed in then-current turbojet designs. The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a design and was due to be developed into production when economics forced curtailment of most British aircraft programmes in the late 1950s. The advancement of the engine output, the advent of missiles. The development of Soviet rockets and satellites was the force behind the development of NASAs space program. Another similar program was ISINGLASS which was to be a rocket launched from a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrier, which was intended to achieve Mach 22
C. F. Martin & Company
Martin & Company is an American guitar manufacturer established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin. Martin is highly regarded for its guitars and is a leading manufacturer of flat top guitars. Martin instruments can sell for thousands of dollars, and vintage instruments occasionally command six-figure prices, the company has made mandolins as well as several models of electric guitars and electric basses, although none of these other instruments are currently in production. The companys headquarters and primary factory are situated in Nazareth, the building includes the Martin Guitar Museum, which features over 170 guitars made by the company over its history. Visitors can see pictures of famous guitar owners, try out some guitars, Martin manufactures instruments in Navojoa, Mexico. Martin produced 182 instruments during 1901, increasing to 56,422 in 2000, the company has been run by the Martin family throughout its history. The current chairman and CEO, C. F, Chris Martin IV, is the great-great-great-grandson of the founder.
The firm was the first to many of the characteristic features of the modern flat top. Influential Martin innovations include the Dreadnought body style and scalloped bracing, C. F. Martin was born in 1796 in Markneukirchen and came from a long line of cabinet makers and woodworkers. His father, Johann Georg Martin, built guitars, by the age of 15, according to the book Martin Guitars, A History by Mike Longworth, C. F. Martin apprenticed to Johann Georg Stauffer, a well-known guitar maker in Vienna, Austria. Martin returned to his hometown after completing training and opened his own guitar-making shop, however, he soon became embroiled in a controversy between two guilds. In the early 1800s, European craftsmen still operated under the guild system, the guitar was a relatively new instrument, and most guitar makers were members of the Cabinet Makers Guild. However, the Violin Makers Guild claimed exclusive rights to manufacture musical instruments, the Violin Makers Guild filed appeals on three occasions—the first in 1806—to prevent cabinet makers from producing guitars.
Johann Martin is mentioned in a surviving submission dated 1832, although the cabinet makers successfully defended their right to build guitars, C. F. Martin believed that the guild system was too restrictive and moved to New York City in 1833. By 1838, he moved his business to Nazareth, the Martin company is generally credited with developing the X-bracing system during the 1850s although C. F. Martin did not apply for a patent on the new bracing system. The Martin company was the first to use X-bracing on a large scale, from the 1860s on, fan bracing became standard in Europe. Martin and other American builders including Washburn and others since forgotten used X-bracing instead, the growing popularity of the guitar in the early 1900s led to a demand for louder and more percussive guitars. In response, many began to use metal strings instead of the traditional catgut
K-25 was the codename given by the Manhattan Project during World War II for the project to produce enriched uranium for atomic bombs using the gaseous diffusion method. When it was built in 1944, the four-story K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was the worlds largest building, with over 1,640,000 square feet of floor space and a volume of 97,500,000 cubic feet. Gaseous diffusion is based on Grahams law, which states that the rate of effusion of a gas is proportional to the square root of its molecular mass. The highly corrosive uranium hexafluoride was the only known compound of uranium sufficiently volatile to be used in this process, before this could be done, the SAM Laboratories at Columbia University and the Kellex Corporation had to overcome formidable difficulties to develop a suitable barrier. Construction of the K-25 facility was undertaken by J. A, at the height of construction, over 25,000 workers were employed on the site. Gaseous diffusion was but one of three enrichment technologies used by the Manhattan Project, slightly enriched product from the S-50 thermal diffusion plant was fed into the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant.
Its product in turn was fed into the Y-12 electromagnetic plant, the enriched uranium was used in the Little Boy atomic bomb used in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. In 1946, the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant became capable of producing highly enriched product, after the war four more gaseous diffusion plants were added to the site, named K-27, K-29, K-31 and K-33. The K-25 site was renamed the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1955, production of enriched uranium ended in 1964, and gaseous diffusion finally ceased on the site on 27 August 1985. The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant was renamed the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in 1989, all five gaseous diffusion plants are expected to be demolished by December 2016. At the Pupin Laboratories at Columbia University, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard began exploring how this might be achieved and this prompted preliminary research in the United States in late 1939. Niels Bohr and John Archibald Wheeler applied the liquid drop model of the nucleus to explain the mechanism of nuclear fission.
As the experimental physicists studied fission, they uncovered puzzling results, George Placzek asked Bohr why uranium seemed to fission with both fast and slow neutrons. The former makes up just 0.714 percent of the atoms in natural uranium, about one in every 140. There is an amount of uranium-234, which accounts for just 0.006 percent. At Columbia, John R. Dunning believed that this was the case, the only way to settle this was to obtain a sample of uranium 235 and test it. Nier from the University of Minnesota to prepare samples of uranium enriched in uranium-234,235 and 238 using a mass spectrometer and these were ready in February 1940, and Dunning, Eugene T. Booth and Aristid von Grosse carried out a series of experiments and their March 1940 Frisch–Peierls memorandum indicated that the critical mass of uranium-235 was within an order of magnitude of 10 kg, which was small enough to be carried by a bomber of the day
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle, in the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done, the reduced-pressure steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. Specialized devices such as hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on the steam pressure supplied from a separate boiler. The use of boiling water to mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained the first patent for an engine in 1606. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with the water being pumped, Saverys steam pump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and applied pressurized steam to further pump the water.
Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine was the first commercial steam engine using a piston. In 1781 James Watt patented an engine that produced continuous rotary motion. Watts ten-horsepower engines enabled a range of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained, by 1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had become feasible. The stationary steam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution, the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is considered to be the first recorded steam engine. Torque was produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, in the Spanish Empire, the great inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained a patent for the first steam engine in history in 1603. Thomas Savery, in 1698, patented the first practical, atmospheric pressure and it had no piston or moving parts, only taps. It was an engine, a kind of thermic syphon, in which steam was admitted to an empty container.
The vacuum thus created was used to water from the sump at the bottom of the mine
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as hex in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. It forms solid grey crystals at standard temperature and pressure, is highly toxic and it reacts mildly with aluminium, forming a thin surface layer of AlF3 that resists further reaction. Milled uranium ore—U3O8 or yellowcake—is dissolved in acid, yielding a solution of uranyl nitrate UO22. Pure uranyl nitrate is obtained by solvent extraction, treated with ammonia to produce ammonium diuranate, reduction with hydrogen gives UO2, which is converted with hydrofluoric acid to uranium tetrafluoride, UF4. During nuclear reprocessing, uranium is reacted with chlorine trifluoride to give UF6, U +2 ClF3 → UF6 + Cl2 At atmospheric pressure, the solid state structure was determined by neutron diffraction at 77 K and 293 K. Polymeric uranium fluorides containing organic cations have been isolated and characterised by X-ray diffraction, fluorine has only a single naturally occurring stable isotope, so isotopologues of UF6 differ in their molecular weight based solely on the uranium isotope present.
All the other uranium fluorides are nonvolatile solids that are coordination polymers, in addition to its use in enrichment, uranium hexafluoride has been used in an advanced reprocessing method, which was developed in the Czech Republic. In this process, used nuclear fuel is treated with fluorine gas to form a mixture of fluorides. This mixture is distilled to separate the different classes of material. About 95% of the uranium produced to date is stored as uranium hexafluoride, DUF6. Each cylinder contains up to 12.7 tonnes of solid UF6, in the US alone,560,000 tonnes of depleted UF6 had accumulated by 1993. In 2005,686,500 tonnes in 57,122 storage cylinders were located near Portsmouth, Oak Ridge, the long-term storage of DUF6 presents environmental and safety risks because of its chemical instability. When UF6 is exposed to moist air, it reacts with the water in the air to produce UO2F2, storage cylinders must be regularly inspected for signs of corrosion and leaks. The estimated lifetime of the cylinders is measured in decades.
There have been accidents involving uranium hexafluoride in the US, including a cylinder-filling accident. The U. S. government has been converting DUF6 to solid uranium oxides for disposal, such disposal of the entire DUF6 inventory could cost anywhere from $15 million to $450 million. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, System Nr,55, Teil A, p. 121–123. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, System Nr,55, Teil C8, p. 71–163
Galvanic corrosion is an electrochemical process in which one metal corrodes preferentially to another when both metals are in electrical contact, in the presence of an electrolyte. This same galvanic reaction is exploited in primary cells to generate an electrical voltage to power portable devices. Dissimilar metals and alloys have different electrode potentials, and when two or more come into contact in an electrolyte, one acts as anode and the other as cathode. The electropotential difference between the metals is the driving force for an accelerated attack on the anode member of the galvanic couple. The anode metal dissolves into the electrolyte, and deposit collects on the cathodic metal, the electrolyte provides a means for ion migration whereby metallic ions move from the anode to the cathode within the electrolyte. This leads to the metal at the anode corroding more quickly than it otherwise would, the presence of an electrolyte and an electrical conducting path between the metals is essential for galvanic corrosion to occur.
In some cases, this type of reaction is intentionally encouraged, for example, low-cost household batteries typically contain carbon-zinc cells. As part of a circuit, the zinc within the cell will corrode preferentially as an essential part of the battery producing electricity. Another example is the protection of buried or submerged structures as well as hot water storage tanks. In this case, sacrificial anodes work as part of a couple, promoting corrosion of the anode. In other cases, such as mixed metals in piping, galvanic corrosion will contribute to accelerated corrosion of parts of the system, corrosion inhibitors such as sodium nitrite or sodium molybdate can be injected into these systems to reduce the galvanic potential. However, the application of corrosion inhibitors must be monitored closely. If the application of corrosion inhibitors increases the conductivity of the water within the system, acidity or alkalinity is a major consideration with regard to closed loop bimetallic circulating systems.
Should the pH and corrosion inhibition doses be incorrect, galvanic corrosion will be accelerated, a common example of galvanic corrosion is the rusting of corrugated iron sheet, which becomes widespread when the protective zinc coating is broken and the underlying steel is attacked. The zinc is attacked preferentially because it is noble, but once it has been consumed. An extensive renovation requiring complete disassembly of the replaced the original insulation with PTFE. The structure was far from unsafe owing to the number of unaffected connections. The problem recurred when vessels were sheathed in copper to reduce marine weed accumulation, in an experiment, the Royal Navy in 1761 had tried fitting the hull of the frigate HMS Alarm with 12-ounce copper plating. were found dissolved into a kind of rusty Paste
Steve Harris (musician)
He is the only member of Iron Maiden to have remained in the band since their inception in 1975 and, along with guitarist Dave Murray, to have appeared on all of their albums. Harris has a recognisable and popular style of playing, particularly the gallop which can be found on several Iron Maiden recordings, such as the singles Run to the Hills. He has been cited as one of the greatest heavy metal bassists, on 24 September 2012, Harris released his debut solo album, British Lion. Harris was born and grew up in Leytonstone, where he grew up aspiring to be a professional footballer, scouted by Wally St Pier, Harris was asked to train for West Ham United. After gaining an interest in music in his early teens. Initially Harris wanted to play drums, but did not have space for a drum kit in his house. Entirely self-taught, his first bass was a copy of a Fender Precision model which cost him £40 in 1971. Just 10 months after he bought his first bass, Harris joined a band, initially known as Influence and Gypsys Kiss, featuring Bob Verscoyle, Dave Smith and drummer Paul Sears.
Upon leaving Smiler, Harris went on to create Iron Maiden on Christmas Day 1975, since their inception, Harris has been the bands principal composer and lyricist. His song writing typically showcases his trademark galloping bass patterns, which features heavily in such as The Trooper and Run to the Hills. Harris frequently writes lyrics about mythology, history or topics inspired from books and films, reflecting his interests, in September 2012, Harris released his first solo album, British Lion. Speaking to Kerrang. in September 2012, Harris stated that he considers the record to be more of a side-project than a solo album, as he is more comfortable in a band environment. In an interview with Classic Rock in August, Harris stated that he will be releasing solo albums. Harris has taken the outfit on two separate European club tours in 2013 and 2014, with a tour taking place in 2016. On 2 September 2016, Harris announced that he intends to issue an album recorded at shows from across the three tours.
Harris eldest daughter, Lauren, is a singer and supported Iron Maiden with her outfit in 2006 and 2008. In 2008, she released an album, entitled Calm Before the Storm. In 1993, Harris was divorced from his wife and this dark period in his life, which he described as probably the toughest time Ive ever faced, is credited with inspiring the mood of the following Iron Maiden album, 1995s The X Factor
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours is a spin-off of DuPont Co. which discovered the compound in 1938, PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic, neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction and energy consumption of machinery. It is commonly used as a material in surgical interventions. Also, it is employed as coating on catheters, this interferes with the ability of bacteria and other infectious agents to adhere to catheters. PTFE was accidentally discovered in 1938 by Roy Plunkett while he was working in New Jersey for DuPont.
Since Plunkett was measuring the amount of gas used by weighing the bottle, he became curious as to the source of the weight and he found the bottles interior coated with a waxy white material that was oddly slippery. Analysis showed that it was polymerized perfluoroethylene, with the iron from the inside of the container having acted as a catalyst at high pressure, Kinetic Chemicals patented the new fluorinated plastic in 1941, and registered the Teflon trademark in 1945. By 1948, DuPont, which founded Kinetic Chemicals in partnership with General Motors, was producing two million pounds of Teflon brand PTFE per year in Parkersburg, West Virginia. In 1954, the wife of French engineer Marc Grégoire urged him to try the material he had been using on fishing tackle on her cooking pans and he subsequently created the first Teflon-coated, non-stick pans under the brandname Tefal. In the United States, Marion A. Trozzolo, who had been using the substance on scientific utensils, marketed the first US-made Teflon-coated pan, The Happy Pan, Tefal was not the only company to utilize PTFE in nonstick cookware coatings.
Other cookware companies, such as Meyer Corporations Anolon, use Teflon nonstick coatings purchased from DuPont, in the 1990s, it was found that PTFE could be radiation cross-linked above its melting point in an oxygen-free environment. Electron beam processing is one example of radiation processing, cross-linked PTFE has improved high-temperature mechanical properties and radiation stability. This was significant because, for years, irradiation at ambient conditions has been used to break down PTFE for recycling. This radiation-induced chain scission allows it to be more easily reground, PTFE is produced by free-radical polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene
A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes running through a sealed container of water. The heat of the gases is transferred through the walls of the tubes by thermal conduction, heating the water and their advantage over flued boilers with a single large flue is that the many small tubes offer far greater heating surface area for the same overall boiler volume. The general construction is as a tank of water penetrated by tubes that carry the hot gases from the fire. The tank is cylindrical for the most part—being the strongest practical shape for a pressurized container—and this cylindrical tank may be either horizontal or vertical. This type of boiler was used on all steam locomotives in the horizontal locomotive form. This has a barrel containing the fire tubes, but has an extension at one end to house the firebox. This firebox has a base to provide a large grate area. The horizontal fire-tube boiler is typical of marine applications, using the Scotch boiler, vertical boilers have been built of the multiple fire-tube type, although these are comparatively rare, most vertical boilers were either flued, or with cross water-tubes.
In the locomotive-type boiler, fuel is burnt in a firebox to produce hot combustion gases, the firebox is surrounded by a cooling jacket of water connected to the long, cylindrical boiler shell. The hot gases are directed along a series of tubes, or flues. The steam rises to the highest point of the boiler, the steam dome, the dome is the site of the regulator that controls the exit of steam from the boiler. In the locomotive boiler, the steam is very often passed into a superheater, back through the larger flues at the top of the boiler, to dry the steam. The superheated steam is directed to the engines cylinders or very rarely to a turbine to produce mechanical work. Exhaust gases are fed out through a chimney, and may be used to pre-heat the feed water to increase the efficiency of the boiler, draught for firetube boilers, particularly in marine applications, is usually provided by a tall smokestack. In all steam locomotives since Stephensons Rocket, additional draught is supplied by directing exhaust steam from the cylinders into the smokestack through a blastpipe, modern industrial boilers use fans to provide forced or induced draughting of the boiler.
Another major advance in the Rocket was large numbers of small-diameter firetubes instead of a large flue. This greatly increased the area for heat transfer, allowing steam to be produced at a much higher rate. Without this, steam locomotives could never have developed effectively as powerful prime movers, for more details on the related ancestor type, see Flued boilers
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes. They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific and they are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there and occasional vagrants are found. Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the albatrosses have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. The albatrosses are usually regarded as falling into four genera, albatrosses are highly efficient in the air, using dynamic soaring and slope soaring to cover great distances with little exertion. They feed on squid and krill by either scavenging, albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic islands, often with several species nesting together. Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of ritualised dances, a breeding season can take over a year from laying to fledging, with a single egg laid in each breeding attempt.
A Laysan albatross, named Wisdom, on Midway Island is recognised as the oldest wild bird in the world, longline fisheries pose the greatest threat, as feeding birds are attracted to the bait, become hooked on the lines, and drown. Identified stakeholders such as governments, conservation organisations and people in the industry are all working toward reducing this bycatch. The albatrosses comprise between 13 and 24 species in four genera and these genera are the great albatrosses, the mollymawks, the North Pacific albatrosses, and the sooty albatrosses or sooties. The North Pacific albatrosses are considered to be a taxon to the great albatrosses. The taxonomy of the group has been a source of much debate. The albatrosses can be separated from the other Procellariiformes both genetically and through morphological characteristics, their legs, and the arrangement of their nasal tubes, within the family, the assignment of genera has been debated for over 100 years. By 1965, in an attempt to bring order back to the classification of albatrosses.
Both the British Ornithologists Union and the South African authorities split the albatrosses into four genera as Nunn suggested, while some agree on the number of genera, fewer agree on the number of species. Historically, up to 80 different taxa have been described by different researchers, based on the work on albatross genera and Nunn went on in 1998 to propose a revised taxonomy with 24 different species, compared to the 14 accepted. This expanded taxonomy elevated many established subspecies to species, but was criticised for not using, in every case. On all sides is the agreement on the need for further research to clarify the issue. The molecular evidence suggests that the petrels were the first to diverge from the ancestral stock
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping. Using various mechanisms intended to counter the threat posed by naval mines, although naval warfare has a long history, the earliest known usage of the naval mine dates to the Ming dynasty. Dedicated minesweepers, only appear in the record several centuries later, to the Crimean War. In the Crimean War, minesweepers consisted of British rowboats trailing grapnels to snag the mines, despite the use of mines in the American Civil War, there are no records of effective minesweeping being used. Officials in the Union Army attempted to create the first minesweeper but were plagued by flawed designs, minesweeping technology picked up in the Russo-Japanese War, using aging torpedo boats as minesweepers. In Britain, naval leaders recognized before the outbreak of World War I that the development of sea mines was a threat to the nations shipping, sir Arthur Wilson noted the real threat of the time was blockade aided by mines and not invasion.
A Trawler Section of the Royal Navy Reserve became the predecessor of the mine sweeping forces with specially designed ships and these reserve Trawler Section fishermen and their trawlers were activated, supplied with mine gear, rifles and pay as the first minesweepers. The dedicated, purpose-built minesweeper first appeared during World War I with the Flower-class minesweeping sloop, by the end of the War, naval mine technology had grown beyond the ability of minesweepers to detect and remove. Minesweeping made significant advancements during World War II, combatant nations quickly adapted ships to the task of minesweeping, including Australias 35 civilian ships that became Auxiliary Minesweepers. Both Allied and Axis countries made heavy use of minesweepers throughout the war, historian Gordon Williamson wrote that Germanys minesweepers alone formed a massive proportion of its total strength, and are very much the unsung heroes of the Kriegsmarine. Naval mines remained a threat even after the war ended, after the Second World War, allied countries worked on new classes of minesweepers ranging from 120-ton designs for clearing estuaries to 735-ton oceangoing vessels.
The United States Navy even used specialized Mechanized Landing Craft to sweep shallow harbors in, as of June 2012, the U. S. Navy had four minesweepers deployed to the Persian Gulf to address regional instabilities. Minesweepers are equipped with mechanical or electrical devices, known as sweeps, mechanical sweeps are devices designed to cut the anchoring cables of moored mines, and preferably attach a tag to help the subsequent localization and neutralization. They are towed behind the minesweeper, and use a body to maintain the sweep at the desired depth. Influence sweeps are equipment, often towed, that emulate a particular ship signature, the most common such sweeps are magnetic and acoustic generators. There are two modes of operating an influence sweep, MSM and TSM, MSM sweeping is founded on intelligence on a given type of mine, and produces the output required for detonation of this mine. If such intelligence is unavailable, the TSM sweeping instead reproduces the influence of the ship that is about to transit through the area. TSM sweeping thus clears mines directed at this ship without knowledge of the mines, mines directed at other ships might remain