Herbert Jeffrey Hancock is an American pianist, bandleader and actor. Hancock started his career with Donald Byrd, he shortly thereafter joined the Miles Davis Quintet where he helped to redefine the role of a jazz rhythm section and was one of the primary architects of the post-bop sound. In the 1970s, Hancock experimented with jazz fusion and electro styles. Hancock's best-known compositions include "Cantaloupe Island", "Watermelon Man", "Maiden Voyage", "Chameleon", the singles "I Thought It Was You" and "Rockit", his 2007 tribute album River: The Joni Letters won the 2008 Grammy Award for Album of the Year, only the second jazz album to win the award, after Getz/Gilberto in 1965. Hancock was born in Chicago, the son of Winnie Belle, a secretary, Wayman Edward Hancock, a government meat inspector, his parents named him after actor Herb Jeffries. He attended the Hyde Park Academy. Like many jazz pianists, Hancock started with a classical music education, he studied from age seven, his talent was recognized early.
Considered a child prodigy, he played the first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 26 in D Major, K. 537 at a young people's concert on February 5, 1952, with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at the age of 11. Through his teens, Hancock never developed his ear and sense of harmony, he was influenced by records of the vocal group the Hi-Lo's. He reported that:"...by the time I heard the Hi-Lo's, I started picking that stuff out. I could hear stuff and that's when I learned some much farther-out voicings – like the harmonies I used on Speak Like a Child – just being able to do that. I got that from Clare Fischer's arrangements for the Hi-Lo's. Clare Fischer was a major influence on my harmonic concept...he and Bill Evans, Ravel and Gil Evans, finally. You know, that's where it came from." In 1960, he heard Chris Anderson play just once, begged him to accept him as a student. Hancock mentions Anderson as his harmonic guru. Hancock left Grinnell College, moved to Chicago and began working with Donald Byrd and Coleman Hawkins, during which period he took courses at Roosevelt University.
Byrd was attending the Manhattan School of Music in New York at the time and suggested that Hancock study composition with Vittorio Giannini, which he did for a short time in 1960. The pianist earned a reputation, played subsequent sessions with Oliver Nelson and Phil Woods, he recorded his first solo album Takin' Off for Blue Note Records in 1962. "Watermelon Man" was to provide Mongo Santamaría with a hit single, but more for Hancock, Takin' Off caught the attention of Miles Davis, at that time assembling a new band. Hancock was introduced to Davis by a member of the new band. Hancock received considerable attention. Davis sought out Hancock, whom he saw as one of the most promising talents in jazz; the rhythm section Davis organized was young but effective, comprising bassist Ron Carter, 17-year-old drummer Williams, Hancock on piano. After George Coleman and Sam Rivers each took a turn at the saxophone spot, the quintet gelled with Wayne Shorter on tenor saxophone; this quintet is regarded as one of the finest jazz ensembles yet.
While in Davis's band, Hancock found time to record dozens of sessions for the Blue Note label, both under his own name and as a sideman with other musicians such as Shorter, Grant Green, Bobby Hutcherson, Byrd, Kenny Dorham, Hank Mobley, Lee Morgan and Freddie Hubbard. Hancock recorded several less-well-known but still critically acclaimed albums with larger ensembles – My Point of View, Speak Like a Child and The Prisoner featured flugelhorn, alto flute and bass trombone. 1963's Inventions and Dimensions was an album of entirely improvised music, teaming Hancock with bassist Paul Chambers and two Latin percussionists, Willie Bobo and Osvaldo "Chihuahua" Martinez. During this period, Hancock composed the score to Michelangelo Antonioni's film Blowup, the first of many film soundtracks he recorded in his career; as well as feature film soundtracks, Hancock recorded a number of musical themes used on American television commercials for such well known products as Pillsbury's Space Food Sticks, Standard Oil, Tab diet cola and Virginia Slims cigarettes.
Hancock wrote and conducted a spy type theme for a series of F. William Free commercials for Silva Thins cigarettes. Hancock liked it so much he wished to record it as a song but the ad agency would not let him, he rewrote the harmony and tone and recorded the piece as the track "He Who Lives in Fear" from his The Prisoner album of 1969. Davis had begun incorporating elements of rock and popular music into his recordings by the end of Hancock's tenure with the band. Despite some initial reluctance, Hancock began doubling on electric keyboards including the Fender Rhodes electric piano at Davis's insistence. Hancock adapted to the new instruments, which proved to be important in his future artistic endeavors. Under the pretext that he had returned late from a honeymoon in Brazil, Hancock was dismissed from Davis's band. In the summer of 1968 Hancock formed his own sextet. However, although Davis soon disbanded his quintet to search for a new sound, despite his departur
Latin jazz is a genre of jazz with Latin American rhythms. Although musicians continually expand its parameters, the term Latin jazz is understood to have a more specific meaning than "jazz from Latin America"; some Latin jazz employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa, or exhibit an African influence. The two main categories of Latin jazz are: Afro-Cuban jazz – jazz rhythmically based on Cuban popular dance music with a rhythm section employing ostinato patterns or a clave. Afro-Brazilian jazz -- includes bossa jazz samba. African American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban musical motifs in the 19th century, when the habanera gained international popularity; the habanera was the first written music to be rhythmically based on an African motif. The habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of the backbeat. Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans "clave," although technically, the pattern is only half a clave. "St. Louis Blues" by W. C. Handy has a habanera-tresillo bass line.
Handy noted a reaction to the habanera rhythm included in Will H. Tyler's "Maori": "I observed that there was a sudden and graceful reaction to the rhythm... White dancers, as I had observed them, took the number in stride. I began to suspect that there was something Negroid in that beat." After noting a similar reaction to the same rhythm in "La Paloma", Handy included this rhythm in his "St. Louis Blues", the instrumental copy of "Memphis Blues", the chorus of "Beale Street Blues", other compositions. Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo-habanera to be an essential ingredient of jazz; the habanera rhythm can be heard in his left hand on songs like "The Crave". Now in one of my earliest tunes, “New Orleans Blues,” you can notice the Spanish tinge. In fact, if you can’t manage to put tinges of Spanish in your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz—Morton. Although the exact origins of jazz syncopation may never be known, there is evidence that the habanera-tresillo was there at its conception.
Buddy Bolden, the first known jazz musician, is credited with creating the big four, a habanera-based pattern. The big four was the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march; as the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm. It is safe to say that by and large the simpler African rhythmic patterns survived in jazz... because they could be adapted more to European rhythmic conceptions. Some survived, others were discarded, it may account for the fact that patterns such as... remained one of the most useful and common syncopated patterns in jazz—Schuller. The Cuban influence is evident in many pre-1940s jazz tunes, but rhythmically, they are all based on single-celled motifs such as tresillo, not do not contain an overt two-celled, clave-based structure. "Caravan", written by Juan Tizol and first performed in 1936, is an early proto-Latin jazz composition. It is not clave-based; the first jazz piece to be overtly based in-clave, therefore, the first true Latin jazz piece, was "Tanga" composed by Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans the same year, 1943.
The tune was a descarga with jazz solos superimposed, spontaneously composed by Bauzá. The right hand of the "Tanga" piano guajeo is in the style known as ponchando, a type of non-arpeggiated guajeo using block chords; the sequence of attack-points is emphasized, rather than a sequence of different pitches. As a form of accompaniment it can be played in a repetitive fashion or as a varied motif akin to jazz comping; the following example is in the style of a 1949 recording by Machito. 2‐3 clave, piano by René Hernández. The first descarga that made the world take notice is traced to a Machito rehearsal on May 29, 1943, at the Park Palace Ballroom, at 110th Street and 5th Avenue. At this time, Machito was at Fort Dix in his fourth week of basic training; the day before at La Conga Club, Mario Bauza, Machito's trumpeter and music director, heard pianist Luis Varona and bassist Julio Andino play El Botellero composition and arrangements of the Cuban-born Gilberto Valdez which would serve as a permanent sign off tune.
On this Monday evening, Dr. Bauza leaned over the piano and instructed Varona to play the same piano vamp he did the night before. Varona's left hand began the introduction of Gilberto Valdes' El Botellero. Bauza instructed Julio Andino what to play; the broken chord sounds soon began to take shape into an Afro-Cuban jazzed up melody. Gene Johnson's alto sax emitted oriental-like jazz phrases. Afro-Cuban jazz was invented when Bauza composed "Tanga" that evening of 1943. Thereafter, whenever "Tanga" was played, it sounded different, depending on a soloist's individuality. In August 1948, when trumpeter Howard McGhee soloed with Machito's orchestra at the Apollo Theatre, his ad-libs to "Tanga" resulted in "Cu-Bop City," a tune, recorded by Roost Records months later; the jams which took place at the Royal Roots, Bop City and Birdland between 1948 and 1949, when Howard McGhee, tenor saxophonist Brew Moore, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie sat in with the Machito orchestra, were unrehearsed, unheard-of-before jam sessions which at the time, master of ceremonies Symphony Sid called Afro-Cuban jazz.
The Machito orchestra's ten- or fifteen-minute jams were the first in Latin music to break away from
The quinto is the smallest and highest pitched type of conga drum. It is used as the lead drum in Cuban rumba styles such as guaguancó, yambú, columbia and guarapachangueo, it is present in congas de comparsa. Quinto phrases are played in both duple-pulse structures. In columbia, triple pulse is the primary duple pulse is secondary. In yambú and guaguancó duple-pulse is primary and triple-pulse is secondary; the optimum expression of quinto phrasing is shaped by its interaction with the dance and the song, in other words, the complete social event, rumba. During the verses of the song the quinto is capable of sublime creativity, while musically subordinate to the lead vocalist. There are natural pauses in the cadence of the verses one or two measures in length, where the quinto can play succinct phrases in the “holes” left by the singer. During the verses the quinto does not demonstrate technical virtuosity so much as taste and restraint. Once the chorus of the song begins, the phrases of the quinto interact with the dancers more than the lead singer.
At this time, the phrases accent cross-beats or offbeats. Many of the quinto phrases correspond directly to accompanying dance steps; the pattern of quinto strokes and the pattern of dance steps are at times identical, at other times, imaginatively matched. The quinto player must be able to switch phrases in response to the dancer’s ever-changing steps; the quinto vocabulary is used to accompany, inspire and in some ways, compete with the dancers' spontaneous choreography. Yvonne Daniel states: "The columbia dancer kinesthetically relates to the drums the quinto... and tries to initiate rhythms or answer the riffs as if he were dancing with the drum as a partner." Each quintero interprets the requisite phrases in their own way. Quintero Armando Peraza states: "Although there is a structure of rhythm in columbia, yambú, or guaguancó, the good rumbero will always follow the dancer’s steps and at the same time express his own individuality. Same thing with the dancer, who will have the ‘rules’ of that particular rumba to follow but will put his own particular stamp on each performance.
Creativity and individuality has always been and still is the name of the game."With an emphasis on competition and individual creativity, the rhythmic vocabulary of quinto has evolved into a rich and pliable art form. The rhythmic phrasing heard in solos by percussion and other instruments in Cuban popular music and Latin jazz, are based on the quinto vocabulary. Quinto phrasing is used as a means of varying the ostinato conga drum part called tumbao; the quinto plays within two main rhythmic modes, corresponding to the two main modes of rumba dancing. The quinto lock mode is a dyadic melody of slap and open tones, separated by an octave; the lock melody while varied, maintains a specific relationship to clave, corresponds to the basic side-to side rumba dance steps. The attack points of the lock and the basic steps are contained within a single cycle of clave. Put another way, the lock spans four main beats, or a single measure, as is written for this article. Rumba is an amalgamation of several African drumming traditions, transplanted to Cuba during the time of slavery.
Guaguancó and yambú are descended from the Cuban-Congolese fertility dances yuka. Columbia has cultural and musical ties to the Abakuá, a secret society from the Cross River region of present day southern Nigeria and northern Cameroon; the rhythmic phrasing of the abakuá lead drum bonkó enchemiyá is similar, in some instances, identical to the quinto. The following abakuá bonkó phrase is played by the quinto in rumba. Regular noteheads indicate the triangle notehead indicates a slap; the quinto plays in a contraclave fashion. In fact, the fundamental strokes of the quinto lock can be thought of as a displaced "clave." The 12/8 version is a displaced triple-pulse “son clave” beginning on 1-and. The 4/4 quinto lock is a displaced “son clave,” beginning on 1-e; the attack-point pattern of the Matanzas-style lock is one clave in length, but its basic melodic structure is a two-clave phrase. The tone-slap melody reverses with every clave; this style of quinto playing was made popular by the many recordings of Los Muñequitos de Matanzas, the most famous rumba group from Matanzas.
In the following example the melodic contour of the first measure of quinto is tone-slap-tone, while the contour of the second measure is the reverse: slap-tone-slap. The pattern is shown in both duple-pulse structures. Lock variations are created by eliminating strokes. Listen: Rumba quinto lock variations; the following example shows the sparsest form of the alternating lock melody. The first clave is tone-slap-tone, the second clave is slap-tone-slap; the lock is constantly varied, but the example below is one of the few forms of the lock, repeated. Besides the typical rumba context, the lock is found in a form of Afro-Cuban sacred drumming called cajón pa’ los muertos; the quinto lock is the lead part. The main emphasis of the lock is 1-e, the first offbeat in a measure of 4/4. Certain phrases resolving on 3-e are periodically used to interrupt the equilibrium of the lock mode; these can be thought of as secondary resolution phrases. The following phrase concludes on 3-e. Havana born Mongo Santamaría was a tremendous quint
Mercedes Valdés Granit, better known as Merceditas Valdés, was a Cuban singer who specialized in Afro-Cuban traditional music. Under the aegis of ethnomusicologists Fernando Ortiz and Obdulio Morales, Valdés helped popularize Afro-Cuban music throughout Latin America. In 1949, she became one of the first female Santería singers to be recorded, her debut album was released at the start of the 1960s, when the Cuban government nationalized over the record industry. She went on hiatus before making a comeback in the 1980s with a series of albums entitled Aché, in collaboration with artists such as Frank Emilio Flynn and rumba ensemble Yoruba Andabo, she appeared in Jane Bunnett's Spirits of Havana and continued performing until her death in 1996. Valdés was born in Cayo Hueso, Centro Habana, on September 24, 1922, her father was Ángel Valdés, known as Angelito "El Dichoso", a musician in Ignacio Piñeiro's influential rumba ensemble Los Roncos. Unlike her mother, his father did not want her daughter to become a musician, so she started her career as a nun in the black congregation Hermanas Oblatas de la Providencia.
However, she soon began to stand out as a singer, winning several prizes awarded by the radio show Corte Suprema del Arte, where she sang songs such as "Babalú" by Margarita Lecuona. She joined the orchestra of pianist and musicologist Obdulio Morales thanks to his sisters, who lived with Valdés at the congregation. With Morales, Valdés gained exposure due to their performances which were broadcast by Radio Cadena Suaritos on Sundays. In 1944, she met musicologist Fernando Ortiz, one of the main exponents of the Afrocubanismo movement, who employed Valdés in his lectures about Afro-Cuban culture to exemplify the African heritage of Cuban music. Thus, Valdés became an akpwón, a Santería singer, which earned her the nickname La Pequeña Aché de Cuba, given to her by Ortiz. Valdés made her first recordings of Santería music in April 1949 for Victor, she sang in the same sessions as Evelia Collazo, another female akpwón and the mother of percussionist Julito Collazo. The recordings were credited to Grupo Afro-Cubano.
In 1951, Valdés sang in the Rapsodia negra show directed by Enrique González Mántici at the CMQ radio station. During the early 1950s, Valdés recorded more Santería tunes with the so-called Coro Yoruba y Tambores Batá, an ensemble directed by batá drummer Jesús Pérez and featuring other drummers such as Virgilio Ramírez, Trinidad Torregrosa and Carlos Aldama, as well as other singers: Celia Cruz, Caridad Suárez and Eugenio de la Rosa, they recorded several songs for Panart. She recorded two EPs for SMC: Cantos oriundos lucumí. Apart from recording, Valdés took part in several tours, some with Ernesto Lecuona's company, performing in Venezuela among other Latin American countries. In 1954, she sang "Ogguere" and "Bembé" with Gilberto Valdés' orchestra at Carnegie Hall. In Cuba, she became the star of the Zun Zun Danbaé show at the Cabaret Sans Souci, she worked at the Tropicana Club. In 1957, Valdés appeared in the Afro-Cuban themed film Yambaó. In the late 1950s she married famed timbalero Guillermo Barreto.
After the Cuban Revolution, the commercialization of Afro-Cuban music was restricted. Nonetheless, Valdés managed to make several recordings in the early 1960s before halting her recording career. In 1959, she recorded her debut album, which comprised one side of secular Afro-Cuban music, recorded in collaboration with Los Bucaneros under the direction of Rafael Somavilla and Adolfo Guzmán, one side of religious Santería music featuring Jesús Pérez and his group, Isupo Irawo; the recordings were made at the former Panart studios and released by Panart Nacionalizada when the label was taken over by the Cuban government. Between 1959 and 1960, she recorded with percussionist Mongo Santamaría. In 1960 and 1961, she recorded carnival music with Alberto Zayas for Impresora Cubana de Discos. Valdés resumed her recording career in 1982 with the recording of Aché for Siboney, an imprint of EGREM; the album featured again Los Amigos. Several LPs followed: Aché II, Aché III, Aché IV and Aché V, the latter two in collaboration with Yoruba Andabo.
In 1988, she toured Canada with Sergio Vitier's Grupo Oru. In 1989, she sang in Cubanísimo, an album of classic Cuban recordings presented as medleys under the direction of Andrés Alén and Ramón Huerta, featuring Guillermo Barreto and Jacqueline Castellanos among others; the album was released in 1990 by Fonomusic. In 1991, she sang in Jane Bunnett's Spirits of Havana, one of the last recordings featuring Guillermo Barreto, she appeared in Bunnett's Chamalongo, released in 1997. Merceditas Valdés died on June 13, 1996, aged 73, in her hometown of Havana five years after the death of her husband, her last album, Ache V, which had only been available in cassette format, was re-released in 1998 by Ralph Mercado under the title Merceditas Valdés with her Big Band - The Final Recordings. 1996: UNESCO Picasso Medal and Diploma of Merit LPs 1954: Santero – with others under the direction of Facundo Rivero 1960: Merceditas Valdés – with Los Bucaneros 1961: Carnaval 1960-61 – with others under the direction of Carlos Ansa 1982: Aché 1988: Aché II 1989: Orishas: Aché III 1990: Cubanísimo – with others under the direction of Andrés Alén and Ramón Huerta 1990: Aché IV – with Yoruba Andabo 1993: Aché V (
Beat music, British beat, or Merseybeat is a popular music genre that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1960s. The exact origins of the terms'beat music' and'Merseybeat' are uncertain; the "beat" in each, derived from the driving rhythms which the bands had adopted from their rock and roll and blues and soul music influences, rather than the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s. As the initial wave of rock and roll declined in the 1950s, "big beat" music shortened to "beat", became a live dance alternative to the balladeers like Tommy Steele, Marty Wilde and Cliff Richard who were dominating the charts; the German anthropologist and music critic Ernest Borneman, who lived in England from 1933 to 1960, claimed to have coined the term in a column in Melody Maker magazine to describe the British imitation of American Rock'n'Roll, Rhythm & Blues and Skiffle bands. The name Mersey Beat was used for a Liverpool music magazine founded in 1961 by Bill Harry. Harry claims to have coined the term "based on a policeman's beat and not that of the music".
The band the Pacifics were renamed the Mersey Beats in February 1962 by Bob Wooler, MC at the Cavern Club, in April that year they became the Merseybeats. With the rise of the Beatles in 1963, the terms Mersey sound and Merseybeat were applied to bands and singers from Liverpool, the first time in British pop music that a sound and a location were linked together; the equivalent scenes in Birmingham and London were described as Brum beat and the Tottenham Sound respectively. The most distinctive characteristic of beat music was its strong beat, using the backbeat common to rock and roll and rhythm and blues, but with a driving emphasis on all the beats of 4/4 bar; the rhythm itself—described by Alan Clayson as "a changeless four-four offbeat on the snare drum"—was developed in the clubs in Hamburg, West Germany, where many English groups, including the Beatles, performed in the early 1960s and where it was known as the mach schau beat. The 8/8 rhythm was flexible enough to be adopted for songs from a range of genres.
In addition, according to music writer Dave Laing, "he chord playing of the rhythm guitar was broken up into a series of separate strokes one to the bar, with the regular plodding of the bass guitar and crisp drumming behind it. This gave a different effect from the monolithic character of rock, in that the beat was given not by the duplication of one instrument in the rhythm section by another, but by an interplay between all three; this flexibility meant that beat music could cope with a greater range of time-signatures and song shapes than rock & roll had been able to". Beat groups had simple guitar-dominated line-ups, with vocal harmonies and catchy tunes; the most common instrumentation of beat groups featured lead and bass guitars plus drums, as popularized by the Beatles, the Searchers, others. Beat groups—even those with a separate lead singer—often sang both verses and choruses in close harmony, resembling doo wop, with nonsense syllables in the backing vocals. In the late 1950s, a flourishing culture of groups began to emerge out of the declining skiffle scene, in major urban centres in the UK like Liverpool, Manchester and London.
This was true in Liverpool, where it has been estimated that there were around 350 different bands active playing ballrooms, concert halls and clubs. Liverpool was uniquely placed within Britain to be the point of origin of a new form of music. Commentators have pointed to a combination of local solidarity, industrial decline, social deprivation, the existence of a large population of Irish origin, the influence of, detected in Beat music, it was a major port with links to America through the Cunard Yanks, which made for much greater access to American records and instruments like guitars, which could not be imported due to trade restrictions. As a result, Beat bands were influenced by American groups of the era, such as Buddy Holly and the Crickets, to a lesser extent by British rock and roll groups such as the Shadows. After the national success of the Beatles in Britain from 1962, a number of Liverpool performers were able to follow them into the charts, including Gerry & The Pacemakers, the Searchers, Cilla Black.
The first act who were not from Liverpool or managed by Brian Epstein to break through in the UK were Freddie and the Dreamers, who were based in Manchester, a short distance away, as were Herman's Hermits and the Hollies. Outside of Liverpool many local scenes were less influenced by rock and roll and more by the rhythm and blues and directly by the blues; these included bands from Birmingham who were grouped with the beat movement, the most successful being the Spencer Davis Group and the Moody Blues. Similar blues influenced bands who broke out from local scenes to national prominence were the Animals from Newcastle and Them from Belfast. From London, the term Tottenham Sound was based around the Dave Clark Five, but other London-based British rhythm and blues and rock bands who benefited from the beat boom of this era included the Rolling Stones, the Kinks and the Yardbirds; the Beatles' appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show soon after led to chart success. During the next two years, the Animals, Petula Clark, the Dave Clark Five, the Rolling Stones, Donovan and Gordon, Manfred Mann and the Dreamers, The Zombies, Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders, Herman’s Hermits, the Troggs would have one or more number one singles in America.
By 1967 beat music was beginning
The Fania All-Stars is a musical group formed in 1968 as a showcase for the musicians on Fania Records, the leading salsa music record label of the time. In 1964, Fania Records was founded in New York City by Jerry Masucci, an Italian-American lawyer with a love for Latin melodies, Johnny Pacheco, a composer and bandleader born in the Dominican Republic. Masucci bought out his partner Pacheco from Fania Entertainment Group Ltd. and was the sole owner until his death in December 1997. Throughout the early years, Fania used to distribute its records around New York. Success from Pacheco's Cañonazo recording would lead the label to develop its roster. Masucci and Pacheco, now executive negotiator and musical director began acquiring musicians such as Bobby Valentín, Larry Harlow, Ray Barretto. In 1968, Fania Records created a continuously revolving line-up of entertainers known as the Fania All-Stars, they were considered some of the best Latin Music performers in the world at that time. The original lineup consisted.
They recorded Live At Volumes 1 and 2 with this original lineup. In 1971 they recorded Fania All-Stars: Live At The Cheetah, Volumes 1 and 2, it exhibited the entire All-Star family performing before a capacity audience in New York's Cheetah Lounge. Following sell-out concerts in Puerto Rico and Panama, the All-Stars embarked on their first appearance at New York's Yankee Stadium on August 24, 1973; the Stars performed before more than 40,000 spectators in a concert that featured Ray Barretto, Willie Colón, Edwin Tito Asencio Rubén Blades, Larry Harlow, Johnny Pacheco, Roberto Roena, Pellín Rodríguez, Bobby Valentín, Jorge Santana, Celia Cruz, Héctor Lavoe, Cheo Feliciano, Ismael Miranda, Justo Betancourt, Ismael Quintana, Pete "El Conde" Rodríguez, Bobby Cruz and Santos Colón. Live at Yankee Stadium was included in the second set of 50 recordings in the U. S. National Recording Registry, solidifying the All-Stars as "culturally and aesthetically significant." In 1974, the All Stars performed in Africa, at the 80,000-seat Stade du 20 mai in Kinshasa.
This was released as Live in Africa. This Zairean appearance occurred along with James Brown and others at a music festival held in conjunction with the Muhammad Ali/George Foreman heavyweight title fight. Footage of the performance was included in the 2008 documentary Soul Power. To attain a wider market for salsa, Fania made a deal with Columbia Records in the US for a series of crossover albums by the All-Stars, beginning with Delicate & Jumpy, in which Steve Winwood united with the All-Stars' Pacheco, Valentin and Roena. During the same year, the Fania All-Stars made their sole UK appearance, at London's Lyceum Ballroom, with Winwood appearing as guest. In 1978 the All-Stars released Live, recorded in concert on July 11, 1975 at San Juan's Roberto Clemente Coliseum. In 1979, they travelled to Havana, Cuba, to participate in the Havana Jam festival that took place between 2–4 March, alongside Rita Coolidge, Kris Kristofferson, Stephen Stills, the CBS Jazz All-Stars, Trio of Doom, Billy Swan, Bonnie Bramlett, Weather Report, Billy Joel, plus Cuban artists such as Irakere, Pacho Alonso, Tata Güines, Orquesta Aragón.
Their performance is captured on Ernesto Juan Castellanos's documentary Havana Jam'79. During the same year the All-Stars released Crossover and Havana Jam on Fania, which came from a concert recorded in Havana on March 2. In May 2007 Ruben Blades was sued by Willie Colon for breach of contract; this led to a series of countersuits that lasted over five years. A book titled Decisiones detailing the inside story of this legal battle was written by Blades' former agent, Robert J. Morgalo and published in 2016 in English and Spanish website; the court documents can be read here and full transcripts of depositions and court rulings can be seen here In 2008, Cheo Feliciano celebrated his 50 years in the music industry by hosting a concert at Madison Square Garden, where Bloomberg declared July 20 "Cheo Feliciano Day" in New York. In 2009, an historical documentary, Latin Music USA, shown on PBS TV, featured an episode on the Fania All-Stars, their evolution and demise. In 2009 as well, the All-Stars returned to the stage, opening Carlos Santana's world tour in Bogotá, Colombia.
The presentation caused mixed feelings inside the salsa circle though because they were treated as seconds by the concert's organizers. In March 2011, subsequently in November 2012, a limited roster of the All-Stars performed in Lima, Peru. One thing to note about the 2012 performance is the return of Ruben Blades. Ismael Quintana was not present in the November 2012 presentation though, as well as Yomo Toro. In October 2013, a new, complete roster of the All-Stars presented in San Juan Puerto Rico, celebrating the 40th anniversary of their first presentation in San Juan; this roaster included the return of Luigi Texidor. As well as the participation of Andy Montañez, Cita Rodriguez and Willie Colón; this was Cheo Feliciano's last presentation with the All-Stars before dying in a car accident in April 2014 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. In 2014 the Fania All-Stars were chosen to receive ASCAP's honorary L
Afro is an album by trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie recorded in 1954 and released on the Norgran label. The Allmusic review states "Pairing Dizzy Gillespie with Cuban arranger/composer Chico O'Farrill produced a stunning session which made up the first half of a Norgran LP... A small-group session features the trumpeter with an all-Latin rhythm section and flutist Gilberto Valdes... it is well worth acquiring". "Manteca Theme" - 4:10 "Contraste" - 2:45 "Jungla" - 4:44 "Rhumba Finale" - 4:43 "A Night in Tunisia" - 4:19 "Con Alma" - 5:05 "Caravan" - 7:19 Dizzy Gillespie - trumpet Gilbert Valdez - flute Quincy Jones, Jimmy Nottingham, Ernie Royal - trumpet Leon Comegys, J. J. Johnson, George Matthews - trombone George Dorsey, Hilton Jefferson - alto saxophone Hank Mobley, Lucky Thompson - tenor saxophone Danny Bank - baritone saxophone Réne Hernandez, Wade Legge - piano Lou Hackney, Roberto Rodríguez - bass Charlie Persip - drums Cándido Camero - congas, percussion Mongo Santamaria - congas José Mangual - bongos Ubaldo Nieto - timbales Ralph Miranda - percussion Chico O'Farrill - arranger