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Mongol invasions of Japan

The Mongol invasions of Japan, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan, at that time the emperor of the recently-founded Yuan dynasty of China, to conquer Japan after the submission of Goryeo to vassaldom. A failure, the invasion attempts are of macro-historical importance because they set a limit on Mongol expansion; the invasions are referred to in many works of fiction and are the earliest events for which the word kamikaze is used, originating in reference to the two typhoons faced by the Mongol fleets. The invasions were one of the earliest cases of gunpowder warfare outside of China. One of the most notable technological innovations during the war was the use of explosive, hand-thrown bombs. After a series of Mongol invasions of Korea between 1231 and 1281, Goryeo signed a treaty in favor of the Mongols and became a vassal state. Kublai was declared Khagan of the Mongol Empire in 1260 and established his capital at Khanbaliq in 1264. Japan at the time was ruled by the Shikken of the Hōjō clan, who had intermarried with and wrested control from Minamoto no Yoriie, shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate, after his death in 1203.

The inner circle of the Hōjō clan had become so preeminent that they no longer consulted the council of the shogunate, the Imperial Court of Kyoto, or their gokenin vassals, made their decisions at private meetings in their residences. The Mongols made attempts to subjugate the native peoples of Sakhalin—the Ainu and Nivkh peoples—from 1260 to 1308. However, it is doubtful. In 1266, Kublai Khan dispatched emissaries to Japan with a letter saying: Cherished by the Mandate of Heaven, the Great Mongol emperor sends this letter to the king of Japan; the sovereigns of small countries, sharing borders with each other, have for a long time been concerned to communicate with each other and become friendly. Since my ancestor governed at heaven's command, innumerable countries from afar disputed our power and slighted our virtue. Goryeo rendered thanks for my ceasefire and for restoring their land and people when I ascended the throne. Our relation is feudatory like a son. We think you know this. Goryeo is my eastern tributary.

Japan was allied with Goryeo and sometimes with China since the founding of your country. We are afraid. Hence we dispatched a mission with our letter expressing our wishes. Enter into friendly relations with each other from now on. We think. How are we in the right, unless we comprehend this? Nobody would wish to resort to arms. Kublai demanded that Japan become a vassal and send tribute under a threat of conflict. However, the emissaries returned empty-handed; the second set of emissaries were sent in 1268. Both sets of emissaries met with the Chinzei Bugyō, or Defense Commissioner for the West, who passed on the message to Shikken, Hōjō Tokimune, Japan's ruler in Kamakura and to the Emperor of Japan in Kyoto. After discussing the letters with his inner circle, there was much debate, but the Shikken had his mind made up; the Mongols continued to send demands, some through Korean emissaries and some through Mongol ambassadors on March 7, 1269. However, each time, the bearers were not permitted to land in Kyushu.

The Imperial Court suggested compromise, but had little effect in the matter, due to political marginalization after the Jōkyū War. The uncompromising shogunate ordered all those who held fiefs in Kyūshū, the area closest to the Korean Peninsula and thus most to be attacked, to return to their lands and forces in Kyūshū moved west, further securing the most landing points. After acknowledging its importance, the Imperial Court led great prayer services to calm local residents, much government business was put off to deal with this crisis; the invasion fleet was scheduled to depart in the seventh lunar month of 1274 but was delayed for three months. Kublai planned for the fleet to first attack Tsushima Island and Iki Island before making landfall in Hakata Bay; the Japanese plan of defense was to contest them at every point with gokenin. Both Yuan and Japanese sources exaggerate the opposing side's numbers, with the History of Yuan putting the Japanese at 102,000, the Japanese claiming they were outnumbered at least ten to one.

In reality there are no reliable records of the size of Japanese forces but estimates put their total numbers at around 4,000 to 6,000. The Yuan invasion force composed of 15,000 Mongol, Han Chinese, Jurchen soldiers, 6,000 to 8,000 Korean troops as well as 7,000 Korean sailors; the Yuan invasion force set off from Korea on 2 November 1274. Two days they landed on Komodahama beach on Tsushima Island. Sō Sukekuni, the governor of Tsushima, led a cavalry unit of 80 to defend the island, but was overwhelmed and killed; the Yuan fleet attacked Iki Island. Like Sukekuni, Taira Kageetaka, the governor of Iki, gave a spirited defense before falling back to his castle by nightfall; the next morning, Yuan forces had surrounded the castle. Kagetaka made a final failed sortie before committing suide with his family; the Yuan fleet crossed the sea and land in Hakata Bay on 19 November, a short distance from Dazaifu, the ancient administrative capital of Kyūshū. The following day brought the Ba

Queen of the Sea (film)

Queen of the Sea is a 1918 American fantasy film released by Fox Film Corporation, directed by John G. Adolfi and starred Australian swimmer Annette Kellerman; this film is presumed to be lost. As described in the trade magazine Exhibitors Herald: Merilla, Queen of the Sea, finds a book among wreckage at the bottom of the sea which contains a prophesy that she will save four human beings and receive the reward of a human body of her own with an immortal soul. King Boreas, master of the storms, wrecks many ships and sends his sirens to drag the victims to certain death. Merilla saves the predicted lives, Boreas confines her in a cave, she is freed by Prince Hero, the fourth life she has saved, on his way to meet his betrothed. They fall in love with each other; the Prince goes on to meet the Princess, in love with one of her courtiers. Boreas captures the Princess and confines her in the Tower of Knives and Swords, a worse dungeon than the one in which Merilla had been confined. Merilla has received a human body and such a beautiful soul that she resolves to rescue the Princess though this will mean the loss of the Prince.

She goes to the Tower and reaches the Princess, encourages her, walks out on a spider's thread to a point where she can warn the Prince of the great danger. He and his knights come just in time to save them from a horrible fate; the Princess confesses her love for the courtier, the two couples are happy in possession of each other. Annette Kellerman as Merilla, Queen of the Sea Hugh Thompson as Prince Hero Mildred Keats as Princess Leandra Walter Law as King Boreas Beth Ivins as Ariela Philip Van Loan as Prime Minister Fred Drucker as Clovis Louis Dean as The King Carey Lee as The Queen Minnie Methol as The Duenna Queen of the Sea followed Fox's big budget picture A Daughter of the Gods, another fantasy spectacle designed around Annette Kellerman and her aquatic abilities. Kellerman was well known for stunt dives. After Queen of the Sea Kellerman would only make two more major motion pictures. Cast and crew spent two months in 1917 filming on Mount Desert Island in Maine. Panchromatic film, which provided superior tonal quality but had a problematically short shelf life, was first used in motion pictures for some of the exterior shots on Queen of the Sea.

Queen of the Sea at AllMovie Queen of the Sea at the American Film Institute Catalog Queen of the Sea on IMDb Several film stills, Jonathan Silent Film Collection, Frank Mt. Pleasant Library Special Collections, Chapman University

Maskal (singer)

Maskal, born Masiye Kalso Kasaru on November 20, 1985, is a Malawian Afro-R&B singer from Dedza. His most popular song is "Udalire", he was nominated in two categories at the Malawian Music Awards 2011 – "Best Male" and "Best R&B". He won Best Male Vocal for the MMA 2011, he has a diploma in Information Systems from Polytecnic and worked as an IT officer for the Blantyre Malaria Project. He wrote his first song in February 2001, he made his debut on Young Kay's songs, "Utawaleza", "Photobook", "Mamvelamvela". He was picked up by music promoter Nde'feyo Entertainment. Since launching his career he has collaborated on songs like "Malawi Goodlife" with Lucius Banda, Black Missionaries, Young Kay and Tigris, he released his first album "Nthawi" in 2010. He shows, he was the fourth Malawian to perform at Big Brother Africa show. In 2012, he released two hit singles "Zili ndi iwe, "Usatope" for the second album "Umunthu" which included the hit songs such as "Umamva bwanji", "Umpeze wina". In 2013 he released another hit single The Way You are in the UK.

Nthawi – 2010 Track list: Udalire – produced by Percy Manyozo Kuwala Kwako Feat' Young Kay – produced by Percy Manyozo Ndimakukonda – produced by Percy Manyozo Ndamasulidwa – produced by God's Favorite Wa CV Feat' Piksy – produced by The Daredevilz Ndiwe Wanga – produced by Percy Manyozo Chikondi Sindalama feat. Biriwiri – produced by Percy Manyozo Mtima Wako – produced by Percy Manyozo Nthawi – produced by Sonyezo Kandoje Just To Say Hi – produced by Sannie Beatz Hey – produced by God's Favorite Superman – produced by Percy Manyozo Kuwala Kwako remix feat. Young Kay, Third Eye, BarryOne & Cyclone – produced by Percy Manyozo Umunthu – November 2012 Track list: Chikondi – produced by Percy Manyozo Umamva Bwanji? – produced by Yesaya Nkhwazi Linga Langa – produced by Percy Manyozo Sindinazolowele – produced by God's Favorite Zili Ndi Iwe – produced by Percy Manyozo Umpeze Wina – produced by Percy Manyozo Wampeza – produced by Percy Manyozo Kudzagwa Mvula – produced by Yesaya Nkhwazi Usatope – produced by Percy Manyozo Akanapanda Kudziwa – produced by God's FavoriteSingles - The way You are - Produced by Sonny - Gwiritsa - Produced by OBK Records - Mnyumba mwanga - Produced by OBK Records Malawian Music Award 2011 – Winner – "Best Male Vocal" Malawian Music Award 2011 – Nominee – "Best Male R&B" Maskal's Music