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Mongolian language

Mongolian is the official language of Mongolia and both the most spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family. The number of speakers across all its dialects may be 5.2 million, including the vast majority of the residents of Mongolia and many of the Mongolian residents of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. In Mongolia, the Khalkha dialect, written in Cyrillic, is predominant, while in Inner Mongolia, the language is dialectally more diverse and is written in the traditional Mongolian script. In the discussion of grammar to follow, the variety of Mongolian treated is Standard Khalkha Mongolian, but much of what is to be said is valid for vernacular Khalkha and for other Mongolian dialects Chakhar; some classify several other Mongolic languages like Buryat and Oirat as dialects of Mongolian, but this classification is not in line with the current international standard. Mongolian has vowel harmony and a complex syllabic structure for a Mongolic language that allows clusters of up to three consonants syllable-finally.

It is a typical agglutinative language that relies on suffix chains in the verbal and nominal domains. While there is a basic word order, subject–object–predicate, ordering among noun phrases is free, so grammatical roles are indicated by a system of about eight grammatical cases. There are five voices. Verbs are marked for voice, aspect and epistemic modality/evidentiality. In sentence linking, a special role is played by converbs. Modern Mongolian evolved from Middle Mongol, the language spoken in the Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries. In the transition, a major shift in the vowel-harmony paradigm occurred, long vowels developed, the case system changed and the verbal system was restructured. Mongolian is related to the extinct Khitan language, it was believed that Mongolian is related to Turkic, Tungusic and Japonic languages but this view is now seen as obsolete by a majority of comparative linguists. These languages have been grouped under the Altaic language family and contrasted with the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area.

However, instead of a common genetic origin, Clauson and Shcherbak proposed that Turkic and Tungusic languages form a Sprachbund, rather than common origin. Mongolian literature is well attested in written form from the 13th century but has earlier Mongolic precursors in the literature of the Khitan and other Xianbei peoples. Mongolian is the official national language of Mongolia, where it is spoken by nearly 3.6 million people, the official provincial language of Inner Mongolia, where there are at least 4.1 million ethnic Mongols. Across the whole of China, the language is spoken by half of the country's 5.8 million ethnic Mongols However, the exact number of Mongolian speakers in China is unknown, as there is no data available on the language proficiency of that country's citizens. The use of Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, has witnessed periods of decline and revival over the last few hundred years; the language experienced a decline during the late Qing period, a revival between 1947 and 1965, a second decline between 1966 and 1976, a second revival between 1977 and 1992, a third decline between 1995 and 2012.

However, in spite of the decline of the Mongolian language in some of Inner Mongolia's urban areas and educational spheres, the ethnic identity of the urbanized Chinese-speaking Mongols is most going to survive due to the presence of urban ethnic communities. The multilingual situation in Inner Mongolia does not appear to obstruct efforts by ethnic Mongols to preserve their language. Although an unknown number of Mongols in China, such as the Tumets, may have or lost the ability to speak their language, they are still registered as ethnic Mongols and continue to identify themselves as ethnic Mongols; the children of inter-ethnic Mongol-Chinese marriages claim to be and are registered as ethnic Mongols. Mongolian belongs to the Mongolic languages; the delimitation of the Mongolian language within Mongolic is a much disputed theoretical problem, one whose resolution is impeded by the fact that existing data for the major varieties is not arrangeable according to a common set of linguistic criteria.

Such data might account for the historical development of the Mongolian dialect continuum, as well as for its sociolinguistic qualities. Though phonological and lexical studies are comparatively well developed, the basis has yet to be laid for a comparative morphosyntactic study, for example between such diverse varieties as Khalkha and Khorchin; the status of certain varieties in the Mongolic group—whether they are languages distinct from Mongolian or just dialects of it—is disputed. There are at least three such varieties: Oirat and Buryat, both of which are spoken in Russia and China. There is no disagreement. Beyond this one point, agreement ends. For example, the influential classification of Sanžeev proposed a "Mongolian language" consisting of just the three dialects Khalkha and Ordos, with Buryat and Oirat judged to be independent languages. On the other hand, Luvsanvandan proposed a much broader "Mongolian language" consisting of a Central dialect, an Eastern dialect, a Western dialect, a Northern dialect (

It Must Be Love (Ty Herndon song)

"It Must Be Love" is a song written by Craig Bickhardt and Jack Sundrud, recorded by American country music singer Ty Herndon. It was released in August 1998 as the second single from his album Big Hopes; the song reached a peak of Number One on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts, becoming the third and final Number One of his career. It was his highest entry on the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number 38 on the chart; the song, written by Craig Bickhardt and Poco member Jack Sundrud, is in moderate up-tempo, whose narrator tells of how he finds himself acting uncharacteristically, unable to control his emotions, because he is in love. The chorus uses a question-and-answer format, with the group Sons of the Desert singing the questions, as the narrator's conscience, Herndon, the narrator, performing the answers — until the last line, where they all sing together. "It Must Be Love" debuted at number 62 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of August 15, 1998.

The song spent twenty-six weeks on Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks, peaking at Number One on the chart week of December 5, 1998 and holding the position for one week. It spent ten weeks on the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number 38 and representing Herndon's only Top 40 hit on that chart. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Kʼàakʼ Chiʼ

Kʼàakʼ Chiʼ is a hypothetical archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, proposed by William Gadoury of Saint-Jean-de-Matha, Quebec in 2016. It is located in the state of Campeche in southern Mexico, in the extreme south of the Yucatán Peninsula; the location was determined by overlaying Maya constellations with a map of the Yucatán Peninsula. The alleged site has caused controversy as Mayanist scholars have cast doubt upon the potential discovery; the hypothetical discovery is based on analysis by the Canadian Space Agency of satellite data from NASA, from the Japanese Space Agency, JAXA. The position of the site was posited by 15-year old William Gadoury based on his theory that Maya site locations correlated with their astronomical data matching 117 known Maya sites with the positions of stars in 22 supposed "Maya constellations". Kʼàakʼ Chiʼ lies at a location suggested by a supposed 23rd constellation with only two known sites corresponding on the ground. However, the density of Maya cities in the region is such that the supposed alignment of Maya sites with the constellations has been attributed to coincidence.

Gadoury reported that his study was sparked by reading the Mayan doomsday prophesies in 2012: I did not understand why the Maya built their cities away from rivers, on marginal lands and in the mountains... They had to have another reason, as they worshipped the stars, the idea came to me to verify my hypothesis... I was surprised and excited when I realised that the most brilliant stars of the constellations matched the largest Maya cities. Archaeologist Richard Hansen noted that the location is very close to the Maya ruins of Uxul, which have been the subject of archaeological investigation since 2009. Mexican archaeologist Rafael Cobos Palma pointed out that the area of the supposed discovery has been extensively explored by archaeologists since the 1930s, was close to various already-identified Maya sites in southern Campeche; the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia in Mexico said it was not “considering” the alleged find, since “there is no scientific basis for it”. Mayanist David Stuart cast doubt upon the discovery, describing it as an example of "junk science", identified the object on satellite imagery as an old cornfield, or milpa.

Mayanist Geoffrey Braswell of the University of California stated that the object is not a Maya pyramid, identified the imagery as either an abandoned milpa or an active marijuana field. In a response to the alleged discovery and astronomer Anthony Aveni stated that trying to correlate a direct correspondence between a star map and a large quantity of man-made features is "an act of creative imagination." Aveni has pointed out that there are several competing theories as to what the 13 Maya zodiacal constellations represent, how they are arranged. Mayanist Francisco Estrada-Belli has pointed out that if a Maya site were to be located in the predicted place, it could be down to coincidence since there are to be hundreds of undiscovered Maya archaeological sites, he offered an invitation for Gadoury to come to Mexico with him to look for Mayan sites. Armand LaRocque of the remote sensing laboratory of the University of New Brunswick is reported as saying while satellite imagery might indicate a pyramid and building, anomalies identified in the satellite imagery needed further study and were not man-made.

Mayanist Nikolai Grube of the University Bonn, Germany who had worked in the area of concern for several years pointed out in an interview with the Spiegel-Magazin that the sites taken into consideration in Gadoury´s theory had been built several decades apart, which made the theory of a common planning of those sites improbable. Regarding astronomical constellation configurations: Orion correlation theory