Old Uyghur alphabet
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu, an ancestor of the modern Yugur language. The term "Old Uyghur" used for this alphabet is misleading because the Kingdom of Qocho, the Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843 used the Old Turkic alphabet; the Uyghur adopted this script from local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840. It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan; the last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Manchu alphabets; the Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga. The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, it is written vertically. The script flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century.
Its usage was continued in Gansu through the 17th century. Like the Sogdian alphabet, the Old Uyghur tended to use matres lectionis for the long vowels as well as for the short ones; the practice of leaving short vowels unrepresented was completely abandoned. Thus, while deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Old Uyghur alphabet can be said to have been "alphabetized". Uyghur alphabets Gorelova, Liliya M.. Manchu Grammar. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12307-6. Old Uyghur Alphabet on Omniglot Old Uyghur alphabet and Orkhon Turkic alphabet photos of the original text fragments written in Old Uyghur script discovered at Turpan
The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language. It is written vertically from top with columns proceeding from left to right. According to the Veritable Records, in 1599 the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people, he decried the fact that while illiterate Han Chinese and Mongolians could understand their respective languages when read aloud, not the case for the Manchus, whose documents were recorded by Mongolian scribes. Overriding the objections of two advisors named Erdeni and G'ag'ai, he is credited with adapting the Mongolian script to Manchu; the resulting script was known as tongki fuka akū hergen. In 1632, Dahai added diacritical marks to clear up a lot of the ambiguity present in the original Mongolian script; this revision created the Standard script, known as tongki fuka sindaha hergen. As a result, the Manchu alphabet contains little ambiguity. Discovered manuscripts from the 1620s make clear, that the addition of dots and circles to Manchu script began before their supposed introduction by Dahai.
Dahai added ten graphemes, to allow Manchu to be used to write Chinese and Tibetan loanwords. These words contained sounds that did not have corresponding letters in Manchu. Sounds that were transliterated included the aspirated sounds k', k, x. By the middle of the nineteenth century, there were three styles of writing Manchu in use: standard script, semi-cursive script, cursive script. Semicursive script had less spacing between the letters, cursive script had rounded tails; the Manchu alphabet was used to write Chinese. Manchu: a textbook for reading documents, by Gertraude Roth Li, contains a list comparing a romanization of Chinese syllables written in Manchu compared to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn and Wade–Giles. Using the Manchu script to transliterate Chinese words is a source of loanwords for the Xibe language. Several Chinese-Manchu dictionaries contain Chinese characters transliterated with Manchu script and the Manchu version of the Thousand Character Classic is the Manchu transcription of all the Chinese characters.
Existing as a transliteration was the Manchu version of the Hong Loumeng. In the "Imperial Liao-Jin-Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to write Evenki words. In the Pentaglot Dictionary commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to transcribe Tibetan and Chagatai words. Despite the alphabetic nature of its script, Manchu was traditionally taught as a syllabary. Like the Mongols, Manchu children were taught to memorize all the syllables in the Manchu language separately as they learned to write, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels; when learning the language, Manchus were taught at once to say la, lo, etc. instead of saying I, a---la. As a result, the syllables contained in their syllabary do not contain all possible combinations that can be formed with their letters, they made, for instance, no such use of the consonants I, m, n, r, as westerners do when they called them liquid.
Today, the opinion on whether it is alphabet or syllabic in nature is still split between different experts. In China, it is considered syllabic and Manchu is still taught in this manner, while in the West it is treated like an alphabet; the alphabetic approach is used by foreigners who want to learn the language, as studying the Manchu script as a syllabary takes a longer time. The Manchu alphabet has two kinds of punctuation: two dots, analogous to a period. However, with the exception of lists of nouns being reliably punctuated by single dots, punctuation in Manchu is inconsistent, therefore not of much use as an aid to readability; the equivalent of the question mark in Manchu script consists of some special particles, written at the end of the question. The Jurchens of a millennium ago became the ancestors of the Manchus when Nurhaci united the Jianzhou Jurchens and his son subsequently renamed the consolidated tribes as the "Manchu". Throughout this period, the Jurchen language evolved into.
Its script has no relation to the Manchu alphabet, however. The Jurchen script was instead derived from the Khitan script, itself derived from Chinese characters; the Manchu alphabet is included in the Unicode block for Mongolian. Mongolian script Transliterations of Manchu Abkai — Unicode Manchu/Sibe/Daur Fonts and Keyboards Manchu alphabet Manchu script generator ManchuFont — an OpenType font for Manchu writing Jurchen Script
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
A diacritic – diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only an adjective; some diacritical marks, such as the acute and grave, are called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters; the main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Examples are the diaereses in the borrowed French words naïve and Noël, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding vowel. In other Latin-script alphabets, they may distinguish between homonyms, such as the French là versus la that are both pronounced /la/. In Gaelic type, a dot over a consonant indicates lenition of the consonant in question.
In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions. Vowel pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat and the Hebrew niqqud systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet; the Indic virama and the Arabic sukūn mark the absence of vowels. Cantillation marks indicate prosody. Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke and the Hebrew gershayim, which mark abbreviations or acronyms, Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals. In the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur. In orthography and collation, a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination; this varies from language to language, may vary from case to case within a language. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words.
In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics", with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in the English pronunciation of "sh" and "th". Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the Latin script are: accents ◌́ – acute ◌̀ – grave ◌̂ – circumflex ◌̌ – caron, wedge ◌̋ – double acute ◌̏ – double grave ◌̃ - tilde dots ◌̇ – overdot ◌̣ – an underdot is used in Rheinische Dokumenta and in Hebrew and Arabic transcription ◌·◌ – interpunct tittle, the superscript dot of the modern lowercase Latin i and j ◌̈ – diaeresis or umlaut ◌ː – triangular colon, used in the IPA to mark long vowels. Curves ◌̆ – breve ◌̑ - inverted breve ◌͗ – sicilicus, a palaeographic diacritic similar to a caron or breve ◌̃ – tilde ◌҃ – titlo vertical stroke ◌̩ – syllabic a subscript vertical stroke is used in IPA to mark syllabicity and in Rheinische Dokumenta to mark a schwa macron or horizontal line ◌̄ – macron ◌̱ – underbar overlays ◌⃓ – vertical bar through the character ◌̷ – slash through the character ◌̵ – crossbar through the character ring ◌̊ – overring superscript curls ◌̓ – apostrophe ◌̉ – hoi ◌̛ – horn subscript curls ◌̦ – undercomma ◌̧ – cedilla ◌̡ ◌̢ – hook, left or right, sometimes superscript ◌̨ – ogonek double marks ◌͝◌ – double breve ◌͡◌ – tie bar or top ligature ◌᷍◌ – double circumflex ◌͞◌ – longum ◌͠◌ – double tilde double sub/superscript diacritics ◌̧ ̧ - double cedilla ◌̨ ̨ - double ogonek ◌̈ ̈ - double diaeresisThe tilde, comma, apostrophe and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but have other uses.
Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter. In the Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi; because of vowel harmony, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In abugida scripts, like those used to write Hindi and Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, may occur above, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify; the tittle on the letter i of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to distinguish i from the minims of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ii spread to i adjacent to m, n, u, to all lowercase i's; the j a variant of i, inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of Roman type it was reduced to the round. Hamza: indicates a glottal stop. Tanwīn symbols: Serve a grammatical role in Arabic.
The sign ـً is most written in combination with alif, e.g. ـًا. Shadda: Gemination of consonants. Waṣla: Comes most at the beginning of a word. Indicates a type of hamza, pronounced only when the letter is read at the beginnin
Clear Script is an alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita for the Oirat language. It was developed on the basis of the Mongolian script with the goal of distinguishing all sounds in the spoken language, to make it easier to transcribe Sanskrit and the Tibetic languages. Clear Script is a Mongolian script; this Mongolian script was derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, which itself was descendent from the Aramaic alphabet. Aramaic is an abjad, an alphabet that has no symbols for vowels, Clear Script is the first in this line of descendants to develop a full system of symbols for all the vowel sounds; as mentioned above, Clear Script was developed as a better way to write Mongolian of the Western Mongolian groups of the Oirats and Kalmyks. The practicality of Clear Script lies in the fact that it was supremely created in order to dissolve any ambiguities that might appear when one attempts to write down a language. Not only were vowels assigned symbols, but all existing symbols were clarified.
All of the'old' symbols, those that did not change from the used script, were assigned a fixed meaning, based on their Uyghur ancestors. New symbols and diacritics were added to show vowels and vowel lengths, as well as distinguish between voiced and unvoiced consonants. There were some marks enabling distinctions such as between ši and si which are unimportant for words written in the Oirat language but are useful for the transcription of foreign words and names. Clear Script was used by Oirat and neighboring Mongols in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, it was used by its creator and others to translate Buddhist works so that they might better spread the Buddhist religion throughout western Mongolia. Though the script was useful for translating works from other languages Tibetan, it was used more informally, as evidenced by some letters from the late 1690s; the script was used by Kalmyks in Russia until 1924. In Xinjiang, Oirats still use it, although today Mongolian education takes place in Chakhar Mongolian all across China.
This script is a vertical script. Letters and diacritics are written along a central axis. Portions of letters to the right of the axis slant up, portions to the left of the axis slant down; the only signs that do not follow these rules are the horizontal signs for S Š and part of Ö. Words are delineated by a space, as well as different letter forms. Though most letters only come in one shape, there are some letters that look different depending on where in the word they occur, whether they are initial, medial, or final. There is an alphabetic order in Clear Script, as in other related scripts, but the order for Clear Script is not the same as its Mongolian parents nor its Aramaic ancestors. Mongolian writing systems Mongolian script Soyombo alphabet Oirat Clear Script at Omniglot Traditional Mongolian Notepad
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or moras which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary, called a syllabogram represents an consonant sound followed by a vowel sound —that is, a CV or V syllable—but other phonographic mappings such as CVC, CV- tone, C are found in syllabaries. A writing system using a syllabary is complete when it covers all syllables in the corresponding spoken language without requiring complex orthographic / graphemic rules, like implicit codas silent vowels or echo vowels; this loosely corresponds to shallow orthographies in alphabetic writing systems. True syllabograms are those that encompass all parts of a syllable, i.e. initial onset, medial nucleus and final coda, but since onset and coda are optional in at least some languages, there are middle, start and full true syllabograms. Most syllabaries only feature one or two kinds of syllabograms and form other syllables by graphemic rules. Syllabograms, hence syllabaries, are pure, analytic or arbitrary if they do not share graphic similarities that correspond to phonic similarities, e.g. the symbol for ka does not resemble in any predictable way the symbol for ki, nor the symbol for a.
Otherwise they are synthetic, if they vary by onset, nucleus or coda, or systematic, if they vary by all of them. Some scholars, e.g. Daniels, reserve the general term for analytic syllabaries and invent other terms as necessary; some system provides katakana language conversion. Languages that use syllabic writing include Japanese, Vai, the Yi languages of eastern Asia, the English-based creole language Ndyuka, Shaozhou Tuhua, the ancient language Mycenaean Greek. In addition, the undecoded Cretan Linear A is believed by some to be a syllabic script, though this is not proven. Chinese characters, the cuneiform script used for Sumerian and other languages, the former Maya script are syllabic in nature, although based on logograms, they are therefore sometimes referred to as logosyllabic. The contemporary Japanese language uses two syllabaries together called kana, namely hiragana and katakana, which were developed around 700; because Japanese uses CV syllables, a syllabary is well suited to write the language.
As in many syllabaries, vowel sequences and final consonants are written with separate glyphs, so that both atta and kaita are written with three kana: あった and かいた. It is therefore sometimes called a moraic writing system. Languages that use syllabaries today tend to have simple phonotactics, with a predominance of monomoraic syllables. For example, the modern Yi script is used to write languages that have no diphthongs or syllable codas. Few syllabaries have glyphs for syllables that are not monomoraic, those that once did have simplified over time to eliminate that complexity. For example, the Vai syllabary had separate glyphs for syllables ending in a coda, a long vowel, or a diphthong, though not enough glyphs to distinguish all CV combinations; the modern script has been expanded to cover all moras, but at the same time reduced to exclude all other syllables. Bimoraic syllables are now written with two letters, as in Japanese: diphthongs are written with the help of V or hV glyphs, the nasal coda is written with the glyph for ŋ, which can form a syllable of its own in Vai.
In Linear B, used to transcribe Mycenaean Greek, a language with complex syllables, complex consonant onsets were either written with two glyphs or simplified to one, while codas were ignored, e.g. ko-no-so for Κνωσός Knōsos, pe-ma for σπέρμα sperma. The Cherokee syllabary uses dummy vowels for coda consonants, but has a segmental grapheme for /s/, which can be used both as a coda and in an initial /sC/ consonant cluster; the languages of India and Southeast Asia, as well as the Ethiopian Semitic languages, have a type of alphabet called an abugida or alphasyllabary. In these scripts, unlike in pure syllabaries, syllables starting with the same consonant are expressed with graphemes based in a regular way on a common graphical element; each character representing a syllable consists of several elements which designate the individual sounds of that syllable. In the 19th century these systems were called syllabics, a term which has survived in the name of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics. In a true syllabary there may be graphic similarity between characters that share a common consonant or vowel sound, but it is not systematic or close to regular.
For example, the characters for'ke','ka', and'ko' in Japanese hiragana have no similarity to indicate their common "k" sound. Compare this with Devanagari, an abugida, where the characters for'ke','ka' and'ko' are के, का and को with क indicating their common "k" sound. English, along with many other Indo-European languages like German and Russian, allows for complex syllable structures, making it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary. A "pure" syllabary would require a separate glyph for every syllable in English, thus one would need separate symbols for "bag", "beg", "big", "bog", "bug", "bad", "bed", "bid", "bod", "bud", "bead", "bide", "bode", etc. Since English has well over 10,000 different possibilities for individual syllables, a s