Manchu language (obsolete)
Daur language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
|ca.1204 – today|
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
|Old Uyghur alphabet|
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.
To ensure that text in the script displays correctly in your browser, the appearance of the text samples in the table below should match. The more specific shapes include the final shapes on lines 1 (yin suffix), 3 (separated a), and 4/6 (vowel harmony dependent g) in the middle column, and the interrogative particle uu/üü in the rightmost column. Note that in some browsers, letters are rotated 90° counterclockwise. If the isolate letter a (ᠠ) resembles a 'W' and not a 'Σ', rotate the letters 90° clockwise.
|Browser-rendered text||ᠴᠣᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠭᠠ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠄ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ||ᠦᠦ|
- 1 History
- 2 Name
- 3 Letters
- 4 Punctuation
- 5 Examples
- 6 Child systems
- 7 Additional characters
- 8 Unicode
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet to the Mongolian language. From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal monuments of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab-Mongolian and Persian-Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc. The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, they're still distinct); intervocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dots system).
Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.
Mongolian is written vertically. The Uyghur script and its descendants—Mongolian, Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat—are the only vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.
The Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Due to its shape like Uighur script, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script (Mongolian: Уйгуржин монгол бичиг). During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script (Mongolian: Хуучин монгол бичиг), in contrast to the New script (Mongolian: Шинэ үсэг), referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script.
The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script. The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.
Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.
- Traditional: n q/k, (Gamma, ү)/g, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, č...
- Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ү/g, m, l, s, š, t, d, č...
- Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries also exist.
Handwriting-specific forms: The final letterforms with a right-swinging tail (a, e, n, q, ү, m, l, and d) may have the notch (tooth) preceding the tail, more or less reduced to a curve in handwriting.:096:211–215
|Comparison of writing styles (with suffixes)|
Mongolian vowel harmony divides vowels into three groups. A word (and its suffixes) can only contain vowels from either of the first two groups below. Neutral i can appear in all words however. These rules might not apply for foreign words however. The three vowel groups are::11, 39:10:4
- The back, masculine, hard, or yang vowels a, o, and u.
- The front, feminine, soft, or yin vowels e, ö, and ü.
- The neutral vowel i.
A separated final:30, 77:42:104:27:534–535 form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word, word stem, or suffix. This form requires a final-shaped preceding consonant and an inter-word gap in between. The vowels themselves appear as ᠠ ⟨⟩,
and with consonants as ᠬᠠ ⟨⟩ q‑a, ᠷᠠ ⟨⟩ r‑a/r‑e, etc.⚠ This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen . In digital typesetting, these forms are triggered by inserting a U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (HTML
MVS) between the consonant and vowel. The combination of MVS and vowel is highlighted in light blue (ᠠ)⚠ in the tables below.
Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix ‑a/‑e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of ⟨ᠲ᠋ᠤᠷ⟩ tur/tür or ⟨ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ⟩ dur/dür instead.:15
Many suffixes:30:12:28:534 (and case suffixes in particular) are likewise separated by a gap and transliterated with a hyphen. In digital typesetting, this gap is represented by a U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE (HTML
NNBSP). The combination of NNBSP and its following glyph is highlighted in light blue in the tables below (as in suffix-initial ᠨ ‑n).
Single-letter suffixes appear as final-formed a/e, i, or u/ü (as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ γaǰar‑a 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ edür‑e 'on the day',:39 or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ulus‑i 'the state' etc).⚠:23 Multi-letter suffixes can start with an initial-, medial-, or variant-shaped glyph (medial/variant-shaped u in the two-letter suffix ᠤᠨ⚠ ⟨⟩ ‑un/‑ün being exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo).:27
Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ⟨ᠪᠣ⟩ bo/bu or ⟨ᠮᠣ᠋⟩ mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ⟨ᠪᠥ᠋⟩ bö/bü or ⟨ᠮᠥ᠋⟩ mö/mü (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).:105
Palatalized phonemes have been excluded. These are conditioned by a following i.:178
|—||ᠠ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated final|
|—||ᠠ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix|
|—||ᠠ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix-initial|
Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (e), the shape of adjacent consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-γ/g below), and position in syllable sequence (n, ng, q, γ, d).
The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, f, KA-g, and KHA-k), and to the right in all other cases.
|э||бэ||пэ||хэ, гэ||э||Cyrillic transliteration|
|—||ᠡ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated final|
|—||ᠡ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix|
|—||ᠡ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix-initial|
Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (a) and its effect on the shape of a words consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-γ/g below), or position in syllable sequence (n, ng, d).
ᠡ᠋ = a traditional initial form.:6
The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, QA-k, and GA-g), and to the right in all other cases.
|и||би||пи||хи, ги||и||Cyrillic transliteration|
|—||ᠢ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix|
|—||ᠢ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix-initial|
Today often absorbed into a preceding syllable when at the end of a word.
Written medially with the single stroke after a consonant, and with two after a vowel (with rare exceptions like ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠ naima 'eight' or ᠨᠠᠢᠮᠠᠨ naiman 'eight'/tribal name).:31:9, 39:7–8
ᠣ᠋ = the final form used in loanwords.:98
|—||ᠤ⚠ ⟨⟩||ᠤᠨ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix|
|ө||бө||пө||хө, гө||Cyrillic transliteration|
|ᠥ||ᠪᠥ᠋||ᠫᠥ᠋||ᠭᠥ⚠ w/o tail||Isolate|
|ᠭᠥ᠋⚠ w/ tail|
ᠥ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.:105
The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.
|ү||бү||пү||хү, гү||үү||ү||үн||Cyrillic transliteration|
|ᠦ||ᠪᠦ᠋||ᠫᠦ᠋||ᠭᠦ⚠ w/o tail||ᠦᠦ⚠ ⟨⟩||—||Isolate|
|ᠭᠦ᠋⚠ w/ tail|
|—||ᠦ⚠ ⟨⟩||ᠦᠨ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix|
ᠦ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.:105
The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.
|n||n‑a, n‑e||‑n||‑nu, ‑nü||Scholarly/|
|н||на, нэ||н||ну, нү||Cyrillic transliteration|
Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence.
Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a white space.:20:546:6 Final dotted n is also found in modern mongolian words.:101 Historically also consistently undotted (ᠨ᠋ etc).:20:114:97
Not occurring word-initially.:15
Transcribes /ng/ in Tibetan ང /nga/; Sanskrit ङ /ṅa/.:28
|b||ba, be||bi||bo, bu||bö, bü||‑ba, ‑be||Scholarly/|
|б||ба, бэ||би||бо, бу||бө, бү||ба, бэ||Cyrillic transliteration|
For Classical Mongolian, latin v is used only for transcribing foreign words, so most в (v) in Cyrillic Mongolian correspond to б (b) in Classical Mongolian.
|p||pa, pe||pi||po, pu||pö, pü||Scholarly/|
|п||па, пэ||пи||по, пу||пө, пү||Cyrillic transliteration|
Variously dotted/undotted, or written kaph-shaped as an initial in early ortography.:114
|хэ||хи||хө, хү||Cyrillic transliteration|
|ᠬᠡ||ᠬᠢ||ᠬᠦ⚠ w/o tail||Isolate|
|ᠬᠦ᠋⚠ w/ tail|
May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphtong.:36–37:49 Qaγan (ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ) 'Khagan' for instance, is read as Qaan unless reading classical literary Mongolian. Some exceptions like tsa-g-aan 'white' exist.
Also transliterated with latin ɣ.
|г||гэ||ги||гө, гү||Cyrillic transliteration|
|—||ᠭᠡ||ᠭᠢ||ᠭᠦ⚠ w/o tail||Isolate|
|ᠭᠦ᠋ w/ tail|
Not occurring word-initially with a consonant following it, except in loanwords as in ᠭᠱᠠᠨ⚠ gšan 'moment', or ᠭᠷᠠᠮᠮ⚠ gramm 'gram'.:15, 32, 34 The final form is also found written like manchu final ᡴ᠋ k.:104
|м||ма, мэ||м||Cyrillic transliteration|
|л||ла, лэ||л||Cyrillic transliteration|
Not occurring word-initially in native words.:10
|с||са, сэ||Cyrillic transliteration|
|—||ᠳ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix-initial|
Positional variants on lamedh ⟨ᠳ᠋/ᠲ/ᠳ᠋⟩ are used consistently for d in foreign words.:23
|—||ᠵᠠ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated final|
Also transliterated with latin j.
|й||йа, йэ||й||Cyrillic transliteration|
|—||ᠶ⚠ ⟨⟩||Separated suffix-initial|
|р||ра, рэ||Cyrillic transliteration|
Not occurring word-initially except in loanwords.:14 Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended; transcribing Русь (Russia) results in ᠣᠷᠤᠰ Oros.
Consonants for foreign words
|в||ва, вэ||Cyrillic transliteration|
|ᠸ⚠ ⟨ᠧ⟩||ᠸᠠ⚠ ⟨⟩||Final|
Also transliterated with latin v.
Used to transcribe foreign words.
|—||ᠺᠠ||ᠺᠧ||ᠺᠢ||ᠺᠣ||ᠺᠦ᠋⚠ w/ tail||Isolate|
|ᠺ||ᠺᠠ||ᠺᠧ||ᠺᠢ||ᠺᠣ||ᠺᠦ᠋⚠ w/ yodh||Medial|
|ᠺ||ᠺᠠ||ᠺᠧ||ᠺᠢ||ᠺᠣ||ᠺᠦ᠋⚠ w/ tail||Final|
Also transliterated with latin k.
Also transliterated with latin kh.
Transliterates /ʒ/ in Tibetan ཞ /ʒa/.:254 (紗)
|᠀||бярга byarga /
|Marks start of a book, chapter, passage, or first line|
|᠁||Цуваа цэг tsuvaa tseg /
ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠬᠠ ᠴᠡᠭ⚠ čubuγ-a čeg
|᠂||Цэг tseg /
|᠃||Давхар цэг davkhar tseg /
ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ dabqur čeg
|Period / full stop|
|᠅||Дөрвөлжин цэг dörvöljin tseg /
ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ dörbelǰin čeg
|Marks end of a passage, paragraph, or chapter|
|᠊||Нуруу nuruu /
|(Non-breaking) hyphen, or stem extender|
'Genghis Khan' in Mongolian script
1 Mongolian tögrög, 1925
Brush-written page from the mongolian declaration of independence, 1912
Imperial Seal of Bogd Khan, ca 1911
19th century brush-written poem by Injinash
19th century Mongolian Sutra manuscript
Silver dirham from the reign of the ilkhan Arghun, 1297
Coin from the reign of the ilkhan Baydu, 1295
|ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠠᠢ᠃||ᠸ w/v|
- Transliteration: Wikipēdiya čilügetü nebterkei toli bičig bolai.
- Cyrillic: Википедиа чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь бичиг болой.
- Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
- Gloss: Wikipedia free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
- Translation: Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia.
The Mongol script has been the basis of alphabets for several languages. First, after overcoming the Uyghur script ductus, it was used for Mongolian itself.
Clear script (Oirat alphabet)
In 1648, the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco created this variation with the goals of bringing the written language closer to the actual pronunciation of Oirat and making it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The script was used by the Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China, the Oirat people still use it.
The Manchu alphabet was developed from the Mongolian script in the early 17th century to write the Manchu language. A variant is still used to write Xibe. It is also used for Daur. Its folded variant may for example be found on Chinese Qing seals.
Another alphabet, sometimes called Vagindra or Vaghintara, was created in 1905 by the Buryat monk Agvan Dorjiev (1854–1938). It was also meant to reduce ambiguity, and to support the Russian language in addition to Mongolian. The most significant change, however, was the elimination of the positional shape variations. All letters were based on the medial variant of the original Mongol alphabet. Fewer than a dozen books were printed using it.
The Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor erroneously identified the Khitan people and their language with the Solons, leading him to use the Solon language (Evenki) to "correct" Chinese character transcriptions of Khitan names in the History of Liao in his "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" (欽定遼金元三史國語解/钦定辽金元三史国语解 Qīndìng Liáo Jīn Yuán Sānshǐ Guóyǔjiě) project. The Evenki words were written in the Manchu script in this work.
In the 1980s, an experimental alphabet for Evenki was created.
In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Аюуш гүүш) created the Galik alphabet (Али-гали), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (compare table above).
Mongolian script was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0.
The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800–U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660–U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Although the Mongolian script has been defined in Unicode since 1999, there was no native support for Unicode Mongolian from the major vendors until the release of the Windows Vista operating system in 2007 and fonts need to be installed in Windows XP and Windows 2000 to show properly, and so Unicode Mongolian is not yet widely used. In China, legacy encodings such as the Private Use Areas (PUA) Unicode mappings and GB18030 mappings of the Menksoft IMEs (espc. Menksoft Mongolian IME) are more commonly used than Unicode for writing web pages and electronic documents in Mongolian.
The inclusion of a Unicode Mongolian font and keyboard layout in Windows Vista has meant that Unicode Mongolian is now gradually becoming more popular, but the complexity of the Unicode Mongolian encoding model and the lack of a clear definition for the use variation selectors are still barriers to its widespread adoption, as is the lack of support for inline vertical display. As of 2015 there are no fonts that successfully display all of Mongolian correctly when written in Unicode. A report published in 2011 revealed many shortcomings with automatic rendering in all three Unicode Mongolian fonts the authors surveyed, including Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti.
Furthermore, Mongolian language support has suffered from buggy implementations: the initial version of Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti font (version 5.00) was, in the supplier's own words, "almost unusable", and as of 2011 there remain some minor bugs with the rendering of suffixes in Firefox. Other fonts, such as MonoType's Mongol Usug and Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript, suffer even more serious bugs.
In January 2013, Menksoft released several OpenType Mongolian fonts, delivered with its Menksoft Mongolian IME 2012. These fonts strictly follow Unicode standard, i.e. bichig is no longer realized as "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2" (incorrect) but "B+I+CH+I+G" (correct), which is not done by Microsoft and Founder's Mongolian Baiti, MonoType's Mongol Usug, or Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript. However, due to the impact of Mongolian Baiti, many still use the Microsoft defined incorrect realization "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2", which results in an incorrect rendering in correctly-designed fonts like Menk Qagan Tig.
- Campbell, George L. (1997). Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415183444.
- György Kara, "Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages", in Daniels & Bright The World's Writing Systems, 1994.
- Chinggeltei. (1963) A Grammar of the Mongol Language. New York, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. p. 15.
- "Unicode Technical Report #2". ftp.tc.edu.tw. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
- "Mongolian Traditional Script". cjvlang.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
- "Digitales Turfanarchiv". turfan.bbaw.de. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
- Library, Harvard-Yenching; Adolphson, Mikael S. (2003). Treasures of the Yenching: Seventy-fifth Anniversity of the Harvard-Yenching Library : Exhibition Catalogue. Chinese University Press. ISBN 9789629961022.
- commons:File:Mongolia letter of independence 1912 p1.png
- Bat-Ireedui, Jantsangiyn; Sanders, Alan J. K. (2015-08-14). Colloquial Mongolian: The Complete Course for Beginners. Routledge. ISBN 9781317305989.
- Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447006842.
- Grønbech, Kaare; Krueger, John Richard (1993). An Introduction to Classical (literary) Mongolian: Introduction, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447032988.
- "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). w.colips.org. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- by Manchu convention
- in Inner Mongolia.
- Svantesson, Jan-Olof (2005). The Phonology of Mongolian. https://media.turuz.com/Language/2012/0122-(5)moghol_(monqol)_dilinin_ses_bilimi-fonoloji(18.163KB).pdf#page=61: Oxford University Press. pp. 40–42. ISBN 0199260176.
- Janhunen, Juha (2006-01-27). The Mongolic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781135796891.
- "The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 – Core Specification: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- "Mongolian / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ Moŋġol" (PDF). www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2017-11-18.
- http://andreasviklund.com/, Original design: Andreas Viklund -. "Lingua Mongolia - Mongolian Grammar". www.linguamongolia.com. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
- "PROPOSAL Encode Mongolian Suffix Connector (U+180F) To Replace Narrow Non-Breaking Space (U+202F)" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "The Mongolian Script" (PDF). Lingua Mongolia.
- Janhunen, Juha A. (2012). Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027238200.
- "Writing | Study Mongolian". www.studymongolian.net. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
- Daniels, Peter T. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195079937.
- Clauson, Gerard (2005-11-04). Studies in Turkic and Mongolic Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN 9781134430123.
- "Retrieval in Texts with Traditional Mongolian Script Realizing Unicoded Traditional Mongolian Digital Library (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
- Baumann, Brian Gregory (2008). Divine Knowledge: Buddhist Mathematics According to the Anonymous Manual of Mongolian Astrology and Divination. BRILL. ISBN 9004155759.
- "Mongolian transliterations" (PDF). Institute of the Estonian Language.
- "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-17.
- "Mongolian State Dictionary". mongoltoli.mn. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
- Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party emblem
- Arghun Letter To Philippe Le Bel, in Mongolian language and script, Extract, 1289 ink on parchment 185 × 25 cm (72.8 × 9.8 in)
- Letter from Arghun, Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate, to Pope Nicholas IV, 1290.
- Letter from Oljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305.
- Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (2014), "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (3): 261–282, doi:10.1017/s0025100314000267
- "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭᠠ - ᠮᠤᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌". www.mongolfont.com. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
- Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). ""Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl."". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.
- Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4.
- Biligsaikhan Batjargal; et al. (2011). "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). International Journal of Asian Language Processing. 21 (1): 23–43. Retrieved 2011-09-10.
- Version 5.00 of the Mongolian Baiti font may be displayed incorrectly in Windows Vista
- Bug 490534 - ZWJ and NNBSP rendered incorrectly in scripts like Mongolian
- Menk Qagan Tig, Menk Hawang Tig, Menk Garqag Tig, Menk Har_a Tig, and Menk Scnin Tig.
- "CTAN: Package montex". ctan.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mongolian script.|
- CJVlang: Making Sense of the Traditional Mongolian Script
- StudyMongolian: Written forms with audio pronunciation
- Omniglot: Mongolian Alphabet
- The Silver Horde: Mongol Scripts
- Online tool for Mongolian script transliteration
- Automatic converter for Traditional Mongolian and Cyrillic Mongolian by the Computer College of Inner Mongolia University