Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them; some animals may scale trees only but others are arboreal. The habitats pose numerous mechanical challenges to animals moving through them and lead to a variety of anatomical and ecological consequences as well as variations throughout different species. Furthermore, many of these same principles may be applied to climbing without trees, such as on rock piles or mountains; the earliest known tetrapod with specializations that adapted it for climbing trees was Suminia, a synapsid of the late Permian, about 260 million years ago. Some animals are arboreal in habitat, such as the tree snail. Arboreal habitats pose numerous mechanical challenges to animals moving in them, which have been solved in diverse ways; these challenges include moving on narrow branches, moving up and down inclines, crossing gaps, dealing with obstructions. Moving along a narrow surface poses special difficulties to animals.
During locomotion on the ground, the location of the center of mass may swing from side to side, but during arboreal locomotion, this would result in the center of mass moving beyond the edge of the branch, resulting in a tendency to topple over. Additionally, foot placement is constrained by the need to make contact with the narrow branch; this narrowness restricts the range of movements and postures an animal can use to move. Branches are oriented at an angle to gravity in arboreal habitats, including being vertical, which poses special problems; as an animal moves up an inclined branch, they must fight the force of gravity to raise their body, making the movement more difficult. Conversely, as the animal descends, it must fight gravity to control its descent and prevent falling. Descent can be problematic for many animals, arboreal species have specialized methods for controlling their descent. Due to the height of many branches and the disastrous consequences of a fall, balance is of primary importance to arboreal animals.
On horizontal and sloped branches, the primary problem is tipping to the side due to the narrow base of support. The narrower the branch, the greater the difficulty in balancing a given animal faces. On steep and vertical branches, tipping becomes less of an issue, pitching backwards or slipping downwards becomes the most failure. In this case, large-diameter branches pose a greater challenge since the animal cannot place its forelimbs closer to the center of the branch than its hindlimbs. Branches are not continuous, any arboreal animal must be able to move between gaps in the branches, or between trees; this can be accomplished by gliding between them. Arboreal habitats contain many obstructions, both in the form of branches emerging from the one being moved on and other branches impinging on the space the animal needs to move through; these obstructions may be used as additional contact points to enhance it. While obstructions tend to impede limbed animals, they benefit snakes by providing anchor points.
Arboreal organisms display many specializations for dealing with the mechanical challenges of moving through their habitats. Arboreal animals have elongated limbs that help them cross gaps, reach fruit or other resources, test the firmness of support ahead, in some cases, to brachiate. However, some species of lizard have reduced limb size that helps them avoid limb movement being obstructed by impinging branches. Many arboreal species, such as tree porcupines, green tree pythons, emerald tree boas, silky anteaters, spider monkeys, possums, use prehensile tails to grasp branches. In the spider monkey and crested gecko, the tip of the tail has either a bare patch or adhesive pad, which provide increased friction. Claws can be used to interact with rough substrates and re-orient the direction of forces the animal applies; this is what allows squirrels to climb tree trunks that are so large as to be flat, from the perspective of such a small animal. However, claws can interfere with an animal's ability to grasp small branches, as they may wrap too far around and prick the animal's own paw.
Adhesion is an alternative to claws. Wet adhesion is common in tree frogs and arboreal salamanders, functions either by suction or by capillary adhesion. Dry adhesion is best typified by the specialized toes of geckos, which use van der Waals forces to adhere to many substrates glass. Frictional gripping is used by primates. Squeezing the branch between the fingertips generates a frictional force that holds the animal's hand to the branch. However, this type of grip depends upon the angle of the frictional force, thus upon the diameter of the branch, with larger branches resulting in reduced gripping ability. Animals other than primates that use gripping in climbing include the chameleon, which has mitten-like grasping feet, many birds that grip branches in perching or moving about. To control descent down large diameter branches, some arboreal animals such as squirrels have evolved mobile ankle joints that permit rotating the foot into a'reversed' posture; this allows the claws to hook into the rough surface of the bark.
Many arboreal species lower their center of mass to reduce pitching and toppling movement when climbing. This may be accomplished by altered body proportions, or smaller size. Small size provides many advantages to arboreal species: such as increasing the relative size of branches
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
A prehensile tail is the tail of an animal that has adapted to be able to grasp or hold objects. Prehensile tails can be used to hold and manipulate objects, in particular to aid arboreal creatures in finding and eating food in the trees. If the tail cannot be used for this it is considered only prehensile - such tails are used to anchor an animal's body to dangle from a branch, or as an aid for climbing; the term prehensile means "able to grasp". One point of interest is the distribution of animals with prehensile tails; the prehensile tail is predominantly a New World adaptation among mammals. Many more animals in South America have prehensile tails than in Southeast Asia, it has been argued that animals with prehensile tails are more common in South America because the forest there is denser than in Africa or Southeast Asia. In contrast, in less dense forest such as in Southeast Asia it is observed that gliding animals such as colugos or flying snakes are more abundant. South American rainforests differ by having more lianas, as there are fewer large animals to eat them than in Africa and Asia.
Curiously, Australia-New Guinea contains many mammals with prehensile tails and many mammals which can glide. Tails are a feature of vertebrates. However, only vertebrates are known to have developed prehensile tails. Many mammals with prehensile tails will have a bare patch to aid gripping; this bare patch is known as a "friction pad." New World monkeys. Many New World monkeys in the family Atelidae, which includes howler monkeys, spider monkeys and woolly monkeys, have grasping tails with a bare tactile pad; this is in contrast with their distant Old World monkey cousins. Opossum. A marsupial group from the Americas. There are videos of opossums using their prehensile tails to carry nesting material. Anteaters. Anteaters are found in South America. Three of the four species of anteater, the silky anteater and the two species of tamandua, have prehensile tails Binturong. One of the few Old World animals with prehensile tails, although they use only the tip of the tail. Kinkajou; the kinkajou of South and Central America is the only other animal of the order Carnivora, besides the binturong, to sport the adaptation.
Harvest mouse. Another old world mammal, the harvest mouse has a prehensile tail, it is found amongst areas of tall grasses such as cereal crops, roadside verges, reedbeds and salt-marshes. New World porcupines of the genera Coendou and Chaetomys have prehensile tails that help them to climb and prevent them from falling from trees. Tree pangolin. One of the few Old World mammals with a prehensile tail. Microgale longicaudata, an arboreal species of tenrec. Seahorses. Seahorses have prehensile tails, which they use to attach themselves to objects such as seagrass, sponges, corals, or man-made objects. New World monkeys; the capuchin monkey. The capuchin is more than intelligent enough to make full use of its prehensile tail, but since the tail lacks an area of bare skin for a good grip it is only used in climbing and dangling. Other reasons for partial prehensility might include the lack of strength or flexibility in the tail, or having no need to manipulate objects with it. Tree porcupines; the 15 species of tree porcupine.
They are found with one species extending to Mexico. All have prehensile tails. Rats have been known to be able to wrap the tail around an object after running around it, therefore giving the creature a small bit of balance, they have been seen to be able to hang off an object, though not for long. Possums; this large, diverse group of 63 species forms the marsupial suborder Phalangeriformes, found in Australia, New Guinea, some nearby islands. All members of the suborder have prehensile tails. Notably, all three marsupial glider groups belong to this suborder. Potoroidae. A marsupial group found in Australia that includes the potoroos, they have weakly prehensile tails. Monito del monte. A small South American marsupial with a prehensile tail. Prehensile-tailed skink. Several kinds of skink have prehensile tails. Chameleon lizards. Snakes. Many snakes have prehensile tails Crested gecko and their relatives have prehensile tails Urocoyledon rasmusseni. A gecko discovered in the Udzungwa mountains. Alligator lizard.
Some alligator lizards such as the southern alligator lizard, the Texas alligator lizard, the arboreal alligator lizards have prehensile tails. Salamanders. A number of North American forest-dwelling climbing salamanders have prehensile tails that help them climb; some are from the genus Aneides such as the clouded salamander, the wandering salamander, the arboreal salamander. Others are the cave salamander. There are the Central American Bolitoglossa sombra and Mexican and Central American Bolitoglossa mexicana salamanders. Syngnathidae. Many species from this group, which includes seahorses and pipefish, have prehensile tails. Canopy life More on canopy life
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains and the deserts and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Southern Ocean to the south; the Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes to the Atlantic, are considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia. Most geographers and historians locate the northern limit of Chilean Patagonia at Huincul Fault, in Araucanía Region; the name Patagonia comes from the word patagón, used by Magellan in 1520 to describe the native tribes of the region, whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed that the people he called the Patagons were Tehuelches, who tended to be taller than Europeans of the time; the Argentine researcher Miguel Doura observed that the name Patagonia derives from the ancient Greek region of modern Turkey called Paphlagonia, possible home of the patagon personage in the chivalric romances Primaleon printed in 1512, ten years before Magellan arrived in these southern lands.
The hypothesis was published in a 2011 New Review of Spanish Philology report. Argentine Patagonia is for the most part a region of steppelike plains, rising in a succession of 13 abrupt terraces about 100 metres at a time, covered with an enormous bed of shingle bare of vegetation. In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of fresh and brackish water. Towards Chilean territory the shingle gives place to porphyry and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, consisting principally of southern beech and conifers; the high rainfall against the western Andes and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica. Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal ones are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta, the Senguerr, the Deseado River. Besides these transverse depressions, there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo and Colhue Huapi, others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country.
In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau during the Cenozoic, cover a large part of the land with basaltic lava-caps. There, caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of ice aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, best in evidence where in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks which are uplifted by the Cenozoic granite, it separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, whose ridges are called the pre-Cordillera. To the west of these, a similar longitudinal depression extends all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera; this latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake basins along the Cordillera were excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil; the geological limit of Patagonia has been proposed to be Huincul Fault which forms a major discontinuity. The fault truncates various structures including the Pampean orogen found further north.
The ages of base arocks change abruptly across the fault. There have been discrepancies among geologists on the origin of the Patagonian landmass. Víctor Ramos has proposed that the Patagonian landmass originated as an allochthonous terrane that separated from Antarctica and docked in South America 250 to 270 Ma in the Permian era. A 2014 study by R. J. Pankhurst and coworkers rejects any idea of a far-travelled Patagonia claiming it is of parautochtonous origin; the Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Niolamia, identical with Ninjemys oweni of the Pleistocene age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents; the Patagonian Niolamia belongs to the Sarmienti Formation. Fossils of the mid-Cretaceous Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs, have been found in Patagonia, a model of the mid-Jurassic Piatnitzkysaurus graces the concourse of the Trelew airport.
Of more than paleontological interest, the middle Jurassic Los Molles Formation and the still richer late Jurassic and early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta formation above it in the Neuquén basin are reported to contain huge hydrocarbon reserves accessible through hydraulic fracturing. Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Cenozoic, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, the singular mammal Pyrotherium of large dimensions. In
Valdivian temperate rain forest
The Valdivian temperate forests is an ecoregion on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and extending into Argentina. It is part of the Neotropical ecozone; the forests are named after the city of Valdivia. The Valdivian temperate rainforests are characterized by their dense understories of bamboos and for being dominated by evergreen angiosperm trees with some deciduous specimens, though conifer trees are common. Temperate rain forests comprise a narrow coastal strip between the Pacific Ocean to the west, the southern Andes Mountains to the east, from 37° to 48° south latitude. North of 42°, the Chilean coastal range runs along the coast, the north-south running Chilean Central Valley lies between the coastal range and the Andes. South of 42°, the coast range continues as a chain of offshore islands, including Chiloé Island and the Chonos Archipelago, while the "Central Valley" is submerged and continues as the Gulf of Corcovado. Much of the ecoregion was covered by the Patagonian Ice Sheet and other glaciers at the peak of the last ice age, which descended from the Andes mountains, the numerous lakes of the Chilean lakes district in the central part of the ecoregion were glacial valleys, while the southern part of the region has many glacier-carved fjords.
To the north the Valdivian forests give way to the Mediterranean forests and scrub of the Chilean Matorral ecoregion. Some few Valdivian forests grows in northern Chile such as that one in Bosque de Fray Jorge National Park as remains of the last glacial maximum. To the south lies the Magellanic subpolar forests ecoregion; the temperate Valdivian and Magellanic ecoregions are isolated from the subtropical and tropical forests of northern South America by the Atacama desert north of the Matorral, the Andes mountains, dry rain-shadow Argentine grasslands east of the Andes. As a result, the temperate forest regions have evolved in relative isolation, with a high degree of endemic species; the forest of northwestern North America exist in similar settings but differ in not being connected to large inland forest like the boreal forest or the forest of the Rocky Mountains. Compared to the similar North American forest, the Valdivian temperate rain forest is richer in species, a characteristic, found when comparing with similar forest in Tasmania.
Since the forest is located at around 40 degrees south, it is influenced by the westerlies. The water vapour held by the westerlies condenses as they arrive at the higher part of the windward slope of the Andes, thus creating rainfalls. At the same time, the northward-flowing oceanic Humboldt Current creates humid and foggy conditions near the coast; the tree line is at about 2,400 m in the northern part of the ecoregion, descends to 1,000 m in the south of the Valdivian region. In the summer the temperature can climb to 16.5 °C, while during winter the temperature can drop below 7 °C. Average annual temperatures are uniform within the area at coastal locations where annual temperature differences between localities never exceed 7 °C; the Valdivian temperate rain forests are mixed forests. The Valdivian and Magellanic temperate rainforests are the only temperate rain forests in South America and one of a small number of temperate rain forests in the world. Together they are the second largest in the world, after the Pacific temperate rain forests of North America.
The Valdivian forests are a refuge for the Antarctic flora, share many plant families with the temperate rainforests of New Zealand and Australia. Half the species of woody plants are endemic to this ecoregion. Chusquea quila is a bamboo that grows in humid areas below 500 m, where Chusquea coleou becomes more dominant above. Chusquea quila can form pure stands called quilantales. Few plants can grow under this species. Other notable species are the nalca or Chilean rhubarb and the ferns Lophosoria quadripinnata and Blechnum chilense. Chile's national flower, the copihue is a pioneer species that grows in disturbed areas of the Valdivian rain forest; the maximum plant species richness is found at latitudes 40 to 43° S. There are four main types of forest ecosystems in the Valdivian ecoregion. At the northern end of the ecoregion are deciduous forests, dominated by two deciduous species of southern beech: rauli and roble; the second type are the Valdivian laurel-leaved forests, characterized by a variety of broadleaf evergreen trees, including Laureliopsis philippiana, Aextoxicon punctatum, Eucryphia cordifolia, Caldcluvia paniculata, Weinmannia trichosperma, with an understory of Myrceugenia planipes, the arrayán and other plants.
The third forest type is the Patagonian Andean forests, which are distributed at higher elevations along the Andes mountain front, are dominated by evergreen conifers, including the pehuén or monkey-puzzle and the alerce. The alerce looks like a giant sequoia, is a rival in longevity to the bristlecone pine, some with growth rings recording 3,625 years of local weather cycles. Closer to the treeline, the conifers give way to Andean scrublands of deciduous Nothofagus; the fourth and last type is the Northern Patagonian forests, which dominate the southern half of the ecoregion, with evergreen species such as the broadleaf Nothofagus dombeyi and Drimys winteri and the coniferous podocarps, including Podocarpus nubigenus. Distribution of plants follow Rapoport's rule with plant species distribution increa