In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three vectors. In the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system, they form a rectangular prism with a parallelogram as its base. Hence two vectors are perpendicular, while the third vector meets the other two at an angle other than 90°. There is only one monoclinic Bravais lattice in two dimensions: the oblique lattice. Two monoclinic Bravais lattices exist: the primitive monoclinic and the base-centered monoclinic lattices. In the monoclinic system there is a used second choice of crystal axes that results in a unit cell with the shape of an oblique rhombic prism. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices swap in centering type; the table below organizes the space groups of the monoclinic crystal system by crystal class. It lists the International Tables for Crystallography space group numbers, followed by the crystal class name, its point group in Schoenflies notation, Hermann–Mauguin notation, orbifold notation, Coxeter notation, type descriptors, mineral examples, the notation for the space groups.
Sphenoidal is monoclinic hemimorphic. The three monoclinic hemimorphic space groups are as follows: a prism with as cross-section wallpaper group p2 ditto with screw axes instead of axes ditto with screw axes as well as axes, parallel, in between; the four monoclinic hemihedral space groups include those with pure reflection at the base of the prism and halfway those with glide planes instead of pure reflection planes. Crystal structure Hurlbut, Cornelius S.. Manual of Mineralogy. Pp. 69–73. ISBN 0-471-80580-7. Hahn, Theo, ed.. International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A: Space Group Symmetry. A. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag. Doi:10.1107/97809553602060000100. ISBN 978-0-7923-6590-7
Events from the year 1646 in France Monarch – Louis XIV Regent: Anne of Austria 17 February – Pierre Le Pesant, sieur de Boisguilbert, lawmaker. 10 October – Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné, aristocrat 12 May – Énemond Massé, Jesuit missionary 14 June – Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé, admiral 22 June – Daniel Dumonstier, artist 27 June – Achille d'Étampes de Valençay, military leader and Catholic Cardinal 22 September – Jean François Niceron, mathematician 23 December – François Maynard, poet
Robert Murray Morris was a military officer in the U. S. Army and Union Army. From 1846, he served as a U. S. Army officer in the Mexican–American War and in the antebellum western frontier of the United States in the Regiment of Mounted Rifles, renamed 3rd Cavalry Regiment in August 1861 at the start of the American Civil War. From 1863 he served as a Major in the 6th Cavalry Regiment in the Civil War and afterwards in Texas and Kansas until his retirement in 1873. Robert Murray Morris was born in the District of Columbia on May 12, 1824, to Commodore Charles Morris and Harriet Bowen Morris, he entered the military academy of West Point, in July 1841 but resigned in January 1842. He was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the Regiment of Mounted Rifles May 27, 1846 serving in the Mexican–American War, where he was cited for "Gallant and Meritorious conduct" in the battles of Contreras and Chapultepec. Following the end of the war and evacuation of Mexico following the signing of the peace treaty, he took part in the 2,500-mile march of the Mounted Rifles to Oregon Territory from Missouri in 1849, where he served at Fort Vancouver from 1850–1851.
In 1853 -- 54 he served in Utah. He was subsequently stationed in New Mexico Territory and was stationed at Fort Craig when the American Civil War came to the territory in 1861. Morris commanded Companies C, G, K, Regiment of Mounted Riflemen in an engagement against a Confederate cavalry force led by Captain Bethel Coopwood, called the Skirmish near Fort Thorn, on September 26, 1861. Coopwood was camped along the west bank of the Rio Grande, 15 miles above Fort Thorn, as they were retreating southward from their victory at the Battle of Canada Alamosa. Morris had been ordered to the aid of the Union force at Canada Alamosa, but finding that force defeated he pursued and fell on Coopwood's camp in the morning following a night march from Canada Alamosa, he engaged the Confederates for several hours before withdrawing due to lack of ammunition. He led his Company in the Battle of Valverde where he was cited for "Gallant and Meritorious conduct." The Mounted Rifles were sent east and reorganized as the 3rd Cavalry, he was promoted to Major and assigned to the 6th Cavalry in 1863.
He was again cited for "Gallant and Meritorious conduct" for his actions in the March 31, 1865 Battle of Dinwiddie Court House in Virginia. Following the end of the Civil War, he was sent with his regiment to enforce Reconstruction and fight Indians on the frontiers of Texas, he served on the frontiers of Kansas, he retired from the U. S. Army in 1873 as a Brevet Lt. Colonel. Morris returned to live in Washington, D. C. until 1889, when he moved to Martha's Vineyard. He died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 7, 1896 and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington District of Columbia
Dryburgh Abbey, near Dryburgh on the banks of the River Tweed in the Scottish Borders, was nominally founded on 10 November 1150 in an agreement between Hugh de Morville, Constable of Scotland, the Premonstratensian canons regular from Alnwick Abbey in Northumberland. The arrival of the canons along with their first abbot, took place on 13 December 1152, it was burned by English troops in 1322, after which it was restored only to be again burned by Richard II in 1385, but it flourished in the fifteenth century. It was destroyed in 1544 to survive until the Scottish Reformation, when it was given to the Earl of Mar by James VI of Scotland, it is now a designated scheduled monument and the surrounding landscape is included in the Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland. David Steuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan Earl of Buchan bought the land in 1786. Sir Walter Scott and Douglas Haig are buried in its grounds, their respective tomb and headstone, along with other memorials, are collectively designated a Category A listed building.
The Premonstratensian order was founded by St Norbert of Xanten, firstly a canon at Xanten Cathedral. Unhappy with the way of life of his fellow canons, he left the Rhine lands for the diocese of Laon, in the north of France where the reforming Bishop Bartholomew was transforming his see into one, more apostolic. Bartholomew persuaded Norbert to form a canonical order at Prémontré, in Aisne in 1120 and while the order was Augustinian in form, the canons wore the white habit and not the black, they followed an austere monastic life, but had a duty to preach and teach to those on the outside of the monastery walls. The order spread across Europe with the Abbot of Prémontré becoming Abbot-General for all the daughter-houses. Before the first Abbot-General Hugh of Fosse died, one hundred and twenty abbots attended the annual general chapter; the Premonstratensians took on many of the methods of the Cistercians including land management and the use of lay-brothers to undertake the labour-intensive work of the communes.
Unlike the situation at nearby Melrose Abbey with its royal patronage, Hugh de Morville, although a wealthy noble, could not endow Dryburgh on the same scale as that of a monarch. However, it seems. Hugh gave the lands of Dryburgh containing the forests and accompanying waters. Beatrice gave the income from the church at Bozeat, Northamptonshire to the abbey as well as lands at Roxburgh that she bought for the purpose of subsequent donation. Hugh, in around 1162, like some other magnates of the period, turned his back on worldly affairs and entered the abbey-church, adopting the habit of the canons, he gave his elder son, his large Scottish estates while his younger son, received those in England. Hugh, the senior, died at Dryburgh Abbey that same year. Following Hugh's death, his son Richard carried on as patron to the abbey. However, in c. 1170 he founded the hospital of St Leonard near his castle at Lauder and sometime between 1169 and 1187, the abbey of Kilwinning in the lordship of Cunningham.
Although Kilwinning Abbey was built on a grand scale, it was inadequately provided for and so Richard ensured that some of the expense of its construction and upkeep was met from his holdings in Lauderdale. Richard de Morville's establishment of this second monastery ensured that both establishments would remain in a state of relative poverty. Dryburgh Abbey, despite this underfunding, managed to attract a continuous flow of novices to bolster the numbers of canons, so much so that by closing years of the 12th century the abbey was overcrowded necessitating the establishment of colonies. John de Courcy, the earl of Ulster installed a colony at Carrickfergus and a second at Drumcross but neither flourished in the longer term and this is put down more to the constant political convulsions throughout 13th century Ulster rather than any problems at the mother house. At the beginning of the 13th century, like its near neighbour Melrose Abbey, the abbey of Dryburgh commenced on a rebuilding programme on a grander scale, but building in stone against a background of an insecure income soon ensured that the construction work would not be completed quickly.
At this time, the monastery became embroiled in a series of legal proceedings regarding land ownership and tythe revenues resulting, in April 1221, in the Pope's legate having to spend some time at Dryburgh to adjudicate. The construction effort was protracted and endured into the 1240s and with debts continuing to mount to the point that David de Bernham, Bishop of St Andrews gave Abbott John permission on 21 April 1242 to appoint his canons as vicars to the supporting churches stating … since they have been burdened by grinding debts both on account of construction of the monastery and on account of other and various necessities. Pope Innocent IV granted to the abbey in 1246, on the anniversary of its consecration, an indulgence lasting forty days intended to attract visitors who would be generous with their alms-giving. Additionally, he provided a suspension of the requirements to create pensions and benefices that might deplete the abbey's revenues, imp
Denis Buzy was a French archaeologist who excavated the Tahunian culture at Wadi Tahuna near Bethlehem in 1928. Buzy was a Betharram Father and in 1933 published the Life of St. John the Baptist, the forerunner of our Lord. Denis Buzy was born at Bénéjacq, in the Basses-Pyrénées on March 22, 1883, he continued his studies in Rome where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy and theology and in 1911 in Holy Scripture. His career continued in Bethlehem from 1908 to 1935, where he began archaeological and biblical work, he conducted excavations of the Tahuna culture at Wadi Tahuna near Bethlehem in 1928. He was elected Superior General in 1935 of the Congregation of the Betharram Fathers, a position he held until 1958, he put his sons through World War II. He had the merit of instituting national seminars in Argentina and Italy where new vocations were born in a growing congregation, he organized the congregation in new provinces with missionary and educational activities in Thailand and French North Africa.
The Natal Open was a golf tournament in South Africa. It was part of the South African Tour; this list is incomplete 1925 Jock Brews 1926 Sid Brews 1927 Sid Brews 1928 No tournament 1929 Sid Brews 1930–1934 No tournament 1935 Bobby Locke 1936 Bobby Locke 1937 Sid Brews 1938 Otway Hayes 1939 Jock Verwey 1940–1945 No tournament 1946 Otway Hayes 1947 Eric Moore 1948 Otway Hayes 1949 Otway Hayes 1950 George Van Niekerk 1951 Sandy Guthrie 1952 Sandy Guthrie 1953 Bobby Locke 1954 1955 Denis Hutchinson 1956 Harold Henning 1957 Bruce Keyter 1958 Gary Player 1959 Gary Player 1960 Gary Player 1961 Alan Brookes 1962 Gary Player 1963 Sewsunker Sewgolum 1964 1965 Sewsunker Sewgolum 1966 Gary Player 1967 Cobie Legrange 1968 Gary Player 1969 Bobby Cole 1970 Bobby Cole 1971 Terry Westbrook 1972 Tienie Britz 1972 Bobby Cole 1974 Bobby Cole 1975 John Fourie