1.
Orthoclase
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Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar, is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock. The name is from the Ancient Greek for straight fracture, because its two planes are at right angles to each other. It is a type of potassium feldspar, also known as K-feldspar, the gem known as moonstone is largely composed of orthoclase. Orthoclase is a constituent of most granites and other felsic igneous rocks and often forms huge crystals. Typically, the pure potassium endmember of orthoclase forms a solution with albite. While slowly cooling within the earth, sodium-rich albite lamellae form by exsolution, the resulting intergrowth of the two feldspars is called perthite. The higher-temperature polymorph of KAlSi3O8 is sanidine, sanidine is common in rapidly cooled volcanic rocks such as obsidian and felsic pyroclastic rocks, and is notably found in trachytes of the Drachenfels, Germany. The lower-temperature polymorph of KAlSi3O8 is microcline, adularia is a low temperature form of either microcline or orthoclase originally reported from the low temperature hydrothermal deposits in the Adula Alps of Switzerland. It was first described by Ermenegildo Pini in 1781, the optical effect of adularescence in moonstone is typically due to adularia. The largest documented crystal of orthoclase was found in Ural mountains. It measured ~10×10×0.4 m and weighed ~100 tons, together with the other potassium feldspars, orthoclase is a common raw material for the manufacture of some glasses and some ceramics such as porcelain, and as a constituent of scouring powder. Some intergrowths of orthoclase and albite have an attractive pale luster and are called moonstone when used in jewellery, most moonstones are translucent and white, although grey and peach-colored varieties also occur. In gemology, their luster is called adularescence and is described as creamy or silvery white with a billowy quality. It is the gem of Florida. Orthoclase is one of the ten defining minerals of the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, nASAs Curiosity Rover discovery of high levels of orthoclase in Martian sandstones suggested that some Martian rocks may have experienced complex geological processing, such as repeated melting
2.
Crystallography
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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids. The word crystallography derives from the Greek words crystallon cold drop, frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein to write. In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography, X-ray crystallography is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography, the study of crystals was based on measurements of their geometry. This involved measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to other and to theoretical reference axes. This physical measurement is carried out using a goniometer, the position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net such as a Wulff net or Lambert net. The pole to face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its Miller index, the final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established. Crystallographic methods now depend on analysis of the patterns of a sample targeted by a beam of some type. X-rays are most commonly used, other beams used include electrons or neutrons and this is facilitated by the wave properties of the particles. Crystallographers often explicitly state the type of beam used, as in the terms X-ray crystallography and these three types of radiation interact with the specimen in different ways. X-rays interact with the distribution of electrons in the sample. Electrons are charged particles and therefore interact with the charge distribution of both the atomic nuclei and the electrons of the sample. Neutrons are scattered by the atomic nuclei through the nuclear forces, but in addition. They are therefore also scattered by magnetic fields, when neutrons are scattered from hydrogen-containing materials, they produce diffraction patterns with high noise levels. However, the material can sometimes be treated to substitute deuterium for hydrogen, because of these different forms of interaction, the three types of radiation are suitable for different crystallographic studies. An image of an object is made using a lens to focus the beam. However, the wavelength of light is three orders of magnitude longer than the length of typical atomic bonds and atoms themselves
3.
Crystal system
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In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups or crystals. Informally, two crystals are in the crystal system if they have similar symmetries, though there are many exceptions to this. Space groups and crystals are divided into seven crystal systems according to their point groups, five of the crystal systems are essentially the same as five of the lattice systems, but the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems differ from the hexagonal and rhombohedral lattice systems. The six crystal families are formed by combining the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems into one hexagonal family, a lattice system is a class of lattices with the same set of lattice point groups, which are subgroups of the arithmetic crystal classes. The 14 Bravais lattices are grouped into seven lattice systems, triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, rhombohedral, hexagonal, in a crystal system, a set of point groups and their corresponding space groups are assigned to a lattice system. Of the 32 point groups that exist in three dimensions, most are assigned to only one system, in which case both the crystal and lattice systems have the same name. However, five point groups are assigned to two systems, rhombohedral and hexagonal, because both exhibit threefold rotational symmetry. These point groups are assigned to the crystal system. In total there are seven crystal systems, triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, trigonal, hexagonal, a crystal family is determined by lattices and point groups. It is formed by combining crystal systems which have space groups assigned to a lattice system. In three dimensions, the families and systems are identical, except the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems. In total there are six families, triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, hexagonal. Spaces with less than three dimensions have the number of crystal systems, crystal families and lattice systems. In one-dimensional space, there is one crystal system, in 2D space, there are four crystal systems, oblique, rectangular, square and hexagonal. The relation between three-dimensional crystal families, crystal systems and lattice systems is shown in the table, Note. To avoid confusion of terminology, the term trigonal lattice is not used, if the original structure and inverted structure are identical, then the structure is centrosymmetric. Still, even for non-centrosymmetric case, inverted structure in some cases can be rotated to align with the original structure and this is the case of non-centrosymmetric achiral structure. If the inverted structure cannot be rotated to align with the structure, then the structure is chiral
4.
Euclidean vector
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In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector is a geometric object that has magnitude and direction. Vectors can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra, a Euclidean vector is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B, and denoted by A B →. A vector is what is needed to carry the point A to the point B and it was first used by 18th century astronomers investigating planet rotation around the Sun. The magnitude of the vector is the distance between the two points and the direction refers to the direction of displacement from A to B. These operations and associated laws qualify Euclidean vectors as an example of the more generalized concept of vectors defined simply as elements of a vector space. Vectors play an important role in physics, the velocity and acceleration of a moving object, many other physical quantities can be usefully thought of as vectors. Although most of them do not represent distances, their magnitude and direction can still be represented by the length, the mathematical representation of a physical vector depends on the coordinate system used to describe it. Other vector-like objects that describe physical quantities and transform in a similar way under changes of the system include pseudovectors and tensors. The concept of vector, as we know it today, evolved gradually over a period of more than 200 years, about a dozen people made significant contributions. Giusto Bellavitis abstracted the basic idea in 1835 when he established the concept of equipollence, working in a Euclidean plane, he made equipollent any pair of line segments of the same length and orientation. Essentially he realized an equivalence relation on the pairs of points in the plane, the term vector was introduced by William Rowan Hamilton as part of a quaternion, which is a sum q = s + v of a Real number s and a 3-dimensional vector. Like Bellavitis, Hamilton viewed vectors as representative of classes of equipollent directed segments, grassmanns work was largely neglected until the 1870s. Peter Guthrie Tait carried the standard after Hamilton. His 1867 Elementary Treatise of Quaternions included extensive treatment of the nabla or del operator ∇, in 1878 Elements of Dynamic was published by William Kingdon Clifford. Clifford simplified the quaternion study by isolating the dot product and cross product of two vectors from the complete quaternion product and this approach made vector calculations available to engineers and others working in three dimensions and skeptical of the fourth. Josiah Willard Gibbs, who was exposed to quaternions through James Clerk Maxwells Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, the first half of Gibbss Elements of Vector Analysis, published in 1881, presents what is essentially the modern system of vector analysis. In 1901 Edwin Bidwell Wilson published Vector Analysis, adapted from Gibbs lectures, in physics and engineering, a vector is typically regarded as a geometric entity characterized by a magnitude and a direction. It is formally defined as a line segment, or arrow
5.
Crystal
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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification, the word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος, meaning both ice and rock crystal, from κρύος, icy cold, frost. Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt, most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i. e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, a third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever. Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics, Crystals are often used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, and, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements. The scientific definition of a crystal is based on the arrangement of atoms inside it. A crystal is a solid where the form a periodic arrangement. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including almost all metals, ceramics, ice, rocks, solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids, also called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline. These have no periodic order, even microscopically, there are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids, most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure is characterized by its cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal, the symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack perfectly with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called space groups. These are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as cubic crystal system or hexagonal crystal system, Crystals are commonly recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles. Euhedral crystals are those with obvious, well-formed flat faces, anhedral crystals do not, usually because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid. The flat faces of a crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal. This occurs because some surface orientations are more stable than others, as a crystal grows, new atoms attach easily to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less easily to the flat, stable surfaces
6.
Orthorhombic crystal system
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In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. All three bases intersect at 90° angles, so the three lattice vectors remain mutually orthogonal, there are two orthorhombic Bravais lattices in two dimensions, Primitive rectangular and centered rectangular. The primitive rectangular lattice can also be described by a centered rhombic unit cell, there are four orthorhombic Bravais lattices, primitive orthorhombic, base-centered orthorhombic, body-centered orthorhombic, and face-centered orthorhombic. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices interchange in centering type, crystal structure Overview of all space groups Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Klein, Cornelis. Hahn, Theo, ed. International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A, Space Group Symmetry
7.
Prism (geometry)
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In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy of the first, and n other faces joining corresponding sides of the two bases. All cross-sections parallel to the bases are translations of the bases, prisms are named for their bases, so a prism with a pentagonal base is called a pentagonal prism. The prisms are a subclass of the prismatoids, a right prism is a prism in which the joining edges and faces are perpendicular to the base faces. This applies if the faces are rectangular. If the joining edges and faces are not perpendicular to the base faces, for example a parallelepiped is an oblique prism of which the base is a parallelogram, or equivalently a polyhedron with six faces which are all parallelograms. A truncated prism is a prism with nonparallel top and bottom faces, some texts may apply the term rectangular prism or square prism to both a right rectangular-sided prism and a right square-sided prism. A right p-gonal prism with rectangular sides has a Schläfli symbol ×, a right rectangular prism is also called a cuboid, or informally a rectangular box. A right square prism is simply a box, and may also be called a square cuboid. A right rectangular prism has Schläfli symbol ××, an n-prism, having regular polygon ends and rectangular sides, approaches a cylindrical solid as n approaches infinity. The term uniform prism or semiregular prism can be used for a prism with square sides. A uniform p-gonal prism has a Schläfli symbol t, right prisms with regular bases and equal edge lengths form one of the two infinite series of semiregular polyhedra, the other series being the antiprisms. The dual of a prism is a bipyramid. The volume of a prism is the product of the area of the base, the volume is therefore, V = B ⋅ h where B is the base area and h is the height. The volume of a prism whose base is a regular n-sided polygon with side s is therefore. The surface area of a prism is 2 · B + P · h, where B is the area of the base, h the height. The surface area of a prism whose base is a regular n-sided polygon with side length s and height h is therefore. The rotation group is Dn of order 2n, except in the case of a cube, which has the symmetry group O of order 24. The symmetry group Dnh contains inversion iff n is even, a prismatic polytope is a higher-dimensional generalization of a prism
8.
Parallelogram
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In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length, by comparison, a quadrilateral with just one pair of parallel sides is a trapezoid in American English or a trapezium in British English. The three-dimensional counterpart of a parallelogram is a parallelepiped, rhomboid – A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and adjacent sides are unequal, and whose angles are not right angles Rectangle – A parallelogram with four angles of equal size. Rhombus – A parallelogram with four sides of equal length, square – A parallelogram with four sides of equal length and angles of equal size. A simple quadrilateral is a if and only if any one of the following statements is true. Two pairs of opposite angles are equal in measure, one pair of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. Each diagonal divides the quadrilateral into two congruent triangles, the sum of the squares of the sides equals the sum of the squares of the diagonals. It has rotational symmetry of order 2, the sum of the distances from any interior point to the sides is independent of the location of the point. Thus all parallelograms have all the properties listed above, and conversely, if just one of statements is true in a simple quadrilateral. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and so will never intersect, the area of a parallelogram is twice the area of a triangle created by one of its diagonals. The area of a parallelogram is also equal to the magnitude of the cross product of two adjacent sides. Any line through the midpoint of a parallelogram bisects the area, any non-degenerate affine transformation takes a parallelogram to another parallelogram. A parallelogram has rotational symmetry of order 2, if it also has exactly two lines of reflectional symmetry then it must be a rhombus or an oblong. If it has four lines of symmetry, it is a square. The perimeter of a parallelogram is 2 where a and b are the lengths of adjacent sides, unlike any other convex polygon, a parallelogram cannot be inscribed in any triangle with less than twice its area. The centers of four squares all constructed either internally or externally on the sides of a parallelogram are the vertices of a square. If two lines parallel to sides of a parallelogram are constructed concurrent to a diagonal, then the parallelograms formed on opposite sides of that diagonal are equal in area, the diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into four triangles of equal area. All of the formulas for general convex quadrilaterals apply to parallelograms
9.
Bravais lattice
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This discrete set of vectors must be closed under vector addition and subtraction. For any choice of position vector R, the lattice looks exactly the same, when the discrete points are atoms, ions, or polymer strings of solid matter, the Bravais lattice concept is used to formally define a crystalline arrangement and its frontiers. A crystal is made up of an arrangement of one or more atoms repeated at each lattice point. Consequently, the crystal looks the same when viewed from any equivalent lattice point, two Bravais lattices are often considered equivalent if they have isomorphic symmetry groups. In this sense, there are 14 possible Bravais lattices in three-dimensional space, the 14 possible symmetry groups of Bravais lattices are 14 of the 230 space groups. In two-dimensional space, there are 5 Bravais lattices, grouped into four crystal families, the unit cells are specified according to the relative lengths of the cell edges and the angle between them. The area of the cell can be calculated by evaluating the norm || a × b ||. The properties of the families are given below, In three-dimensional space. These are obtained by combining one of the six families with one of the centering types. For example, the monoclinic I lattice can be described by a monoclinic C lattice by different choice of crystal axes, similarly, all A- or B-centred lattices can be described either by a C- or P-centering. This reduces the number of combinations to 14 conventional Bravais lattices, the unit cells are specified according to the relative lengths of the cell edges and the angles between them. The volume of the cell can be calculated by evaluating the triple product a ·, where a, b. The properties of the families are given below, In four dimensions. Of these,23 are primitive and 41 are centered, ten Bravais lattices split into enantiomorphic pairs. Bravais, A. Mémoire sur les systèmes formés par les points distribués régulièrement sur un plan ou dans lespace, hahn, Theo, ed. International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A, Space Group Symmetry. Catalogue of Lattices Smith, Walter Fox