A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is not a monogram. Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC; the earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities which issued the coins the first two letters of the city's name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters alpha and chi joined together. Monograms have been used as signatures by artists and craftsmen on paintings and pieces of furniture when guilds enforced measures against unauthorized participation in the trade. A famous example of a monogram serving as an artist's signature is the "AD" used by Albrecht Dürer. Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols; the IX monogram consists of the initial Greek letters of the name "Jesus Christ," "I" for Ιησούς, "X" for Χριστος.

The "IHS" Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is written as a cypher, but sometimes as a monogram. The most significant Christogram is the Chi Rho, formed from the first two letters of Χριστος; the symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of a military standard. Signum manus refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the Frankish Empire and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher. Monograms of the names of monarchs are used as part of the insignia of public organizations in kingdoms, such as on police badges; this indicates a connection to the ruler. However, the royal cypher, so familiar on pillar boxes, is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined. Royal monograms appear on coins surmounted by a crown. Countries that have employed this device in the past include Bulgaria, Great Britain, Russia and many German states.

Today, several Danish coins carry the monogram of Margrethe II, while the current Norwegian 1 Krone coin has the "H5" monogram of Harald V on the obverse. The only countries using the Euro to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco. In Thailand, royal monograms appear on the individual flag for each major royal family member. An individual's monogram is a fancy piece of art used for stationery, for adorning luggage, for embroidery on clothing, so forth; these monograms may have three letters. A basic 3-letter monogram has the initial of the individual's last name set larger, or with some special treatment in the center, while the first name initial appears to the left of it and the middle name initial appears to the right of it. There is a difference in how this is written for women. For example, if the individual's name is Mary Ann Jones, Jones is the surname the arrangement of letters would be thus: MJA, with the surname initial set larger in the center, the M for Mary to the left and the A for Ann to the right.

Traditionally, individual monograms for men are based on the order of the name. The name Kyle George Martin would be written. Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, for example on wedding invitations. Married couples may create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Alice Jones. However, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed. Linens, for example list the woman's given initial first, followed by the couple's shared surname initial and the man's given initial. Monograms can be found on custom dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions; some personal monograms have become famous symbols in their own right and recognizable to many, such as J. R. R. Tolkien's monogram; some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo with the letters of their acronym. For example, as well as having an official seal, the Texas Longhorns logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a "UT" monogram.

The New York Yankees baseball team uses a monogram on their ball cap insignia. The Consolidated Edison logo, with a rounded "E" nested inside a "C," has been described as a "classic emblem."The "VOC" monogram logo of the Dutch East India Company was the first globally recognized corporate logo.]] Many fashion companies have a monogram including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The connected "CC" company logo, created by Coco Chanel, is one of the most recognizable monograms internationally. Athletes have been known to brand merchandise with their monogram logo. A notable example of a royal monogram is the H7 monogram of King Haakon VII of Norway. While in exile during World War II, Haakon VII spearheaded the Norwegian resistance to the German occupation, H7 became a symbol used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity and loyalty to the King, adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement; the act of drawing or creating a H7 symbol in German-occupied Norway was punishable by imprisonment. In Poland during the war, the "PW" monogram was used as a resistance symbol, known as'The Anchor', due to its characteristic shape.

Its meaning varied, as the initials were useful for man


AMRO Bank was a major Dutch bank, created from the merger of the Amsterdamsche Bank and the Rotterdamsche Bank in 1964. Its name comes from the first two letters of the two originating banks, it went on to become one of the two main predecessors to ABN AMRO bank when it agreed to merge with Algemene Bank Nederland in 1991. The bank could trace its roots back to at least 1765 and both the Amsterdamsche Bank and Rotterdamsche Bank had a long complex history. AMRO bank was established in 1964 as the result of the merger of the Amsterdamsche Bank and the Rotterdamsche Bank, but the banks were not integrated until the following year; the Amsterdamsche Bank had been established in 1871 and had expanded from its base in Amsterdam to other cities in the Netherlands. It followed its main rival, the Rotterdamsche Bank, established in 1863, in acquiring other banks and financial institutions to create a national bank; as early as 1939 there had been plans to merge the two banks but the banks shelved these plans in anticipation of Dutch involvement in World War II.

It was not until 1964, that these plans were fulfilled. As soon as the AMRO Bank was set up, it set about gaining market share in business lending and factoring as well as in medium to long term credit. To do this it established the Nationale Bank voor Middellang Krediet business unit to provide medium to long term credit, it acquired companies such as Mahuko and Amstel Lease for its leasing business. The financing of factoring was brought together under the International Factors Nederland B. V. the oldest factoring company in the Netherlands. In the 1960s and 1970s, like many other banking companies, AMRO saw growth in retail banking and this became a much bigger part of the business, its wholesale banking was strengthened by the acquisition of Pierson, Heldring & Pierson in 1975. AMRO operated PHP as an independent unit under its existing name. Another acquisition was Utrecht based Bank Flaors & Ko, in existence since 1691; this bank was absorbed under the AMRO Bank brand. In 1967 AMRO Bank was one of the founders of the consortium bank Banque Européenne de Crédit à Moyen Terme based in Belgium.

The aim was create an entity, large enough to work at an international level. Soon after this, with their sights on European integration, AMRO Bank announced plans to collaborate with Belgian Generale Bank with the aim of building a European international bank. However, this project never managed to get off the ground, it was only when the Dutch Government announced that it was relaxing its merger rules for financial institutions that ABN and AMRO Bank were able to seize the opportunity to merge and to create a bank large enough to fulfill these ambitions. On 24 August 1990 ABN AMRO was created by the conversion of the shares of both banks into shares of the newly established ABN AMRO Holding N. V. Dutch gulden Economy of the Netherlands History of Banking

George Watsky

George Virden Watsky, better known mononymously as Watsky, is an American musician, record producer and author. He was featured on Season 6 of Russell Simmons Presents Def Poetry, his talents began to receive national and international acclaim in 2006 when he was the Youth Speaks Grand Slam Poetry Champion, was named Brave New Voices International Poetry Slam Champion. Watsky broke out as a rapper with his viral video "Pale kid raps fast" in 2011, he has released four studio albums: Cardboard Castles in 2013, All You Can Do in 2014, x Infinity in 2016, Complaint in 2019. He performs live shows with his backing band Créme Fraîche. Watsky is known for his appearances in Epic Rap Battles of History, as an author following the publication of How to Ruin Everything in 2016. George Virden Watsky was born in San Francisco, California, on September 15, 1986, the son of librarian Clare E. and psychotherapist Paul Norman Watsky. His maternal grandfather was Democratic politician Clement Woodnutt Miller.

He has a twin brother, Simon Jay Watsky, a helicopter pilot. He has described himself as "half Jewish" on his father's side. Watsky attended San Francisco University High Emerson College in Boston. Watsky started slam poetry at the age of 15; as a teen, he won around a dozen slams in the Bay Area, was on the team that took fourth place in the national contest in 2005. Watsky's poetry incorporates social themes. In 2006, in the midst of a lively performance to a sold-out crowd, Watsky likened politicians' behavior to a common bar pick-up line, won the night's top score, he appeared in Season Six, Episode Two of Def Poetry Jam that year, performing his poem "V for Virgin."Reviewing a 2008 performance at Brandeis University, Sarah Bayer wrote, "Skinny, quirky George Watsky was next, with the night's most innovative piece. Watsky, a sophomore at Emerson College and a member of the grand prize-winning team from San Francisco at the National Youth Poetry Slam in 2006, adjusted the microphone to different parts of his body, imitated the sound of rewinding tape and recited binary code in an altogether amusing performance."

In 2009, he was profiled in The Boston Globe. The album produced one successful single, known as Stupidass; the next year, he released the album Guilty Pleasures, which he made available as a free download on his website. Produced by Procrastination, Guilty Pleasures contains mashups between popular songs and those from his first album. On January 17, 2011, Watsky uploaded a video entitled "Pale kid raps fast" to YouTube, in which he performed a humorous original rap with rapid delivery over the instrumental of "Break Ya Neck" by Busta Rhymes; the video went viral due to support from Reddit and Philip DeFranco. It accumulated four million views within two days, exceeded 25 million views despite being unlisted by Watsky and the title being changed to "Watsky raps fast." He performed a modified version of the rap on The Ellen DeGeneres Show one week later. Being able to match the speed of the song's rapping was viewed as an Internet challenge, spawning covers by fellow rappers such as Mac Lethal, YouTube celebrities such as Hank Green and Bry.

On June 10, 2012, Watsky released a free mixtape entitled Nothing Like The First Time. The mixtape coincided with his first official tour of the same name beginning in July, featuring his touring band Créme Fraîche, with support from Dumbfoundead, it included dates in Chicago, New York City, Northampton, Atlanta and London. Watsky released Live! At the Troubadour, a mixed concert CD of his Los Angeles show from the Nothing Like The First Time tour, in August 2012, he started a production company with Brad Simpson called Steel Wool Media. In January 2013, Watsky announced he would be releasing a new album entitled Cardboard Castles on March 12, 2013. On the same date, he announced tour dates for the Cardboard Castles tour, which included dates in many major cities in the U. S. and Canada such as Austin, New Orleans, Orlando, D. C. Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, Toronto and New York City. Tour dates for Europe were released shortly after; the first single from the album, "Strong As An Oak" was released through Steel Wool Media on January 22, 2013.

The second single from the album, "Moral of the Story" was released on February 5, 2013. The third single, "Hey, Asshole" was released on February 19, 2013, features English singer Kate Nash; the album was released on March 12, 2013, through Welk Music Group, topping the iTunes Hip Hop Charts in the US, the United Kingdom due in part to a Twitter campaign. He went on his follow-up to the Nothing Like The First Time tour called "Sloppy Seconds." Watsky made a web-series with YouTube channel LOUD titled Watsky's Making an Album. It consisted of 9 main episodes and many behind the scenes and live videos from the Nothing Like The First Time tour; the web series was restarted on March 12, 2013, with the first episode of Season 2, coinciding with the release of h