A volume is a physical book in codex format. It may be printed or manuscript, the term may be used to identify a single book that is part of a larger collection. The term is used as an identifier for a sequence of periodicals. However, a school magazine might start each new volume at the beginning of the academic year, all issues published in the Nth term or year will be classified under the Nth volume
The work is usually peer reviewed. Poster sessions are particularly prominent at scientific conferences such as medical congresses, typically a separate room or area of a trade show floor is reserved for the poster session where researchers accompany a paper poster, illustrating their research methods and outcomes. Each research project is presented on a conference schedule for a period ranging from 10 minutes to several hours. Very large events may feature a few thousand poster presentations over a matter of a few days, Presentations usually consist of affixing the research poster to a portable wall with the researcher in attendance answering questions posed by passing colleagues. The poster itself varies in size according to guidelines from 2x3 feet to 4x8 feet in dimensions. Posters are often created using a program such as PowerPoint. Posters are often printed on a base and laminated with plastic to improve durability. Abstract management Academic conference Creating Effective Poster Presentations, North Carolina State University
A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity.
Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities.
By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the authors research and findings. In some contexts, the thesis or a cognate is used for part of a bachelors or masters course, while dissertation is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts. The term graduate thesis is used to refer to both masters theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the word dissertation can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term thesis is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work. The term thesis comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning something put forth, Dissertation comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning path. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers, an ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, and a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the different areas of study. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory, Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the research literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used. Degree-awarding institutions often define their own style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. Other applicable international standards include ISO2145 on section numbers, ISO690 on bibliographic references, some older house styles specify that front matter uses a separate page-number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals. They therefore avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the size and the page formatting. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a students dissertation, the committee members are doctors in their field and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense.
Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student, all the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach. At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers, a longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelors degree is sometimes called a major paper. High-quality research papers presented as the study of a postgraduate consecutive bachelor with Honours or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called thesis
Descriptions of preparations are called monographs. In a broader sense it is a work for pharmaceutical drug specifications. The term derives from Ancient Greek φαρμακοποιΐα, from φάρμακον drug, followed by the verb-stem ποι- make, in early modern editions of Latin texts, the Greek spellings φ, κ and οι are respectively written as ph, c, and œ, giving the spelling pharmacopœia. In UK English, the letter œ is rendered as oe, giving us the spelling pharmacopoeia, while in American English oe becomes e, the latter is considered to be precursor to all modern pharmacopoeias, and is one of the most influential herbal books in history. In fact it remained in use until about CE1600, a number of early pharmacopoeia books were written by Persian physicians. These included The Canon of Medicine of Avicenna in 1025, and works by Ibn Zuhr in the 12th century, the Shen-nung pen tsao ching is the earliest known Chinese pharmacopia. The text describes 365 medicines derived from animals and minerals. The first known work of this kind published under civic authority appears to have been that of Tang Dynasty in China, the treatise was written by several officials of Emperor Gaozong of Tang.
The pharmacopoeia contained 850 sorts of crude medicine, revising the treatises written by ancient Chinese pharmacists, a work known as the Antidotarium Florentinum, was published under the authority of the college of medicine of Florence in the 16th century. Also Vesalius claimed he had written some dispensariums and manuals on the works of Galenus and this work contains 224 original recipes by Michel De Villeneuve and others by Lespleigney and Chappuis. As usual when it comes to pharmacopeias, this work was complementary to a previous Materia Medica that Michel De Villeneuve published that same year. This was an effort to improve public health after an outbreak of the plague. Until 1617 such drugs and medicines as were in use were sold in England by the apothecaries. In that year the apothecaries obtained a charter, and it was enacted that no grocer should keep an apothecary’s shop. Of London and destroying all the compounds which they found unfaithfully prepared, thus crabs’ eyes, oyster shells, and coral were supposed to have different properties.
An attempt was made to further the older formulae by the rejection of superfluous ingredients. In 1809 the French chemical nomenclature was adopted, and in 1815 a corrected impression of the same was issued, subsequent editions were published in 1824,1836, and 1851. The first Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia was published in 1699 and the last in 1841, the first Dublin Pharmacopoeia in 1807, hitherto these had been published in Latin
Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides and it is becoming less common to see paper documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications, professionals educated in this field are termed documentalists. This field changed its name to information science in 1968, but some uses of the term documentation still exists, while associated ISO standards are not easily available publicly, a guide from other sources for this topic may serve the purpose. David Berger has provided several principles of document writing, regarding the terms used, procedure numbering and even lengths of sentences, etc. In general, these may involve document drafting, submitting, approving, distributing and tracking and it could involve creating content from scratch. Documentation should be easy to read and understand, if its too long and too wordy, it may be misunderstood or ignored.
Clear, Familiar words should be used to a maximum of 15 words to a sentence, only gender hyper neutral word should be used and cultural biases should be avoided. Procedures should be numbered when they are to be performed, Technical writers and corporate communicators are professionals whose field and work is documentation. Ideally, technical writers have a background in both the matter and in writing and managing content. Corporate communications includes other types of documentation that is required for most companies. Marketing Communications, MarCom writers endeavor to convey the companys value proposition through a variety of print and this area of corporate writing is often engaged in responding to proposals. Technical Communication, Technical writers document a companys product or service, Technical publication include user guides, installation an configuration manuals, and troubleshooting/repair/replace procedures. Legal Writing, This type of documentation is often prepared by attorneys or paralegals who could be in practice or retained as corporate council.
Compliance documentation, This type of documentation codifies Standard Operating Procedures, for any regulatory compliance needs, as for safety approval, financing, technical approval, there are many types of software and applications used to create documentation. SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION FOLDER A common type of software document written by software engineers in the industry is the SDF. The document can be a page, MS word document or other environment. They should contain a section, an interface section to detail the communication interface of the software
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the authors own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal, Essays are commonly used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays, while brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthuss An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries, essays have become a part of formal education. The concept of an essay has been extended to other mediums beyond writing, a film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles, and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways, one definition is a prose composition with a focused subject of discussion or a long, systematic discourse. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall, aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that the essay is a device for saying almost everything about almost anything, and adds that by tradition, almost by definition. Furthermore, Huxley argues that essays belong to a species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, the abstract-universal, In this pole we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays. make the best not of one, the word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to try or to attempt. In English essay first meant a trial or an attempt, for the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones.
Francis Bacons essays, published in form in 1597,1612. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, English essayists included Robert Burton and Sir Thomas Browne. In France, Michel de Montaignes three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay, in Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Libro del oregano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art, whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays
The Federal Register, abbreviated FR or sometimes Fed. Reg. is the journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules. It is published daily, except on federal holidays, the Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no restrictions on the Federal Register, as a work of the U. S. government. In essence, the Federal Register is a way for the government to announce changes to government requirements, the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, the Federal Register is the main source for the U. S. Both proposed and final rules are published in the Federal Register, a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking typically requests public comment on a proposed rule, and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed.
The public comments are considered by the government agency. The United States Government Manual is published as an edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on programs and activities, to purchase current or back print copies of the Federal Register, one may contact the U. S. Government Publishing Office. In each issue of the Federal Register, there is a subscription page, currently, a years subscription rate within the U. S. is US$929. Each individual issue may be priced from $11 to $33 depending on its pages, virtually every law library associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries. The Federal Register has been online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the side of regulations. gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present.
GovPulse. us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundations Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity, on July 25,2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse. us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives, on August 1,2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
A reference work is a book or periodical to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed, Reference works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end. The writing style used in works is informative, the authors avoid use of the first person. Many reference works are compiled by a team of contributors whose work is coordinated by one or more editors rather than by an individual author, indices are commonly provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some cases annually. Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias, bibliographies, many reference works are available in electronic form and can be obtained as application software, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or online through the Internet. A reference work is useful to its users if they attribute some degree of trust, in comparison, a reference book or reference-only book in a library is one that may only be used in the library and may not be borrowed from the library.
Many such books are works, which are, used briefly or photocopied from. Keeping them in the library assures that they always be available for use on demand. Some reference-only books are too valuable to permit borrowers to take them out, reference-only items may be shelved in a reference collection located separately from circulating items. Some libraries consist entirely, or to an extent, of books which may not be borrowed. An electronic resource is a piece of information that is stored electronically, general American Reference Books Annual, ARBA. Littleton, Col. Libraries Unlimited, 1970- Bergenholtz, H. Nielsen, S. Tarp, S. Lexicography at a Crossroads and Encyclopedias Today, printed Reference Material London, Library Association Katz, W. A. Introduction to Reference Work, 3rd ed.2 vols, new York, McGraw-Hill Nielsen, Sandro The Effect of Lexicographical Information Costs on Dictionary Making and Use. J. Walfords Concise Guide to Reference Material, Library Association ISBN 0-85365-882-X, p.19.
Books of Reference for School Libraries, an annotated list, 2nd ed. London, Library Association Malclès, Droz, 1950-58 Sheehy, E. P. et al. comps. Guide to Reference Books, 9th ed. Chicago, American Library Association, Supplement,1980 Totok, W. & Weitzel, aufl. hrg. von W. Totok, K. -H. Frankfurt am Main, Klostermann Day, walford, A. J. Walfords Guide to Reference Material
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published. Magazines are generally published on a schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a price, by prepaid subscriptions. At its root, the magazine refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles and this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at three, with the standard sizing being 8 3/8 ×10 7/8 inches. However, in the sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume. Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy, academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are generally professional magazines.
That a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense, magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. The subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a basis or by subscription. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics and this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed and this is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. This allows a level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertisers target audience.
This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, for the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International. The earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, the Gentlemans Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentlemans Magazine under the pen name Sylvanus Urban, was the first to use the term magazine, founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine
Robert Morison was a Scottish botanist and taxonomist. A forerunner of John Ray, he elucidated and developed the first systematic classification of plants, born in Aberdeen, Morison was an outstanding scholar who gained his Master of Arts degree from the University of Aberdeen at the age of eighteen. During the English Civil War he joined the Royalist Cavaliers and was wounded at the 1639 Battle of the Bridge of Dee during the Civil War. On recovering he fled to France when it became apparent that the cause was lost, in 1648 he took a doctorate in medicine at the University of Angers in Western France and from on devoted himself entirely to the study of botany. He studied in Paris under the guidance of Vespasien Robin, botanist to the king of France, on Robins recommendation Morison became director of the Royal Gardens at Blois, Central France, a post which he subsequently held for ten years. Earlier in 1621, Henry Danvers, 1st Earl of Danby had given Oxford University 250 pounds for the purchase of land for a Physic Garden.
At the same time, the earl bequeathed certain revenues to fund a chair in botany at the university, in 1669 Morison became the first professor of botany, a post that he held until 1683. In the year that he began teaching at Oxford, Morison published Praeludia Botanica, Morison was fatally injured by the pole of a carriage as he was crossing the street on 9 November 1683 and died the following day at his house in Green Street, Leicester-fields. He was buried in the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, Praeludia Botanica, p. PP7, at Google Books An octavo volume made up of, pp. 1–347, Hortus Regius Blesensis Auctus. Pp. 351–459, Hallucinationes Caspari Bauhini in Pinace, item Animadversiones in tres Tomos Universalis Historiae Johannis Bauhini, pp. 463–499, Dialogus inter Socium Collegii Regii Gresham dicti et Botanographum Regium. Plantarum Umbelliferarum Distributio Nova, per Tabulas Cognationis et Affinitatis, ex Libra Naturae observata et detecta, around 1737, in a letter to Swiss naturalist Albrecht von Haller, Carl Linnaeus wrote, Francis Wall