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Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac was an English theoretical physicist, regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century. Dirac made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation which describes the behaviour of fermions and predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics with Erwin Schrödinger "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory", he made significant contributions to the reconciliation of general relativity with quantum mechanics. Dirac was regarded by his colleagues as unusual in character. In a 1926 letter to Paul Ehrenfest, Albert Einstein wrote of Dirac, "I have trouble with Dirac; this balancing on the dizzying path between genius and madness is awful." In another letter he wrote, "I don't understand Dirac at all."He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, a member of the Center for Theoretical Studies, University of Miami, spent the last decade of his life at Florida State University.

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac was born at his parents' home in Bristol, England, on 8 August 1902, grew up in the Bishopston area of the city. His father, Charles Adrien Ladislas Dirac, was an immigrant from Saint-Maurice, who worked in Bristol as a French teacher, his mother, Florence Hannah Dirac, née Holten, the daughter of a ship's captain, was born in Cornwall and worked as a librarian at the Bristol Central Library. Paul had a younger sister, Béatrice Isabelle Marguerite, known as Betty, an older brother, Reginald Charles Félix, known as Felix, who committed suicide in March 1925. Dirac recalled: "My parents were distressed. I didn't know they cared so much I never knew that parents were supposed to care for their children, but from on I knew."Charles and the children were Swiss nationals until they became naturalised on 22 October 1919. Dirac's father was authoritarian, although he disapproved of corporal punishment. Dirac had a strained relationship with his father, so much so that after his father's death, Dirac wrote, "I feel much freer now, I am my own man."

Charles forced his children to speak to him only in French. When Dirac found that he could not express what he wanted to say in French, he chose to remain silent. Dirac was educated first at Bishop Road Primary School and at the all-boys Merchant Venturers' Technical College, where his father was a French teacher; the school was an institution attached to the University of Bristol. It emphasised technical subjects like bricklaying and metal work, modern languages; this was unusual at a time when secondary education in Britain was still dedicated to the classics, something for which Dirac would express his gratitude. Dirac studied electrical engineering on a City of Bristol University Scholarship at the University of Bristol's engineering faculty, co-located with the Merchant Venturers' Technical College. Shortly before he completed his degree in 1921, he sat for the entrance examination for St John's College, Cambridge, he passed and was awarded a £70 scholarship, but this fell short of the amount of money required to live and study at Cambridge.

Despite his having graduated with a first class honours Bachelor of Science degree in engineering, the economic climate of the post-war depression was such that he was unable to find work as an engineer. Instead, he took up an offer to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics at the University of Bristol free of charge, he was permitted to skip the first year of the course owing to his engineering degree. In 1923, Dirac graduated, once again with first class honours, received a £140 scholarship from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Along with his £70 scholarship from St John's College, this was enough to live at Cambridge. There, Dirac pursued his interests in the theory of general relativity, an interest he had gained earlier as a student in Bristol, in the nascent field of quantum physics, under the supervision of Ralph Fowler. From 1925 to 1928 he held an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, he completed his PhD in June 1926 with the first thesis on quantum mechanics to be submitted anywhere.

He continued his research in Copenhagen and Göttingen. In 1937, Dirac married Margit Wigner, he adopted Margit's two children and Gabriel. Paul and Margit Dirac had two children together, Mary Elizabeth and Florence Monica. Margit, known as Manci, visited her brother in 1934 in Princeton, New Jersey, from her native Hungary and, while at dinner at the Annex Restaurant, met the "lonely-looking man at the next table"; this account from a Korean physicist, Y. S. Kim, who met and was influenced by Dirac says: "It is quite fortunate for the physics community that Manci took good care of our respected Paul A. M. Dirac. Dirac published eleven papers during the period 1939–46.... Dirac was able to maintain his normal research productivity only because Manci was in charge of everything else". Dirac was known among his colleagues for his taciturn nature, his colleagues in Cambridge jokingly defined a unit called a "dirac", one word per hour. When Niels Bohr complained that he did not know how to finish a sentence in a scientific article he was writing, Dirac replied, "I was taught at school never to start a sentence without knowing the end of it."

He criticised the physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer's interest in poetry: "The aim of science is to

Stereo Styles

Stereo Styles by Lorna Simpson consists of ten instant film pictures placed on engraved plastic. This piece was created in 1988 and is located in a private collection; the ten individual images focus on the back of a young black woman’s head. Each image, all shot in black and white, shows the young woman modeling different hairstyles that would have been popular in the era. Accompanying these ten photos is ten descriptive words placed on a thin black strip, written in white cursive that read: ‘Daring,’ ‘Sensible,’ ‘Severe,’ ‘Long and Silky,’ ‘Boyish,’ ‘Ageless,’ ‘Silly, ‘Magnetic,’ ‘Country Fresh,’ and ‘Sweet.’ Simpson has added more depth and emotion to this piece by creating a drop shadow under each individual photograph. Lorna Simpson is a feminist photographer from Brooklyn, New York whose subject matter focuses on young African American women. Simpson’s works convey political messages that touch the controversial subjects of racism and sexism in modern America, she is noted for her tendency to not put a face to her subject, eliminating the documentary genre that her work is otherwise described as.

To take it one step further she adds degrading words to complement the photos. This technique is referred to as an anti-portrait, an artwork that engages with and resists traditional portraiture, her practices are meant to convey powerful messages, to “allude to grapple with portraits of the past to reimagine black women’s places in the visual dimensions of the American symbolic order.” Simpson is successful in creating a powerful piece out of Stereo Styles from the seriousness of the black and white to the undertone of sarcasm in the descriptive words written in the center. Through her layout and representation of the young woman in the ten photos, the principles of cosmetic advertising of the 1980s can be used as a reference of influence. Similar to lipstick layouts, where the names of the specific colors of lipstick are written under each individual tube. By using the advertisement format her piece transforms simple hairstyles into individual personalities through the use of photography and descriptive words.

However, where advertisement's product names are specific to one subject, Simpson's work does not provide a specific photo to a matching word. In this way, the viewer is able to form their own opinion of what hair style expresses the adjective best, it is thought that the ten different hairstyles represent a chronology that correlates to changes in physical condition and treatment. This layout is important to note because black women were not being used in advertisement for the hairstyles or personality traits that made them unique; the public was not avidly following the African American movement, making the transformation of hairstyles a message to society that things are beginning to change. Through both the transformative hairstyles and playful descriptors, a suggestion of black women’s efforts to make it in the professional work world shines through; this piece is meant to empower young black women to succeed in modern America but emphasizes the presence of racial controversies that need to be made aware of.

Lamm, Kimberly. "Portraits of the Past, Imagined Now." In Unmaking Race, Remaking Soul: Transformative Aesthetics and the Practice of Freedom, 122-124, 2008. Smith, Cherise. “Fragmented Documents: Works by Lorna Simpson, Carrie Mae Weems, Willie Robert Middlebrook at The Art Institute of Chicago.” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 24, no. 2: 249. Stokstad and Michael W. Cothren. "The International Scene since 1950." In Art History. 4th ed. Vol. 2, 1111. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2011. Wright, Beryl J. "Back Talk: Recoding the Body." Callaloo 19, no. 2: 397-413

Ordre du Mérite combattant

The Ordre du Mérite combattant was a ministerial order of merit of France created on 14 September 1953 to reward individuals who distinguished themselves by their service and dedication in the management of the moral and material interests of veterans and war victims. These individuals' applicable service could be working in the Ministry of Veterans and War Victims or for organizations and associations who work for veterans; the order was awarded the Ministry of Veterans and War Victims. The Order was deprecated by decree on 3 December 1963, superseded by the Ordre national du Mérite. Extant members may continue to wear their decorations; the Order has three classes: up to 150 awarded annually. Recipients must have completed 15 years of qualifying service. Officier, up to 100 awarded annually. To be eligible for promotion to officer, individuals must have been knights of the order for at least six years. Commandeur, up to 10 awarded annually. To be eligible for promotion to commander, recipients must have been officers of the order for at least four years.

The cross of the Ordre du Mérite combattant is a five armed cross. At the center of the cross is a ten-pointed star; the five longest points of the star are enameled in green. The five shorter arms of the star point in between the arms of the cross. In the center of the star is Marianne surrounded by the words RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE and MÉRITE COMBATTANT. On the reverse of the cross are two clasped hands in front of a sword. Around the edge are the words HONNEUR and DÉVOUEMENT.. The cross for knights is 40 mm in diameter and worn suspended from the chest. For officers, the cross is the same size but is silver-gilt and the suspension ribbon bears a rosette. For commanders the star is gilt but 56 mm in diameter and worn suspended from the neck; the ribbon of the order is 37 mm in diameter wide in green with 2 mm wide diagonal yellow rays spaced 11 mm apart. Marc Champenois. "Ordre du Mérite combattant". Les décorations Francaises. Retrieved 17 June 2019

2 + 2 + 1 = Ponderosa Twins Plus One

2 + 2 + 1 = Ponderosa Twins Plus One is the only studio album by American soul vocal group Ponderosa Twins Plus One. It was released in 1971 through Horoscope Records; the album was produced by Bobby Massey of The O'Jays and Michael Burton, a songwriter and a producer of All Platinum Records. The album spawned two singles, a cover of Sam Cooke's "You Send Me", "Bound". "You Send Me" became the band's most successful single release, both songs charted on Billboard's Best Selling Soul Singles chart. The track "Bound" was sampled by rapper Kanye West in his 2013 song, "Bound 2"; this was followed by a set of copyright infringement lawsuits by the ex-Ponderosa Twins Plus One member Ricky Spicer, directed at West and related parties. The same track was sampled in 2019 by Tyler, The Creator’s "A Boy Is a Gun", for which Bobby Massey received sample credits on; the album was reissued on vinyl in Japan by P-Vine Records in 1990. Andrew Hamilton of Allmusic compared the production work of Bobby Massey and Michael Burton, stating that "Massey's sides were the most interesting" Hamilton further stated: "He knew how to record them, Burton saddled them with a tinny, kiddie sound, a couple of his productions/compositions are far too strident for ears."

He noted the cover of Sam Cooke's "You Send Me," "Bound," "I Remember You," and "Dad I Love Her" as "album highlights." "Love You While You Wait" "Hey Girl" "Turn Around You Fool" "Touchdown" "That's What I'll Do" "Bound" "You Send Me" "Take Me Back" "Like The Big Boys" "Dad, I Love Her" "I Remember You" "Mama's Little Baby" Ponderosa Twins Plus OneAlfred Pelham Alvin Pelham Keith Gardner Kirk Gardner Ricky SpicerTechnical personnelBobby Massey - production Michael Burton - arrangement Singles 2 + 2 + 1 = Ponderosa Twins Plus One at Discogs

Beilby Porteus

Beilby Porteus, successively Bishop of Chester and of London, was a Church of England reformer and a leading abolitionist in England. He was the first Anglican in a position of authority to challenge the Church's position on slavery. Porteus was born in York on 8 May 1731, the youngest of the 19 children of Sarah Jennings and Robert Porteus, a planter. Although the Porteus family was of Scottish ancestry, his parents were Virginian planters who had returned to England in 1720 as a result of the economic difficulties in the province and for the sake of his father's health. Educated at York and at Ripon Grammar School, he was a classics scholar at Christ's College, becoming a fellow in 1752. In 1759 he won the Seatonian Prize for his poem Death: A Poetical Essay, a work for which he is still remembered, he was ordained as a priest in 1757, in 1762 was appointed as domestic chaplain to Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury, acting as his personal assistant at Lambeth Palace for six years. It was during these years that it is thought he became more aware of the conditions of the enslaved Africans in the American colonies and the British West Indies.

He corresponded with clergy and missionaries, receiving reports on the appalling conditions facing the slaves from Revd James Ramsay in the West Indies and from Granville Sharp, the English lawyer who had supported the cases of freed slaves in England. In 1769 Beilby Porteus was appointed as chaplain to King George III, he is listed as one of the lenten preachers at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall in 1771, 1773 and 1774. He was Rector of Lambeth from 1767–77, Master of St Cross, Winchester, he was concerned about trends within the Church of England towards what he regarded as the watering-down of the truth of Scripture and stood for doctrinal purity and opposed the anti-subscription movement, composed of theologians and scholars who, as he saw it, would have watered down cardinal Christian doctrines and beliefs and were in favour of allowing clergy the option of subscribing to the Thirty-Nine Articles. At the same time he was prepared to suggest a compromise of a revision to some of the Articles.

Always a Church of England man, he was, happy to work with Methodists and dissenters and recognised their major contributions in evangelism and education. In 1776, Porteus was nominated as Bishop of Chester, taking up the appointment in 1777, he lost no time in getting to grips with the problems of a diocese which had a vastly growing population within the many new centres of the Industrial Revolution, most of which were in the north-west of England, but where there were the fewest parishes. The appalling poverty and deprivation amongst the immigrant workers in new manufacturing industries represented a huge challenge to the church, resulting in vast pressure upon the parish resources, he continued to take a deep interest in the plight of West Indian slaves and campaigning against the slave trade and taking part in many debates in the House of Lords, becoming known as a noted abolitionist. He took a particular interest in the affairs of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts regarding the Church of England's role in the administration of the Codrington Plantations in Barbados, where around 300 slaves were owned by the Society.

Renowned as a scholar and a popular preacher, it was in 1783 that the young bishop was to first come to national attention by preaching his most famous and influential sermon. Porteus used the opportunity afforded by the invitation to preach the 1783 Anniversary Sermon of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to criticise the Church of England’s role in ignoring the plight of the 350 slaves on its Codrington Plantations in Barbados and to recommend means by which the lot of slaves there could be improved, it was an impassioned and well-reasoned plea for The Civilisation and Conversion of the Negroe Slaves in the British West-India Islands Recommended and was preached at the church of St Mary-le-Bow before forty members of the society, including eleven bishops of the Church of England. When this fell upon deaf ears, Porteus next began work on his Plan for the Effectual Conversion of the Slaves of the Codrington Estate, which he presented to the SPG committee in 1784 and, when it was turned down, again in 1789.

His dismay at the rejection of his plan by the other bishops is palpable. His diary entry for the day reveals his moral outrage at the decision and at what he saw as the apparent complacency of the bishops and the committee of the society at its responsibility for the welfare of its own slaves; these were the first challenges to the establishment in an eventual 26-year campaign to eradicate slavery in the British West Indian colonies. Porteus made a huge contribution and turned to other means of achieving his aims, including writing, encouraging political initiatives, supporting the sending of mission workers to Barbados and Jamaica. Concerned about the lot of the slaves as a result of the reports he received, Porteus became a committed and passionate abolitionist, the most senior cleric of his day to take an active part in the campaign against slavery, he became involved with the group of abolitionists at Teston in Kent, led by Sir Charles Middleton, soon became acquainted with William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson, Henry Thornton, Zachary Macaulay and other committed activists.

Many of this group were members of the so-called Clapham Sect of evangelical social reformers and Porteus willingly lent his support to them and their campaigns. As Wilberforce’s bill for the abolition of the slave trade was brought before the Bri

Brooklyn McLinn

Brooklyn L. McLinn is an American actor and former basketball player. Brooklyn McLinn was born in Inglewood, but was raised in Sherman Oaks, he grew up in a "two bedroom, one bathroom duplex" and had to share a room with three elder brothers. He started acting in school and studied hard to the point that he graduated high school by the age of 16, he played professionally overseas in Taiwan and Mexico. McLinn decided to pursue acting instead and booked roles on television advertisements such as Gatorade and Domino's Pizza, he made appearances on major television series such as Justified, Days of Our Lives, Hawthorne and Rules of Engagement. In 2019, McLinn joined the cast of Marvel's Cloak & Dagger for season 2. Brooklyn McLinn on IMDb