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Monomachus Crown

The Monomachus Crown is a piece of engraved Byzantine goldwork, decorated with cloisonné enamel, in the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, Hungary. It consists of seven gold plates depicting Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, his wife Zoe, her sister Theodora, two dancers and two allegorical figures; the piece has puzzling aspects. It was unearthed in 1860 by a farmer in what is now called Ivanka pri Nitre in Slovakia Nyitraivánka in Hungary. If it is a crown, it is, with the Holy Crown of Hungary of a few decades and the kamelaukion of Constance of Aragon, one of only three surviving Byzantine crowns. In 1860 a farmer near Nyitraivánka discovered the treasure while plowing; the objects passed to a member of the local landowning nobility, who sold them in four transactions to the Hungarian National Museum between 1861 and 1870, the last sale posthumously via a dealer named Markovits. Sold were the two smaller cloisonee medallions found with the crown plaques, with busts of the apostles Peter and Andrew.

These medallions lack holes for nails, unlike the gold plates. In the view of Magda von Bárány-Oberschall and most scholars they certainly do not belong to the Monomachus Crown; the general assumption was for long that the crown "seems certainly to be a female crown and was a gift to the wife of a Hungarian king", or to the king himself. In 1045 the Hungarian King Andrew I married Anastasia of Kiev, a daughter of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, whose brother Vsevolod I had been married to Irene, a daughter of Constantine IX since 1046. According to the traditional account, Andrew or his queen would have received the crown from Constantine IX at this juncture, he was in need of a new crown, since Henry III had captured the original crown from King Samuel Aba in 1045 after the Battle of Ménfő and had sent it back to Rome. According to popular legend this was the Holy Crown of Hungary, or some version of it, though it seems unlikely that any elements of the present crown are that old; the fact that Andrew, who had taken power near the end of September 1046, was first able to be crowned in February 1047 could by attributed to the need for a royal embassy to travel from Hungary to Constantinople and back in winter in order to bring the Monomachus crown to Hungary.

In 1057 the young King Solomon was crowned with this crown. Other different, possibilities have been suggested and are covered below. In 1057 Solomon was besieged by Geza I and escaped with the crown and treasure in the direction of Pozsony in order to seek the protection of his brother-in-law Emperor Henry IV. Soldiers of Geza apprehended him. Solomon barricaded himself behind the walls of Pozsony; when Henry IV launched an expedition in September 1074 to restore Solomon to the Hungarian throne, the army of the Emperor abandoned him and rode along the Valley of the Váh in the direction of Nitra and Šintava. This was a futile attempt to recover the buried crown near the ford of Ivanka pri Nitre; the seven gold plates are between 10 and 4.5 cm tall. They have asymmetrically cut holes whose size and arrangement suggests that the plates were connected by a fabric or leather band, it is possible. It is possible that the seven plates were fastened to a fabric cap; the coarse finish of the decoration, the low purity of the gold plates and the presence of errors in the depiction of the clothing and in the inscriptions are notable.

The central and largest plate shows Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, Byzantine Emperor from 1042 to 1055. A Greek inscription on the panel reads: Κῶνστάντινος Αυτοκράτο<ρ> Ρομεον ο Μονομαχο<ς>, Emperor of the Romans, the Monomachos. On the plate to his right on the plate to the left, her sister. On the smaller panels to the right and left of the Empresses are two dancing female figures; the smallest plates depict the personifications of two Virtues. The figures have halos on their heads and are surrounded by flowering vines and cypresses; the Emperor is depicted standing, with the labarum in his right hand and in his left the akakia, a fabric pouch which held dust and symbolised the transience of the material world. The Emperor's crown is decorated at its peaks with three balls; the Empresses wear the same crown. They hold a sceptre in their inner point to Emperor Constantine with their outer hand, he wears the ceremonial robes of a Byzantine ruler with ivy decoration and the loros and maniakion, Byzantine symbols of rulership.

The loros is a sash, richly decorated with gemstones and embroidery which wraps around the shoulders and hips. One end of the loros falls to his hem, the other is tied around it; the maniakion is a broad collar decorated with gemstones. The three members of the imperial family stand atop a suppedion. Both women wear the complete regalia of an Empress with the female version of the loros costume, including the shield-like thorakion hanging diagonally from a belt. Zoe, 64 years old in 1042 is depicted in an idealised way as a young woman, their inscriptions read: "Θέοδώρα ἡ ἐυσαιβεστατι Αυγουστα," Theodora the Most Pious Augusta and "Ζώη οι ευσαιβαῖστάτη Αυγουστα," Zoe the Most Pious Augusta. The Greek of both is full of errors; the two smaller plates depicting dancing women are identical rather than symmetrical. Their backgrounds are decorated with foliage, but th

Reading Express

The Reading Express were a professional indoor football team based in Reading, Pennsylvania. They were most a member of the United Conference of the Indoor Football League; the Express began play as an expansion team of the American Indoor Football League. The team was going to be named the Reading RiverRats, but passed on that name in favor of the "Reading Express." The RiverRats name and logo was moved to an AIFA team in Pittsburgh in 2007. The owners of the Express were Lisa Lavender, they played their home games at the Sovereign Center. On September 14, 2005, the Express were announced as an expansion team of the American Indoor Football League. On November 6, 2005, the Express named Ollie Guidry the teams first head coach. On Sunday, March 26, 2006, the Express won the AIFL's first overtime game 41-38 against the Johnstown Riverhawks on the road, as kicker Erik Rockhold booted the game-winning 45-yard field goal. On Friday, May 12, 2006, the Express managed to knock the Erie Freeze out of the #1 spot in the conference by getting revenge 59-48.

At the end of their inaugural year, the Express held the highest record in the AIFL's Northern Conference, at 12-2. This, was padded by two games against amateur outdoor franchises—the Cumberland Cardinals and a team known as the Philadelphia Scorpions, both of which were blowouts. In the opening round of the 2006 AIFL Playoffs, the Express managed to knock out the fourth-seeded Huntington Heroes with a 56-23 victory. In the Northern Conference championship game, they faced the second-seeded Canton Legends for the Northern Conference title and a chance to participate in the American Bowl; the Express got derailed as they got shut out in the second half and fell 44-24. Though they fell one game shy of the league championship, it wasn't a total loss, as wide receiver Carmelo Ocasio was named the 2006 Northern Conference Offensive MVP. In the 2007 season, now part of the AIFL's reorganized form, the Express built on their success in the previous season, finishing a league-best 14-2 in the regular season, defeating the Pittsburgh RiverRats 42-24 in the first round, defeating the Canton Legends 66-51 to claim the Northern Conference Championship and earn a trip to AIFA Championship Bowl I at the Florence Civic Center.

The Express got derailed yet again, losing to the Lakeland Thunderbolts 54-49. In the 2009 season, the Express had another fantastic season, finishing the regular season 11-3, defeating the Baltimore Mariners 50-20 in the first round, defeating the Columbus Lions 60-51 in the conference championship game to earn another berth in the AIFA Championship Bowl III in Casper, Wyoming; this time in the title game, the Express were overpowering and they defeated the Wyoming Cavalry 65-42 to win their first AIFA championship. On July 21, 2010, the Express announced that they would be promoting interim head coach/offensive coordinator, Chris Thompson, to head coach for the 2011 season. On August 18, 2010, the Express announced that will be leaving the AIFA and joining the Indoor Football League. Note: Statistics are correct through the end of the 2012 Indoor Football League season. Official Site of the Reading Express Express' 2006 Season & Results Official Site of the Reading Express Smokin' Hot Steam Team Express's 2007 Stats Express's 2008 Stats Express's 2009 Stats Express's 2010 Stats

Chimanbhai Patel

Chimanbhai Patel was an Indian politician associated with Indian National Congress and Janata Dal, a former Chief Minister of Gujarat state in India representing both those parties at various times. He was born on 3 June 1929 in Chikodra village of Sankheda Tehsil in Vadodara district, he was elected the first president of student union of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara in 1950. He has completed his Masters in Economics from that Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, he was elected to the Gujarat Legislative Assembly from Sankheda in 1967 and joined the Cabinet of Hitendra K Desai. He became the minister in the Cabinet of Ghanshyam Oza. On 17 July 1973, he replaced Ghanshyam Oza as the Chief minister of Gujarat, he served in that office till 9 February 1974. Chimanbhai Patel was forced out of office in the 1974 by the Nav Nirman movement on charges of corruption. After being expelled from the party, he helped in the formation of Janata Morcha government in the leadership of Babubhai J Patel.

He again became the chief minister on 4 March 1990 heading Janata Dal-Bharatiya Janata Party coalition government. On breaking of the coalition on 25 October 1990, he managed to retain his post with the help of 34 legislatures of Indian National Congress, he joined INC and continued till his death on 17 February 1994. He is the first Chief Minister who ushered development of ports of Gujarat and power plants by private parties as part of his industrialization master plan of Gujarat. During his second term he was the first Chief Minister of India to pass a bill for ban of cow slaughter and all sale of meat on all Hindu and Jain festival days, he died in office on 17 February 1994, aged 65. History of'Gujarat Ministry' from 1960 Chimanbhai Patel, the master strategist chiman patel Pulse of the people Conference on State Politics in India in the 1990s: Political Mobilisation and Political Competition, December 2004