West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Monongalia County, West Virginia
Monongalia County, known locally as Mon County, is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,189, making it West Virginia's third-most populous county, its county seat is at Morgantown. The county was founded in 1776. Monongalia County is included in the Morgantown, WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the largest county in North-Central West Virginia, it is part of the Pittsburgh media market. Monongalia County takes its name from the Monongahela River; the name Monongalia may be a misspelling of Monongahela. Alternatively, the conventional Latinate ending "-ia" may have been added to Monongahela. Monongalia County was formed in 1776 when Virginia's remote District of West Augusta was divided into three counties: Ohio and Monongalia, all named for their most prominent rivers. Ohio County encompassed most of the western region of the district bordering the Ohio River, including parts of what is now southwestern Pennsylvania. Yohogania County consisted of much of what is now southwestern Pennsylvania and the present counties of Hancock and the northern part of Brooke in West Virginia.
Monongalia County encompassed what are now the counties of Tucker, Randolph and Barbour in north-central West Virginia, as well as parts of what are now Washington and Fayette Counties in Pennsylvania. In 1780, in his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson gave the militia enrollment of what was the vast Monongalia County at 1,000 troops. Fayette County, Pennsylvania Greene County, Pennsylvania Marion County Preston County Taylor County Wetzel County I‑68 I‑79 US 19 US 119 WV 7 WV 43 WV 100 WV 218 WV 705 Monongahela River Cheat River Deckers Creek Cam Harker Spring Cheat Lake Dunkard Creek Aarons Creek As of the census of 2000, there were 81,866 people, 33,446 households, 18,495 families residing in the county; the population density was 227 people per square mile. There were 36,695 housing units at an average density of 102 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.22% White, 3.38% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 2.45% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races.
1.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 33,446 households out of which 24.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.80% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.70% were non-families. 31.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.20% under the age of 18, 23.40% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,625, the median income for a family was $43,628. Males had a median income of $33,113 versus $23,828 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,106.
About 11.30% of families and 22.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 96,189 people, 39,777 households, 20,032 families residing in the county; the population density was 267.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,238 housing units at an average density of 120.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.0% white, 3.6% black or African American, 3.1% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.7% were German, 17.1% were Irish, 13.0% were English, 11.0% were Italian, 7.5% were American, 5.0% were Polish. Of the 39,777 households, 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.6% were non-families, 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 29.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,167 and the median income for a family was $62,966. Males had a median income of $43,383 versus $32,164 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,116. About 8.6% of families and 21.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. In presidential elections since 1916, the winner of Monongalia County won West Virginia as a whole if the candidate in question lost the national election, such was the case in 1916, 1952, 1968, 1980, 1988. In 2008 however, Democrat Barack Obama narrowly won the county while Republican John McCain comfortably carried West Virginia, the first time since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 that the county failed to back the statewide winner; the county's public schools are operated by Monongalia County Schools. The county is home to West Virginia's largest university, West Virginia University, located in Morgantown.
Morgantown Westover Blacksville Granville Star City Brookhaven Cassville Cheat Lake Pentress National Register of Historic Places listings in Monongalia County, West Virginia Snake Hill Wildlife Management Area West Virginia University Murder of Skylar Neese Core, Earl Leml
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food. The word "bean" and its Germanic cognates have existed in common use in West Germanic languages since before the 12th century, referring to broad beans and other pod-borne seeds; this was long. After Columbian-era contact between Europe and the Americas, use of the word was extended to pod-borne seeds of Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, the related genus Vigna; the term has long been applied to many other seeds of similar form, such as Old World soybeans, chickpeas, other vetches, lupins, to those with slighter resemblances, such as coffee beans, vanilla beans, castor beans, cocoa beans. Thus the term "bean" in general usage can mean a host of different species. Seeds called "beans" are included among the crops called "pulses", although a narrower prescribed sense of "pulses" reserves the word for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain; the term bean excludes legumes with tiny seeds and which are used for forage and silage purposes.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization the term "BEANS, DRY" should include only species of Phaseolus. One is that in the past, several species, including Vigna angularis, mungo and aconitifolia, were classified as Phaseolus and reclassified. Another is that it is not surprising that the prescription on limiting the use of the word, because it tries to replace the word's older senses with a newer one, has never been followed in general usage. Unlike the related pea, beans are a summer crop that need warm temperatures to grow. Maturity is 55–60 days from planting to harvest; as the bean pods mature, they turn yellow and dry up, the beans inside change from green to their mature colour. As a vine, bean plants need external support, which may be provided in the form of special "bean cages" or poles. Native Americans customarily grew them along with corn and squash, with the tall cornstalks acting as support for the beans. In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously.
This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production. Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. In a form improved from occurring types, they were grown in Thailand since the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics, they were deposited with the dead in ancient Egypt. Not until the second millennium BCE did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean and transalpine Europe. In the Iliad is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor. Beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, still are today; the oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, dated to around the second millennium BCE. However, genetic analyses of the common bean Phaseolus shows that it originated in Mesoamerica, subsequently spread southward, along with maize and squash, traditional companion crops.
Most of the kinds eaten fresh or dried, those of the genus Phaseolus, come from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, lima and sieva beans, as well as the less distributed teparies, scarlet runner beans and polyanthus beans One famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people as far north as the Atlantic seaboard is the "Three Sisters" method of companion plant cultivation: In the New World, many tribes would grow beans together with maize, squash; the corn would not be planted in rows as is done by European agriculture, but in a checkerboard/hex fashion across a field, in separate patches of one to six stalks each. Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, would vine their way up as the stalks grew.
All American beans at that time were vine plants, "bush beans" having been bred only more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, the beans would provide much-needed nitrogen for the corn. Squash would be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field, they would be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, would shade the soil and reduce evaporation, would deter many animals from attacking the corn and beans because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult or uncomfortable for animals such as deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, etc. Dry beans come from both Old World varieties of New World varieties. Beans are a heliotropic plant. At night, they go into a folded "sleep" position; the world genebanks hold about 40,000 bean varieties, although on
Richard Hakluyt was an English writer. He is known for promoting the English colonization of North America through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America and The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoueries of the English Nation. Hakluyt was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Between 1583 and 1588 he was chaplain and secretary to Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador at the French court. An ordained priest, Hakluyt held important positions at Bristol Cathedral and Westminster Abbey and was personal chaplain to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, principal Secretary of State to Elizabeth I and James I, he was the chief promoter of a petition to James I for letters patent to colonize Virginia, which were granted to the London Company and Plymouth Company in 1606. The Hakluyt Society, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of voyages and travels, was named after him in its 1846 formation. Hakluyt's patrilineal ancestors were of Welsh extraction, rather than Dutch as is suggested.
Some of Hakluyt's ancestors established themselves at Yatton, must have ranked amongst the principal landowners of the county. A person named Hugo Hakelute, who may have been an ancestor or relative of Richard Hakluyt, was elected Member of Parliament for the borough of Yatton in 1304 or 1305, between the 14th and 16th centuries five individuals surnamed "de Hackluit" or "Hackluit" were sheriffs of Herefordshire. A man named Walter Hakelut was knighted in the 34th year of Edward I and killed at the Battle of Bannockburn, in 1349 Thomas Hakeluyt was chancellor of the diocese of Hereford. Records show that a Thomas Hakeluytt was in the wardship of Henry VIII and Edward VI. Richard Hakluyt, the second of four sons, was born in Eyton in Herefordshire in 1553. Hakluyt's father named Richard Hakluyt, was a member of the Worshipful Company of Skinners whose members dealt in skins and furs, he died in 1557 when his son was aged about five years, his wife Margery followed soon after. Hakluyt's cousin named Richard Hakluyt, of the Middle Temple, became his guardian.
While a Queen's Scholar at Westminster School, Hakluyt visited his guardian, whose conversation, illustrated by "certain bookes of cosmographie, an universall mappe, the Bible", made Hakluyt resolve to "prosecute that knowledge, kind of literature". Entering Christ Church, Oxford, in 1570 with financial support from the Skinners' Company, "his exercises of duty first performed", he set out to read all the printed or written voyages and discoveries that he could find, he took his Bachelor of Arts on 19 February 1574, shortly after taking his Master of Arts on 27 June 1577, began giving public lectures in geography. He was the first to show "both the old imperfectly composed and the new reformed mappes, globes and other instruments of this art". Hakluyt held on to his studentship at Christ Church between 1577 and 1586, although after 1583 he was no longer resident in Oxford. Hakluyt was ordained in 1578, the same year he began to receive a "pension" from the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers to study divinity.
The pension would have lapsed in 1583, but William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, intervened to have it extended until 1586 to aid Hakluyt's geographical research. Hakluyt's first publication was one that he wrote himself, Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America and the Ilands Adjacent unto the Same, Made First of all by our Englishmen and Afterwards by the Frenchmen and Britons. Hakluyt's Voyages brought him to the notice of Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Edward Stafford, Lord Howard's brother-in-law. At the age of 30, being acquainted with "the chiefest captaines at sea, the greatest merchants, the best mariners of our nation", he was selected as chaplain and secretary to accompany Stafford, now English ambassador at the French court, to Paris in 1583. In accordance with the instructions of Secretary Francis Walsingham, he occupied himself chiefly in collecting information of the Spanish and French movements, "making diligent inquirie of such things as might yield any light unto our westerne discoveries in America".
Although this was his only visit to Continental Europe in his life, he was angered to hear the limitations of the English in terms of travel being discussed in Paris. The first fruits of Hakluyt's labours in Paris were embodied in his important work entitled A Particuler Discourse Concerninge the Greate Necessitie and Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like to Growe to This Realme of Englande by the Westerne Discoueries Lately Attempted, Written in the Yere 1584, which Sir Walter Raleigh commissioned him to prepare; the manuscript, lost for 300 years, was published for the first time in 1877. Hakluyt revisited England in 1584, laid a copy of the Discourse before Elizabeth I together with his analysis in Latin of Aristotle's Politicks, his objective was to recommend the enterprise of planting the English race in the unsettled parts of North America, thus gain the Queen's support for Raleigh's expedition. In May 1585 when Hakluyt was in Paris with the English Embassy, the Queen granted to him the next prebendary at Bristol Cathedral that should become vacant, to which he was admitted in 1585 or 1586 and held with other preferments till his death.
Hakluyt's other works during his time in Paris consisted of translations and compilations, with his own dedications and prefaces. These
The Greenbrier River is a tributary of the New River, 162 miles long, in southeastern West Virginia, in the United States. Via the New and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 1,656 square miles, it is one of the longest rivers in West Virginia. The Greenbrier is formed at Durbin in northern Pocahontas County by the confluence of the East Fork Greenbrier River and the West Fork Greenbrier River, both of which are short streams rising at elevations exceeding 3,300 feet and flowing for their entire lengths in northern Pocahontas County. From Durbin the Greenbrier flows south-southwest through Pocahontas and Summers Counties, past several communities including Cass, Hillsboro, Fort Spring and Hinton, where it flows into the New River. Along most of its course, the Greenbrier accommodated the celebrated Indian warpath known as the Seneca Trail. From the vicinity of present-day White Sulphur Springs the Trail followed Anthony's Creek down to the Greenbrier near the present Pocahontas-Greenbrier County line.
It ascended the River to the vicinity of Hillsboro and Droop Mountain and made its way through present Pocahontas County by way of future Marlinton, Indian Draft Run, Edray. The first permanent white settlers west of the Alleghenies have traditionally been considered to have been two New Englanders: Jacob Marlin and Stephen Sewell, who arrived in the Greenbrier Valley in 1749, they built a cabin together at what would become Marlinton, but after disputing over religion, Sewell moved into a nearby hollowed-out sycamore tree. In 1751, surveyor John Lewis discovered the pair. Sewell settled on the eastern side of Sewell Mountain, near present-day Rainelle, they may well have been the first to settle what was called the "western waters" — i.e. in the regions where streams flowed westward to the Gulf of Mexico rather than eastward to the Atlantic. Colonel John Stuart, a Revolutionary War commander and pioneering western Virginia settler and settled the Greenbrier Valley and is known locally as the "Father of Greenbrier County".
At the age of twenty, Stuart was a member of the 1769 survey by citizens of Augusta County, which explored the wilderness of the Greenbrier Valley to the west in preparation for European settlement. The following year he built the first mill at Frankford. In 1774, he led a company of Greenbrier troops in the Battle of Point Pleasant at the confluence of the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers, he was among Lewisburg's first trustees and in 1780 he became Greenbrier County's first clerk, leaving many historic records behind. The Greenbrier is the longest untamed river left in the Eastern United States, it is used for recreational pursuits. Its upper reaches flow through the Monongahela National Forest, it is paralleled for 77 miles by the Greenbrier River Trail, a rail trail which runs between the communities of Cass and North Caldwell, it has always been a valuable water route, with the majority of the important cities in the watershed being established riverports. The river gives the receiving waters of the New River an estimated 30% of its water volume.
Over three-fourths of the watershed is an extensive karstic, which supports fine trout fishing, cave exploration and recreation. Many important festivals and public events are held along the river throughout the watershed. In honor of the river's use in the state's logging history, the West Virginia State Park, Cass Scenic Railroad in Cass has a car called "The Greenbrier River." According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Greenbrier River has been known as: Green Briar River Green Brier River Green Bryar River Greenbriar River O-ne-pa-ke O-ne-pa-ke-cepe Onepake Riviere de la Ronceverte We-o-to-we We-o-to-we-cepe-we Weotowe The unique karstlands of the Greenbrier River Valley — underlain by the Greenbrier Limestone Formation — constitute one of the world's densest sinkhole plains, with an average of 18 sinkholes per square kilometer. This green "moonscape" of collapsed craters is a unique problem for development as the ground is prone to subsidization, it is impossible to tell how large a cave system is by looking at the surface, developers build their structures too close to the open spaces beneath the ground.
There is no current karst protection plan for any of the counties that are involved with this problem. The aggregated caves and karst of the Greenbrier River Valley are among the world's Top Ten Endangered Karst Ecosystems as listed by the Karst Waters Institute in 2001. American vertebrate paleontology arguably began in the sub-watershed of Second Creek, a Greenbrier tributary. Bones discovered by saltpeter miners in Haynes Cave close to the river in Monroe County were sent to Thomas Jefferson, who identified them as a unknown species. Without a skull for identification purposes, Jefferson used the eight-inch claws as an identifying mark, named the skeleton, Megalonyx or "Great Claw"; the bones were positively identified as that of a giant ground sloth. The name "jeffersonii" was added to it in tribute. For years the sloth was mistakenly thought to be from another cave within the watershed, Organ Cave, but recent research indicates that Haynes Cave was the cave of origin; the Megalonyx jeffersonii is now the state fossil of West Virginia.
The West Virginia state gemstone is part of the Greenbrier River watershed: The Lithostrotionella, a fossilized form of coral, found in the Hillsdale Limestone group in Pocahonta
Native American tribes in Virginia
The Native American tribes in Virginia are the indigenous tribes who live or have lived in what is now the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States of America. All of the Commonwealth of Virginia used to be Virginia Indian territory. Indigenous peoples have occupied the region for at least 12,000 years, their population has been estimated to have been about 50,000 at the time of European colonization. At contact, Virginian tribes spoke languages belonging to three major language families: Algonquian along the coast, Iroquoian in the southern Tidewater region, Siouan above the Fall Line. About 30 Algonquian tribes were allied in the powerful Powhatan paramount chiefdom along the coast, estimated to include 15,000 people at the time of English colonization; as of January 29, 2018, Virginia has seven federally recognized tribes, the Pamunkey Indian Tribe, Eastern Chickahominy, Upper Mattaponi, Rappahannock and Monacan. The latter six gained recognition through passage of federal legislation.
The Commonwealth of Virginia has recognized these seven and another four tribes, most since the late 20th century. Only two of the tribes, the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, have retained reservation lands assigned by colonial treaties with the English colonists made in the 17th century; the state established an official recognition process by legislation. Federal legislation to provide recognition to six of Virginia's non-reservation tribes was developed and pushed over a period of 19 years. Hearings established that the tribes would have been able to meet the federal criteria for continuity and retention of identity as tribes, but they were disadvantaged by lacking reservations and by state governmental actions that altered records of Indian identification and continuity. In addition, some records were destroyed during earlier conflicts. From the 1920s, state officials arbitrarily changed vital records of birth and marriage while implementing the Racial Integrity Act of 1924; this resulted in Indian families to lose documentation of their ethnic identities.
In 2015 the Pamunkey were recognized as an Indian tribe by the federal government. Following nearly two decades of work, federal legislation to recognize the six tribes was passed on January 29, 2018; the first European explorers in what is now Virginia were Spaniards, who landed at two separate places several decades before the English founded Jamestown. By 1525 the Spanish had charted the eastern Atlantic coastline north of Florida. In 1609, Francisco Fernández de Écija, seeking to deny the English claim, asserted that Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón's failed colony of San Miguel de Gualdape, which lasted only the three months of winter 1526–27, had been near Jamestown. Modern scholars instead place this first Spanish colony within the US in Georgia. In 1542, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in his expedition to the continent first encountered the Chisca people, who lived in southwestern Virginia. In the spring of 1567, the conquistador Juan Pardo was based at Fort San Juan, built near the Mississippian culture center of Joara in present-day western North Carolina.
He sent a detachment under Hernando Moyano de Morales into present-day Virginia. This expedition destroyed the Chisca village of Maniatique, developed as the present-day town of Saltville, Virginia. Meanwhile, as early as 1559–60, the Spanish had explored Virginia, which they called Ajacán, from the Chesapeake Bay, while seeking passage to the west, they captured a Native man from the Paspahegh or Kiskiack tribe, whom they named Don Luis after they baptized him. They took him to Spain. About ten years Don Luis returned with missionaries to establish the short-lived Ajacán Mission. Native Americans killed all the missionaries. English attempts to settle the Roanoke Colony in 1585–87 failed. Although the island site is located in present-day North Carolina, the English considered it part of the Virginia territory; the English collected ethnological information about the local Croatan tribe, as well as related coastal tribes extending as far north as the Chesapeake. Little can be gleaned about specific native movements in Virginia before the European historical record opens.
So, archaeological and anthropological research has revealed several aspects of their worlds. They shared in earlier cultures of the region. Contemporary historians have learned how to use the Native American oral traditions to explore their history. According to the colonial historian William Strachey, Chief Powhatan had slain the weroance at Kecoughtan in 1597, appointing his own young son Pochins as successor there. Powhatan resettled some of that tribe on the Piankatank River. In 1670 the German explorer John Lederer recorded a Monacan legend. According to their oral history, the Monacan, a Siouan-speaking people, settled in Virginia some 400 years earlier by following "an oracle," after being driven by enemies from the northwest, they found the Algonquian-speaking Tacci tribe living there. The Monacan told Lederer, they said that before that innovation, the Doeg had hunted and gathered their food. Another Monacan tradition holds that, centuries prior to European contact, the Monacan and the Powhatan tribes had been contesting part of