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Monosodium glutamate

Monosodium glutamate known as sodium glutamate, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant occurring non-essential amino acids. Glutamic acid is found in tomatoes, cheese and other foods. MSG is used in cooking as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. MSG was first prepared in 1908 by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda, trying to isolate and duplicate the savory taste of kombu, an edible seaweed used as a base for many Japanese soups. MSG balances and rounds the perception of other tastes. MSG is found in stock cubes, ramen, stews, savoury snacks, etc; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has given MSG its recognized as safe designation. A popular belief is that MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort, known as "Chinese restaurant syndrome", but blinded studies show no such effects when MSG is combined with food in normal concentrations, are inconclusive when MSG is added to broth in large concentrations.

The European Union classifies it as a food additive permitted in certain foods and subject to quantitative limits. MSG has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. Pure MSG is reported to not have a pleasant taste until it is combined with a savory aroma; the basic sensory function of MSG is attributed to its ability to enhance savory taste-active compounds when added in the proper concentration. The optimum concentration varies by food; the sodium content of MSG, 12%, is about one-third of that in sodium chloride, due to the greater mass of the glutamate counterion. Although other salts of glutamate have been used in low-salt soups, they are less palatable than MSG. "MSG might promote healthy eating, hypothesizes, by not only making kale more delicious but letting you get away with using less salt."MSG is used and found in stock cubes, ramen, stews, savoury snacks etc. The ribonucleotide food additives disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate, as well as conventional salt are used with monosodium glutamate-containing ingredients as they seem to have a synergistic effect.

"Super salt" is a mixture of 9 parts salt, to one part MSG and 0.1 parts disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate. MSG is safe to consume. A popular belief is that MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort but blinded tests have found no good evidence to support this. International and national bodies governing food additives consider MSG safe for human consumption as a flavor enhancer. Under normal conditions, humans can metabolize large quantities of glutamate, produced in the gut in the course of protein hydrolysis; the median lethal dose is between 15 and 18 g/kg body weight in rats and mice five times the LD50 of sodium chloride. The use of MSG as a food additive and the natural levels of glutamic acid in foods are not of toxic concern in humans. MSG in the diet does not increase glutamate in the brain or affect brain function. A 1995 report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology for the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded that MSG is safe when "eaten at customary levels" and, although a subgroup of otherwise-healthy individuals develop an MSG symptom complex when exposed to 3 g of MSG in the absence of food, MSG as a cause has not been established because the symptom reports are anecdotal.

According to the report, no data supports the role of glutamate in chronic disease. High quality evidence has failed to demonstrate a relationship between the MSG symptom complex and actual MSG consumption. No association has been demonstrated, the few responses were inconsistent. No symptoms were observed. Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a blinded, placebo-controlled experimental design and administration by capsule, because of the unique aftertaste of glutamates. In a 1993 study, 71 fasting participants were given 5 g of MSG and a standard breakfast. One reaction occurred. A 2000 study tested the reaction of 130 subjects with a reported sensitivity to MSG. Multiple trials were performed, with subjects exhibiting at least two symptoms continuing. Two people out of the 130 responded to all four challenges; because of the low prevalence, the researchers concluded that a response to MSG was not reproducible. Studies exploring MSG's role in obesity have yielded mixed results. Although several studies have investigated anecdotal links between MSG and asthma, current evidence does not support a causal association.

Since glutamates are important neurotransmitters in the human brain, playing a key role in learning and memory, ongoing neurological studies indicate a need for further research. Food Standards Australia New Zealand MSG technical report concludes, "There is no convincing evidence that MSG is a significant factor in causing systemic reactions resulting in severe illness or mortality; the studies conducted to date on Chinese restaurant syndrome have failed to demonstrate a causal association with MSG. Symptoms resembling those of CRS may be provoked in a clinical setting in small numbers of individuals by the administration of large doses of MSG without food. However, such effects are neither persistent nor serious and are to be attenuated when MSG is consumed with

List of listed buildings in Cross And Burness, Orkney

This is a list of listed buildings in the parish of Cross and Burness in Orkney, Scotland. The scheme for classifying buildings in Scotland is: Category A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic. Category B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance. Category C: "buildings of local importance. Of these, 8 per cent were Category A, 50 per cent were Category B, with the rest listed at Category C. List of listed buildings in Orkney All entries and coordinates are based on data from Historic Scotland; this data falls under the Open Government Licence

Geoffrey Bibby

Thomas Geoffrey Bibby was an English-born archaeologist. He is best known for discovering the ancient state of Dilmun, referred to in Mesopotamian mythology as a paradise, he is considered to have been the pioneer of Arabian archaeology. Thomas Geoffrey Bibby was born on 14 October 1917, in Heversham, England. During the Second World War, he served the British intelligence agency. At one point, he was sent to join the Danish resistance, he studied archaeology at Cambridge University prior to World War II, but because he could find no work in that profession after the war, he lived in Bahrain and worked for the Iraq Petroleum Company from 1947 to 1950. On a return visit to Britain he met his future wife, whom he married in 1949. Through her he met the Danish professor Peter Vilhelm Glob and so acquired a position at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. In 1953, he and professor Glob led a Danish team of archaeologists to Bahrain; the team focused its excavations below the Qal'at al-Bahrain a large stratified tell on the northern shores of the country.

The site covered around 50 hectares and was dated to the Early Dilmun period, the first quarter of the second millennium BC. The team had found pottery from the pre-Early Dilmun period, dated to 2400 BC, to the Hellenic period of Bahraini history. Archaeologists have discovered a short length of the early Second-millennium city wall and the fragmented plans of six houses in the site; the team proceeded to excavate in Saar, Bahrain village, which led to the discovery of Saar temple which dated to the Dilmun era. Bibby wrote about stone and Bronze Age Europe the bog peoples of Denmark. Bibby, Geoffrey; the Testimony Of The Spade. Knopf. Bibby, Geoffrey. Four Thousand Years Ago: A World Panorama of Life in the Second Millennium B. C. Literary Licensing. ISBN 9781258075057. Bibby, Geoffrey, Carl. Looking for Dilmun. Midpoint Trade Books. ISBN 9780905743905. New York Times obituary on the Website of Cornell University Libraries. "Thomas Geoffrey Bibby." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

11 Nov. 2008