A barber is a person whose occupation is to cut, groom and shave men's and boys' hair. A barber's place of work is known as a "barbershop" or a "barber's". Barbershops are places of social interaction and public discourse. In some instances, barbershops are public forums, they are the locations of open debates, voicing public concerns, engaging citizens in discussions about contemporary issues. In previous times, barbers performed surgery and dentistry. With the development of safety razors and the decreasing prevalence of beards, in Anglophonic cultures, most barbers now specialize in cutting men's scalp hair as opposed to facial hair. In modern times, the term "barber" is used both as a professional title and to refer to hairdressers who specialize in men's hair. All hairdressers were considered barbers. In the 20th century, the profession of cosmetology branched off from barbering, today hairdressers may be licensed as either barbers or cosmetologists. Barbers differ with respect to where they work, which services they are licensed to provide, what name they use to refer to themselves.
Part of this terminology difference depends on the regulations in a given location. In the early 1900s an alternative word for barber, "chirotonsor", came into use in the U. S. Different states in the US vary on their licensing laws. For example, in Maryland, a cosmetologist cannot use a straight razor reserved for barbers. In contrast, in New Jersey both are regulated by the State Board of Cosmetology and there is no longer a legal difference in barbers and cosmetologists, as they are issued the same license and can practice both the art of straight razor shaving, other chemical work and haircutting if they choose. In Australia, the official term for a barber is hairdresser. Most would work in a hairdressing salon; the barber's trade has a long history: razors have been found among relics of the Bronze Age in Egypt. The first barbering services were performed by Egyptians in 5000 B. C. with instruments they had made from sharpened flint. In ancient Egyptian culture, barbers were respected individuals.
Priests and men of medicine are the earliest recorded examples of barbers. In addition, the art of barbering played a significant role across continents. Mayan, Iroquois and Mongolian civilizations utilized shave art as a way to distinguish roles in society and wartime. Men in Ancient Greece would have their beards and fingernails trimmed and styled by the κουρεύς, in an agora which served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily in 296 BC, barbershops became popular centres for daily news and gossip. A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, a young man's first shave was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, running shops that were favourite public locations of high society. Starting from the Middle Ages, barbers served as surgeons and dentists. In addition to haircutting and shaving, barbers performed surgery and leeching, fire cupping and the extraction of teeth.
Barber-surgeons began to form powerful guilds such as the Worshipful Company of Barbers in London. Barbers received higher pay than surgeons until surgeons were entered into British warships during naval wars; some of the duties of the barber included neck manipulation, cleansing of ears and scalp, draining of boils and lancing of cysts with wicks. Barbershops were influential at the turn of the 19th century in the United States as African American businesses that helped to develop African American culture and economy. According to Trudier Harris, "In addition to its status as a gathering place, the black barbershop functioned as a complicated and contradictory microcosm of the larger world, it is an environment that can bolster egos and be supportive as well as a place where phony men can be destroyed, or at least shamed, from participation in verbal contests and other contests of skill. It is an escape from nagging wives and the cares of the world, it is a place. It is a place, in contrast to Gordone's bar, to be somebody."
Barbershops from black barbers at first served wealthy caucasians. In the part of the century they opened barbershops in black communities for serving black people; the average shop cost $20 to equip in 1880. It was about ten by twelve feet. A hair cut in 1880 would cost shaving cost three cents. In the late 19th and early 20th century barbershops became a common business where people would go to have their hair cut by a professional barber with good equipment. People would play Board games, talk about recent events and farming business or gossip, they can sometimes be used for public debates or voicing public concerns. Most modern barbershops have special barber chairs, special equipment for rinsing and washing hair. In some barbershops, people can watch TV while the barber works. Despite the economic recession in 2008, the barbershop industry has seen continued positive growth. There was a trial that had barbers check high blood pressure in barbershops and have a pharmacist meet and treat the patient in the barbershop, w
Flora Finch was an English-born vaudevillian and film actress who starred in over 300 silent films, including over 200 for the Vitagraph Studios film company. Finch was born into a music hall and travelling theatrical family in London and was taken to the United States as a young child, she kept up the family tradition and worked in theatre and the vaudeville circuit right up until her 30s. She had her first film roles at the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company starting in 1908. There she worked with Mack Sennett and Charlie Chaplin amongst others. Starting in 1910 at Vitagraph, she was paired with John Bunny for the first of 160 popular shorts made between 1910 and 1915; these shorts, known as "Bunnygraphs", "Bunnyfinches", "Bunnyfinchgraphs", established Finch and Bunny as the first popular comedy team in films. The duo became a short-lived trio. After Bunny's death in 1915 she with less success, she started her own production company in 1916, released a film with the company the following year, but was never able to regain her popularity.
One of her best-known roles in the silent years was Aunt Susan in Paul Leni's The Cat and the Canary. She found film work in the sound era, but only in small supporting parts; the Scarlet Letter gave her one of her more substantial roles in sound films, she had a cameo in one of Laurel and Hardy's best-known films Way Out West. Her last film was The Women. Most of her films are now lost. Flora Finch died at the Good Samaritan Hospital in Los Angeles from blood poisoning, she was taken to the hospital. The infection spread beyond the actress lapsed into a coma from bronchial pneumonia. At the time of her death, she was working as a stock player at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. Sourcing: American Film Institute catalogue: Klepper, Robert K.. Silent films, 1877–1996: a critical guide to 646 movies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-2164-0. "Flora Finch, of the Vitagraph Company". Motion Picture Story Magazine. November 1913. P. 109. "Film Frolics Pictures to Produce Six Two-Reel Comedies Yearly Starring Flora Finch".
The Moving Picture World. 7 August 1920. P. 719. "Flora Finch'No Extra'". The Moving Picture World. 23 February 1924. P. 632. "Flora Finch". Variety. 10 January 1940. P. 54. Flora Finch on IMDb Flora Finch at Women Film Pioneers Project Literature on Flora Finch Flora Finch at Find a Grave
Newton Booth Tarkington was an American novelist and dramatist best known for his novels The Magnificent Ambersons and Alice Adams. He is one of only three novelists to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once, along with William Faulkner and John Updike. Although he is little read now, in the 1910s and 1920s he was considered America's greatest living author. Booth Tarkington was born in Indianapolis, the son of John S. Tarkington and Elizabeth Booth Tarkington, he was named after his maternal uncle Newton Booth the governor of California. He was related to Chicago Mayor James Hutchinson Woodworth through Woodworth's wife Almyra Booth Woodworth. Tarkington attended Shortridge High School in Indianapolis, completed his secondary education at Phillips Exeter Academy, a boarding school on the East Coast, he attended Purdue University for two years, where he was a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity and the university's Morley Eating Club. He made substantial donations to Purdue for building an all-men's residence hall, which the university named Tarkington Hall in his honor.
Purdue awarded him an honorary doctorate. Some of his family's wealth returned after the Panic of 1873, his mother transferred Booth from Purdue to Princeton University. At Princeton, Tarkington is said to have been known as "Tark" among the members of the Ivy Club, the first of Princeton's historic Eating Clubs, he had been in a short-lived eating club called "Ye Plug and Ulster," which became Colonial Club. He was active as an actor and served as president of Princeton's Dramatic Association, which became the Triangle Club, of which he was a founding member. According to Triangle's official history, Tarkington made his first acting appearance in the club's Shakespearean spoof Katherine, one of the first three productions in the Triangle's history written and produced by students. Tarkington established the Triangle tradition, still alive today, of producing students' plays. Tarkington returned to the Triangle stage as Cassius in the 1893 production of a play he co-authored,The Honorable Julius Caesar.
He edited Princeton's Nassau Literary Magazine, known more as The Nassau Lit. While an undergraduate, he socialized with Woodrow Wilson, an associate graduate member of the Ivy Club. Wilson returned to Princeton as a member of the political science faculty shortly before Tarkington matriculated. Tarkington failed to earn his undergraduate A. B. because of missing a single course in the classics. His place within campus society was determined, he was voted "most popular" by the class of 1893. In his adult life, he was twice asked to return to Princeton for the conferral of honorary degrees, an A. M. in 1899 and a Litt. D. in 1918. The conferral of more than one honorary degree on an alumnus of Princeton University remains a university record. While Tarkington never earned a college degree, he was accorded many awards recognizing and honoring his skills and accomplishments as an author, he won the Pulitzer Prize in fiction twice, in 1919 and 1922, for his novels The Magnificent Ambersons and Alice Adams.
In 1921 booksellers rated him "the most significant contemporary American author" in a poll conducted by Publishers' Weekly. He won the O. Henry Memorial Award in 1931 for his short story "Cider of Normandy", his works appeared on best sellers lists throughout his life. In addition to his honorary doctorate from Purdue, his honorary masters and doctorate from Princeton, Tarkington was awarded an honorary doctorate from Columbia University, the administrator of the Pulitzer Prize, several other universities. Many aspects of Tarkington's Princeton years and adult life were paralleled by the life of another writer, fellow Princetonian F. Scott Fitzgerald. Tarkington was an unabashed Midwestern regionalist and set much of his fiction in his native Indiana. In 1902, he served one term in the Indiana House of Representatives as a Republican. Tarkington saw such public service as a responsibility of gentlemen in his socio-economic class, consistent with his family's extensive record of public service.
This experience provided the foundation for his book In the Arena: Stories of Political Life. While his service as an Indiana legislator was his only official public service position, he remained politically conservative his entire life, he supported Prohibition, opposed FDR, worked against FDR's New Deal. Tarkington was one of the more popular American novelists of his time, his The Two Vanrevels and Mary's Neck appeared on the annual best-seller lists a total of nine times. The Penrod novels depict a typical upper-middle class American boy of 1910 vintage, revealing a fine, bookish sense of American humor. At one time, his Penrod series was as well known as Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. Much of Tarkington's work consists of satirical and observed studies of the American class system and its foibles, he himself came from a patrician Midwestern family that lost much of its wealth after the Panic of 1873. Today, he is best known for his novel The Magnificent Ambersons, which Orson Welles filmed in 1942.
It is included in the Modern Library's list of top-100 novels. The second volume in Tarkington's Growth trilogy, it contrasted the decline of the "old money" Amberson dynasty with the rise of "new money" industrial tycoons in the years between the American Civil War and World War I. Tarkington dramatized several of his novels, he collaborated with Harry Leon Wilson to write three plays. In 1928, he published a book of reminiscences, The World Does Move, he illustrated the books of others, including a 1933 reprint of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, as well as his own. He took a close in
Natacha Rambova was an American film costume designer and set designer, occasional actress, active in Hollywood in the 1920s. In her life, she abandoned design to pursue other interests Egyptology, a subject on which she became a published scholar in the 1950s. Born into a prominent Mormon family in Salt Lake City, Rambova was raised in San Francisco and educated in England before beginning her career as a dancer, performing under Russian ballet choreographer Theodore Kosloff in New York City, she relocated to Los Angeles at age 19, where she became an established costume designer for Hollywood film productions. It was there she became acquainted with actor Rudolph Valentino, with whom she had a two-year marriage from 1923 to 1925. Rambova's association with Valentino afforded her a widespread celebrity afforded to actors. Although they shared many interests such as art and spiritualism, his colleagues felt that she exercised too much control over his work and blamed her for several expensive career flops.
After divorcing Valentino in 1925, Rambova operated her own clothing store in Manhattan before moving to Europe and marrying the aristocrat Álvaro de Urzáiz in 1932. It was during this time that she visited Egypt, developed a fascination with the country that remained for the rest of her life. Rambova spent her years studying Egyptology and earned two Mellon Grants to travel there and study Egyptian symbols and belief systems, she served as the editor of the first three volumes of Egyptian Religious Texts and Representations by Alexandre Piankoff contributing a chapter on symbology in the third volume. She died in 1966 in California of a heart attack while working on a manuscript examining patterns within the texts in the Pyramid of Unas. Rambova has been noted by fashion and art historians for her unique costume designs that drew on and synthesized a variety of influences, as well as her dedication to historical accuracy in crafting them. Academics have cited her interpretive contributions to the field of Egyptology as significant.
In popular culture, Rambova has been depicted in several films and television series, figuring in the Valentino biopics The Legend of Valentino, in which she was portrayed by Yvette Mimieux, Ken Russell's Valentino by Michelle Phillips. She was featured in a fictionalized narrative in the network series American Horror Story: Hotel. Rambova was born Winifred Kimball Shaughnessy on January 19, 1897, in Utah, her father, Michael Shaughnessy, was an Irish Catholic from New York City who fought for the Union during the American Civil War and worked in the mining industry. Her mother, Winifred Shaughnessy, was the granddaughter of Mormon apostle Heber C. Kimball, of English descent, was raised in a prominent Salt Lake City family. At her father's wishes, Rambova was baptized a Roman Catholic at the Cathedral of the Madeleine in Salt Lake City in June 1897, though she was baptized a Latter-day Saint by her mother at age eight. Rambova's parents had a tumultuous relationship: Her father was an alcoholic, sold her mother's possessions to pay off gambling debts.
This relocate with Rambova to San Francisco. There, she remarried to Edgar de Wolfe in 1907. During her childhood, Rambova spent summer vacations at the Villa Trianon in Le Chesnay, France with Edgar's sister, the French designer Elsie de Wolfe; the marriage between Winifred and Edgar de Wolfe was short-lived, she again remarried, this time to millionaire perfume mogul Richard Hudnut. Rambova was adopted by her new stepfather. Rambova was given the nicknname "Wink" by her aunt Teresa to distinguish her from her mother because of their shared name, she sometimes went by Winifred de Wolfe, after her former step-aunt Elsie, with whom she maintained a relationship after her mother's divorce from Edgar. A rebellious teenager, Rambova was sent by her mother to Leatherhead Court, a boarding school in Surrey, England. In her schooling, she became fascinated by Greek mythology, proved gifted at ballet. After seeing Anna Pavlova in a production of Swan Lake in Paris with her former step-aunt Elsie, Rambova decided she wanted to pursue a career as a ballerina.
Her family had encouraged her to study ballet purely as a social grace, were appalled when she chose it as her career. Her aunt Teresa, was supportive, took Rambova to New York City, where she studied under the Russian ballet dancer and choreographer Theodore Kosloff in his Imperial Russian Ballet Company. While dancing under Kosloff, she adopted the Russian-inspired stage name Natacha Rambova. Standing at 5 feet 8 inches, Rambova was too tall to be a classical ballerina, but was given leading parts by the then-32-year-old Kosloff, who soon became her lover. Rambova's mother was outraged upon discovering the affair as Rambova was 17 years old at the time, she tried to have Kosloff deported on statutory rape charges. Rambova retaliated against her mother by fleeing abroad, her mother agreed to her continuing to perform with the company. Around 1917, Kosloff was hired by Cecil B. DeMille as a performer and costume designer for DeMille's Hollywood films, after which he and Rambova relocated from New York to Los Angeles.
Rambova carried out much of the creative work as well as the historical research for Kosloff, he stole her sketches and claimed credit for these as his own. When Kosloff started work for fellow-Russian film producer Alla Nazimova at Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919, he sent Rambova to present some designs. Naz
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Paulette Duval was a French dancer and actress of the silent film era and early sound motion pictures. She was raised in France, she was considered one of the most beautiful women in Paris in the early twentieth century. Paulette was recruited by Florenz Ziegfeld for the Ziegfeld Follies, which opened at the New Amsterdam Theater in New York, New York, United States, on October 15, 1923. Before joining the Follies, the French beauty was engaged with the Scandals dance productions of George White. Duval was in Hollywood film production from 1919-1933, she is known for her role Madame de Pompadour in Monsieur Beaucaire. Rudolph Valentino starred opposite Duval in the 1924 production based on a novel written by Booth Tarkington. In 1925 she played the role of a vamp in the film version of Cheaper to Marry; the movie was based on the noted stage play written by Samuel Shipman. Paulette played a lovely young woman, embittered by the cynicism of the man she intended to marry; the MGM motion picture featured many of the clothes the French actress brought from Paris as well as evening attire and furs furnished by the studio costume department.
From her own possessions Miss Duval gave Norma Talmadge a $5,000 headdress. Paulette introduced knee muffs to Hollywood in 1926. A fur importer, Maurice Gebber, made the muffs from Russian sable after a design by Paulette Duval, she appeared with Marion Davies in Beverly of Graustark in the spring of 1926. Her final film was Lidoire, a short film directed by Maurice Tourneur, in which Duval played the character of La Dame. In 1952 Paulette's daughter, made her motion picture debut in Red Ball Express; the film featured Alex Nicol. The uniqueness of her debut had to do with the camera shot, which showed the twenty-year-old Parisienne's derrière rather than the usual facial closeup. Jacqueline is shown pedaling away on a French bicycle in the opening shot of the Universal International feature; the irony is. During this time more than 3000 feet of tests were made of her facial expressions. Nero Monsieur Beaucaire He Who Gets Slapped My Husband's Wives The Lady Cheaper to Marry Man and Maid Time, the Comedian The Sporting Life The Skyrocket The Exquisite Sinner Beverly of Graustark Blarney Twelve Miles Out Beware of Widows Breakfast at Sunrise No Other Woman The Divine Woman Ada, Oklahoma Evening News, Latest In Gowns Displayed In New Leonard Picture, July 17, 1925, Page 4.
La Crosse, Wisconsin Tribune And Leader Press, American Films Provide Laughs For German Fans, October 5, 1925, Page 11. Long Beach, California Free Press-Telegram, Makes Her Film Debut Backwards, March 7, 1952, Page A-13. Los Angeles Times, Now Its Bare-Knee Muffs, March 3, 1926, Page 23. New York Times, Theatrical Notes, October 4, 1923, Page 27. Paulette Duval on IMDb Duval on right with Bebe Daniels and Lowell Sherman in Monsieur Beaucaire. Duval is misidentified as Lois Wilson another costar in the film
Evelyn Greenleaf Sutherland
Evelyn Greenleaf Sutherland was an American journalist and playwright. A sixth-generation Bostonian, Sutherland was born on September 15, 1855, in Cambridge, Massachusetts to James and Rachael Arnold Greenleaf Baker. James Baker was a successful wholesale merchant, active in the pre-Civil War anti-slavery movement and a close friend of Frederick Parker. Sutherland began her education at age three, around the time of her father's death, attending private schools in Boston and Geneva, Switzerland. While still in her teens she began submitting works to national publications and was among the first to be awarded a prize from the fledgling St. Nicholas Magazine, for her essay "What is a Gentleman?". On March 10, 1879, she married John Preston Sutherland, a young Boston area doctor whom she had known since childhood. Sutherland worked for over a decade as an editorial writer and drama critic for several Boston newspapers before she began publishing a series of one-act plays, of which Po' White Trash and Other One Act Plays, produced in 1899, was her best known.
Sutherland’s early works were sketches about the struggles of class and race in America. Sutherland collaborated with General Charles King on the military play Ft. Frayne and with Booth Tarkington on Monsieur Beaucaire. Over the last decade or so of her life, Sutherland would write a number of plays with her close friend Beulah Marie Dix, their most successful play, The Road to Yesterday, written in 1906, became the genesis for Victor Herbert's 1924 operetta The Dream Girl. Sutherland continued to contribute short stories and poetry to national magazines throughout her career and in 1894 was awarded first prize in a short story competition sponsored by McClure’s for her army tale, "Dikkon's Dog". Sutherland died at her Boston home on December 24, 1908, from burns she suffered when her gown brushed up against a gas stove and caught fire