Monticello was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing Monticello after inheriting land from his father at age 26. Located just outside Charlottesville, Virginia, in the Piedmont region, the plantation was 5,000 acres, with Jefferson using the labor of enslaved Africans for extensive cultivation of tobacco and mixed crops shifting from tobacco cultivation to wheat in response to changing markets. Due to its architectural and historic significance, the property has been designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1987, Monticello and the nearby University of Virginia designed by Jefferson, were together designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the current nickel, a United States coin, features a depiction of Monticello on its reverse side. Jefferson designed the main house using neoclassical design principles described by Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio and reworking the design through much of his presidency to include design elements popular in late 18th-century Europe and integrating numerous ideas of his own.
Situated on the summit of an 850-foot -high peak in the Southwest Mountains south of the Rivanna Gap, the name Monticello derives from Italian meaning "little mountain". Along a prominent lane adjacent to the house, Mulberry Row, the plantation came to include numerous outbuildings for specialized functions, e.g. a nailery. Cabins for enslaved Africans who worked in the fields were farther from the mansion, out of Jefferson's sight both and figuratively. At Jefferson's direction, he was buried on the grounds, in an area now designated as the Monticello Cemetery; the cemetery is owned by the Monticello Association, a society of his descendants through Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. After Jefferson's death, his daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph sold the property. In 1834, it was bought by Uriah P. Levy, a commodore in the U. S. Navy, who admired spent his own money to preserve the property, his nephew Jefferson Monroe Levy took over the property in 1879. In 1923, Monroe Levy sold it to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, which operates it as a house museum and educational institution.
Jefferson's home was built to serve as a plantation house, which took on the architectural form of a villa. It has many architectural antecedents, but Jefferson went beyond them to create something much his own, he consciously sought to create a new architecture for a new nation. Work began on what historians would subsequently refer to as "the first Monticello" in 1768, on a plantation of 5,000 acres. Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion in 1770, where his new wife Martha Wayles Skelton joined him in 1772. Jefferson continued work on his original design. In constructing and reconstructing his home, Jefferson used a combination of free workers, indentured servants and enslaved laborers. After his wife's death in 1782, Jefferson left Monticello in 1784 to serve as Minister of the United States to France. During his several years in Europe, he had an opportunity to see some of the classical buildings with which he had become acquainted from his reading, as well as to discover the "modern" trends in French architecture that were fashionable in Paris.
His decision to remodel his own home may date from this period. In 1794, following his tenure as the first U. S. Secretary of State, Jefferson began rebuilding his house based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe; the remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency. Although completed by 1809, Jefferson continued work on the present structure until his death in 1826. Jefferson added a center hallway and a parallel set of rooms to the structure, more than doubling its area, he removed the second full-height story from the original house and replaced it with a mezzanine bedroom floor. The interior is centered on two large rooms, which served as an entrance-hall-museum, where Jefferson displayed his scientific interests, a music-sitting room; the most dramatic element of the new design was an octagonal dome, which he placed above the west front of the building in place of a second-story portico. The room inside the dome was described by a visitor as "a noble and beautiful apartment," but it was used—perhaps because it was hot in summer and cold in winter, or because it could be reached only by climbing a steep and narrow flight of stairs.
The dome room has now been restored to its appearance during Jefferson's lifetime, with "Mars yellow" walls and a painted green and black checkered floor. Summertime temperatures are high in the region, with indoor temperatures of around 100 °F. Jefferson himself is known to have been interested in Roman and Renaissance texts about ancient temperature-control techniques such as ground-cooled air and heated floors. Monticello's large central hall and aligned windows were designed to allow a cooling air-current to pass through the house, the octagonal cupola draws hot air up and out. In the late twentieth century, moderate air conditioning, designed to avoid the harm to the house and its contents that would be caused by major modifications and large temperature differentials, was installed in the house, a tourist attraction. Before Jefferson's death, Monticello had begun to show signs of disrepair; the attention Jefferson's university project in Charlottesville demanded, family problems, diverted his focus.
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The 1988 German Formula Three Championship was a multi-event motor racing championship for single-seat open wheel formula racing cars held across Europe. The championship featured drivers competing in two-litre Formula Three racing cars which conformed to the technical regulations, or formula, for the championship, it ended at Hockenheim on 16 October after twelve rounds. WTS Liqui Moly Equipe driver Joachim Winkelhock won the championship, he led the championship battle from the start of the season with a series of three consecutive wins. Otto Rensing lost seven points to Winkelhock and finished as runner-up with wins at Hockenheim and Nürburgring. Frank Biela won at Mainz Finthen and Hungaroring and completed the top-three in the drivers' standings. Michael Bartels, Hanspeter Kaufmann and Wolfgang Kaufmann were the other race winners. Daniel Müller clinched the B-Cup championship title; the season was marred by the death of Csaba Kesjár in an accident at Norisring. Points are awarded as follows: Official website
Lac-Saint-Jean is a federal electoral district in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region of northeast Quebec, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1925 to 2004, has been represented since 2015. According to the Canada 2016 Census or Canada 2011 CensusEthnic groups: 93.1% White, 6.4% Indigenous, 0.5% Other Languages: 99.0% French Religions: 95.6% Christian, 0.2% Other, 4.2% None Median income: $30,947 This riding was created in 1924 form parts of Chicoutimi—Saguenay riding and was named in English Lake St. John, it consisted of the counties of Lake St. John East and Lake St. John West, it was renamed Lake St-John—Roberval in 1935. The 1947 redistribution created a new riding with the name Lac-Saint-Jean, created from parts of the Lake St-John—Roberval riding, it was defined to consist of the county of Lake St. John East and the towns of Riverbend, Ile Maligne and St. Joseph-d'Alma. In 1966, it was redefined to consist of the City of Alma, the Town of Desbiens, the County of Lac-Saint-Jean East, parts of the Counties of Lac-Saint-Jean West and Chicoutimi.
In 1976, it was redefined to consist of the Cities of Alma and Chicoutimi North, parts of the Counties of Chicoutimi and Lac-Saint-Jean East. In 1987, it was redefined to consist of the towns of Alma, Desbiens and Métabetchouan. In 1996, it was redefined to consist of the towns of Desbiens and Métabetchouan, its name was changed in 2000 to "Lac-Saint-Jean—Saguenay". In 2003, it was abolished when it was redistributed into Chicoutimi—Le Fjord, Jonquière—Alma and Roberval ridings; the 2012 electoral redistribution saw this riding re-created from parts of Roberval—Lac-Saint-Jean and Jonquière—Alma. A by-election was held on October 23, 2017 due to the resignation of Denis Lebel on August 9, 2017; the riding was subsequently won by Liberal Richard Hébert. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Riding history from the Library of Parliament: Lac-Saint-Jean Lac-Saint-Jean—Saguenay Lake_St-John—Roberval Riding history from the Library of Parliament Lake St. John Riding history from the Library of Parliament