The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits is a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Turkish Straits and regulates the transit of naval warships. The Convention gives Turkey full control over the Turkish Straits and guarantees the free passage of civilian vessels in peacetime, it restricts the passage of naval ships not belonging to Black Sea states. The terms of the convention have been the source of controversy over the years, most notably about the Soviet Union's military access to the Mediterranean Sea. Signed on 20 July 1936 at the Montreux Palace in Switzerland, it permitted Turkey to remilitarise the Straits, it went into effect on 9 November 1936 and was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on 11 December 1936. It remains in force; the proposed 21st-century Kanal Istanbul project may be a possible bypass to the Montreux Convention and force greater Turkish autonomy with respect to the passage of military ships from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.
The convention was one of a series of agreements in the 19th and 20th centuries that sought to address the long-running "Straits Question" of who should control the strategically vital link between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. In 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne had demilitarised the Dardanelles and opened the Straits to unrestricted civilian and military traffic, under the supervision of the International Straits Commission of the League of Nations. By the late 1930s, the strategic situation in the Mediterranean had altered with the rise of Fascist Italy, which controlled the Greek-inhabited Dodecanese islands off the west coast of Turkey and had constructed fortifications on Rhodes and Kos; the Turks feared that Italy would seek to exploit access to the Straits to expand its power into Anatolia and the Black Sea region. There were fears of Bulgarian rearmament. Although Turkey was not permitted to refortify the Straits, it nonetheless did so secretly. In April 1935, the Turkish government dispatched a lengthy diplomatic note to the signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne proposing a conference on the agreement of a new regime for the Straits and requested that the League of Nations authorise the reconstruction of the Dardanelles forts.
In the note, Turkish foreign minister Tevfik Rüştü Aras explained that the international situation had changed since 1923. At that time, Europe had been moving towards disarmament and an international guarantee to defend the Straits; the Abyssinia Crisis of 1934–35, the denunciation by Germany of the Treaty of Versailles and international moves towards rearmament meant that "the only guarantee intended to guard against the total insecurity of the Straits has just disappeared in its turn." Indeed, Aras said, "the Powers most concerned are proclaiming the existence of a threat of general conflagration." The key weaknesses of the present regime were that the machinery for collective guarantees were too slow and ineffective, there was no contingency for a general threat of war and no provision for Turkey to defend itself. Turkey was therefore prepared to enter into negotiations with a view to arriving in the near future at the conclusion of agreements for regulations of the regime of the Straits under the conditions of security which are indispensable for the inviolability of Turkey's territory, in most liberal spirit, for the constant development of commercial navigation between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The response to the note was favourable, Australia, France, Greece, Romania, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia agreed to attend negotiations at Montreux in Switzerland, which began on 22 June 1936. Two major powers were not represented: Italy, whose aggressively expansionist policies had prompted the conference in the first place, refused to attend and the United States declined to send an observer. Turkey, the UK and the Soviet Union each put forward their own set of proposals, aimed chiefly at protecting their own interests; the British favoured the continuation of a restrictive approach, while the Turks sought a more liberal regime that reasserted their own control over the Straits and the Soviets proposed a regime that would guarantee absolute freedom of passage. The British, supported by France, sought to exclude the Soviet fleet from the Mediterranean Sea, where it might have threatened the vital shipping lanes to India and the Far East. In the end, the British conceded some of their requests while the Soviets succeeded in ensuring that the Black Sea countries – including the USSR – were given some exemptions from the military restrictions imposed on non-Black Sea nations.
The agreement was ratified by all of the conference attendees with the exception of Germany, which had not been a signatory to the Treaty of Lausanne, with reservations by Japan, came into force on 9 November 1936. Britain's willingness to make concessions has been attributed to a desire to avoid Turkey being driven to ally itself with, or fall under the influence of, Adolf Hitler or Benito Mussolini, it was thus the first in a series of steps by Britain and France to ensure that Turkey would either remain neutral or tilt towards the Western Allies in the event of any future conflict with the Axis. The Convention consists of four annexes and one protocol. Articles 2–7 consider the passage of merchant ships. Articles 8–22 consider the passage of war vessels; the key principle of freedom of passage and navigation is stated in articles 1 and 2. Article 1 provides, "The High Contracting Parties recognise and affirm the principle of freedom of passage and navigation by sea in the Straits". Article 2 states, "In time of peace, merchant vessels shall enjoy complete freedom of passage and navigation in the
This is a discography of the krautrock band Can. Soundtracks – compilation of songs written for various films Limited Edition – collection of 1968–1974 rarities, expanded to become Unlimited Edition Unlimited Edition – collection of 1968–1975 rarities Opener – compilation from 1972–1974 album material Cannibalism – compilation from 1969–1974 album material Delay 1968 – unreleased material from 1968–1969 InCANdescence – compilation from 1969–1977 album material Cannibalism 2 – compilation from 1974–1981 album material includes a two tracks from singles and one unreleased track, "Melting Away" Anthology – compilation from 1968–1991 album and soundtrack material Cannibalism 3 – compilation from 1979–1991 solo album material The Peel Sessions – collection of 1973–1975 recordings from BBC radio's John Peel Show Sacrilege – remix album, contains a remix of the hit "Spoon" by Sonic Youth Can Live Music – collection of live recordings 1972–1977 Agilok & Blubbo – movie soundtrack recorded in 1968, recorded as The Inner Space Kamasutra: Vollendung Der Liebe – movie soundtrack recorded in 1968, released as Irmin Schmidt & Inner Space Production The Lost Tapes - 3-CD or 5-LP box set compilation of unreleased studio and live recordings from 1968 to 1977 The Singles - CD or 3-LP compilation of all the singles Horrortrip in the Paperhouse: Live 1972/73.
Radio Waves – collection of 1969–1972 live and rare recordings Zhengzheng Rikang - early 1969 bootleg "Agilok & Blubbo" / "Kamera Song" "Kama Sutra" / "I'm Hiding my Nightingale" "Soul Desert" / "She Brings The Rain" "She Brings The Rain"/"Deadlock" "Turtles Have Short Legs"/"Halleluhwah" "Spoon"/"Shikaku Maru Ten" "Vitamin C"/"I'm so green" "Moonshake"/"Splash" "Dizzy Dizzy"/"Come Sta La Luna" "Hunters and Collectors"/"Vernal Equinox" "I Want More"/"..and More" "Silent Night"/"Cascade Waltz" "Don't Say No"/"Return" "Can-Can"/"Can Be" "Can-Can"/"Aspectacle" "Hoolah Hoolah" /"Hoolah Hoolah" "I Want More"/"..and More" Compilation albums or albums by other artists containing unreleased Can tracks. Electric Rock Idee 2000 – "Thief". Music from the Motion Picture Soundtrack – "Last Night Sleep" Pop 2000. Das Gibt's Nur Einmal – "Der Dritte Mann" Irmin Schmidt: Villa Wunderbar – "Alice – Remix" and "Last Night Sleep – Remix" "Mein schönes kurzes Leben" Beat Club TV Free Concert Mixed Media In Soest The Can Documentary The Can Box The Can DVD Agilok & Blubbo Kamasutra: Vollendung Der Liebe Mädchen mit Gewalt Kuckucksei im Gangsternest Das Millionenspiel Deadlock Deep End Ein großer graublauer Vogel Cream – Schwabing-Report Mein schönes kurzes Leben Das Messer Tatort – Dead Pigeon on Beethoven Street Die letzten Tage von Gomorrha Alice in the Cities Eurogang Als Diesel geboren Until the End of the World Morvern Callar Norwegian Wood Inherent Vice
Monica Drake is a journalist and managing editor at The New York Times. Drake is the first African-American woman to serve on the newsroom’s print masthead. Drake was born to internist attorney Macarthur Drake. Drake is from Yellow Springs and attended Yellow Springs High School. Drake attended Yale University and the School of Journalism at Columbia University, she joined The New York Times as an intern in 1998, became a copy editor in 2001. Drake worked at the Culture Desk became the senior Travel editor before becoming a managing editor, making her the first African-American woman to serve on the print masthead. In her new position, Drake posted a listing for a "dream" traveling job that got national attention and received over 13,000 applications; as a managing editor, she founded a new column called "Surfacing" which focuses on subcultures around the world and appears both online and in print. Drake married journalist Greg Winter in 2006
Lyte Funkie Ones were an American pop and hip hop band consisting of vocalists Devin Lima, Brad Fischetti and Rich Cronin. Before Lima joined the group in 1999, the third member was Brian Gillis, with the group from its start in 1995, their single "Summer Girls" reached number 3 on the Billboard charts, the band has sold over four million records worldwide. In 1995, New Bedford, Rich Cronin and Brad Fischetti met Brian "Brizz" Gillis. LFO had marginal success with the remake of the Yvonne Elliman song "If I Can't Have You", which missed the Top 40, reaching No. 54 on the UK Singles Chart. In 1997, they released a cover of the 1990 New Kids on the Block hit "Step By Step" as a single. In 1999, Gillis was frustrated with the lack of progress that the group had made so he left to pursue a solo career, which led him to multiple college tours and a job in the music industry, with a radio promotion position in Florida with BMG. After Gillis left and Cronin still wanted to continue to pursue their dreams of making it big, so they headed back to the United States and had an open audition.
Devin Lima, an employee of a hardware store at the time, was chosen in place of Gillis. Lima decided. In the UK, they were unable to use the abbreviated name of LFO due to an IDM act on the Warp Records label, using the name since 1988. Still signed with Trans Continental and now with Arista Records, LFO recorded some new material with Dow Brain, Brad Young and Danny Wood of New Kids on the Block, at Underground Studios' second location. Wood had been a long-time friend of Brian Gillis. Among the songs LFO had recorded in an attempt to make a demo, was a track entitled "Summer Girls"; this song, "Summer Girls" made its way to the Top 10 reaching the number 3 position on the Billboard Hot 100, the number 1 position on the Billboard single sales chart. New York City radio station Z100 helped LFO's popularity through frequent promotion and airings of the song "Summer Girls" before the song's national Top 10 status, their debut album, LFO, sold over 2.5 million copies worldwide, with two Top 10 hits on the Billboard Hot 100.
In 1999, "Summer Girls" was nominated for a Billboard Music Award for Top Selling Single of the Year. The song itself contained numerous non sequiturs, such as "you're the best girl that I did see/the great Larry Bird, jersey 33" and "fell deep in love, but now we ain't speakin'/Michael J. Fox was Alex P. Keaton"; this album featured many vocals from original member Brian. The label loved the original versions of the records, they left all of the vocals from Brian, including his lead on "Can't Have You"; the group was a part of a show called LFO Live from Orlando. The year 2000 was a busy year for LFO, featuring tours, with over 230 concerts, they served as opening act for Britney Spears, co-headlined Nickelodeon's All That Music & More summer tour. They found success in the UK at the same time when second single, the Dow Brain and Brad Young co-written "Girl on TV", entered the UK chart at #6. In 2000, the band won the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Group of the Year. Play Along Toys made dolls of the group in 2001.
They appeared on The Amanda Show as guest stars, singing a song while Amanda danced in the background with the show's signature "dancing lobsters". At the end, LFO described Amanda as "the most beautiful girl in the world". In the summer of 2001, the group released their sophomore and final album, Life Is Good, with the release of only two singles "Life Is Good" and "Every Other Time", the only commercial release from the album. After lackluster record sales of the album and the late-1990s/early-2000s boyband trend nearing its end, LFO parted ways in February 2002. In an attempt to form a pop group without it being labeled as a boy band, Cronin founded Bad Mood Mike in 2003; the project failed, as it never produced an album, ended after a few months. Cronin was in a group called Loose Cannons, with Doug Ray, he was part of the TV show, Mission: Man Band, which aired on VH1. In March 2005, Cronin sought treatment for constant headaches, was diagnosed with leukemia, he underwent chemotherapy in Boston, by January 2006, his leukemia was in remission.
In 2008, Cronin launched his first solo-studio album entitled, Billion Dollar Sound. Lima released his first solo track back in 2006, it being a cover of the Sly & the Family Stone song, “If You Want Me to Stay” for the tribute album Different Strokes by Different Folks; this led to him performing as part of a tribute to Sly Stone, on the 2006 Grammy Awards, alongside Steven Tyler and Joe Perry of Aerosmith, Maroon 5, Joss Stone, John Legend and will.i.am. Lima, along with his new band The Cadbury Diesel, released their debut record, Mozart Popart in July 2008; the release was more rock-oriented with songs such as, “Hangin’ With You” and the soulful R&B tune “Me Veda". Cadbury Diesel performed a song entitled "Rocky Road" for the film, American Pie Presents Beta House. Lima performed music under the alias Live From Orlando. In late 2013, Lima formed a group with electronic artists DJ Shakka and Ayj as The Mack Pack, releasing two singles in 2014, "Golden" and "Out of Control" (including a vi
The Verbandsliga Hamburg-Germania was the fourth tier of the German football league system and the second-highest league in the German state of Hamburg, together with the Verbandsliga Hamburg-Hansa and Verbandsliga Hamburg-Hammonia, until its disbanding in 1970. The league was formed in 1947, alongside three other divisions on the same level in the City of Hamburg, as the Bezirksklasse Hamburg-Germania; the other three leagues were: Bezirksklasse Hamburg-Hansa Bezirksklasse Hamburg-Hammonia Bezirksklasse Hamburg-OlympiaThe four new leagues replaced the 1. Klasse Hamburg as the feeder leagues to the Stadtliga Hamburg, now renamed Verbandsliga Hamburg; the 1. Klasse Hamburg had been operating since the end of the Second World War in 1945 and consisted of three divisions; the change in the league system at this level came together with the establishment of the Oberliga Nord as the new tier-one league in Northern Germany. This meant the new Bezirksklasse in Hamburg was now the third tier of the league system, below Oberliga and Verbandsliga.
The league started out with eleven clubs, with the league champion being promoted to the Verbandsliga. In its second season, the league expanded to thirteen clubs; the league above it was renamed from Verbandsliga Hamburg to Amateurliga Hamburg at the end of this season. The year after, in 1950, the Amateurliga was reduced to one single division from the two it had been operating at previously. For the Bezirksklasse, this meant a change: The four existing divisions were disbanded and replaced by two leagues: Bezirksklasse Hamburg-Alster Bezirksklasse Hamburg-ElbeFor the Germania-division this meant a temporary end to its operation. In 1953, the league was once more reestablished and the Elbe-Staffel and Alster-Staffel disbanded. Three of the four leagues in existence until 1950 were reformed, the Olympia-Staffel however, was not; the leagues were now named Verbandsligas: Verbandsliga Hamburg-Germania Verbandsliga Hamburg-Hansa Verbandsliga Hamburg-HammoniaEach of the three divisions had now fourteen clubs and the league champion was again promoted directly to the Amateurliga Hamburg.
The leagues were again the third tier of the German league system. In the fourteen-team per division era the bottom two teams of each division were relegated. Additionally, teams would be moved between the three divisions according to geographical necessity, to balance them out. In 1963, the Bundesliga was established in Germany; the old Oberliga Nord was disbanded and at its stead, the Regionalliga Nord was set as the second tier of the league system. The Amateurliga Hamburg, now renamed Landesliga Hamburg, slipped to third tier in the league system, making the three Verbandsligas the fourth tier now. Otherwise, nothing changed for the three leagues. In the first couple of seasons after 1963, nothing changed for the three leagues. In 1970, the Germania-Staffel was disbanded, leaving only the Hansa and Hammonia division on this level, as it is today. Of the fifteen clubs in the league in 1969–70, the league winner was promoted to the Landesliga while the teams placed second to ninth were split between the other two divisions.
The remainder of the clubs was relegated. Source:"Landesliga Hamburg-Germania". Das deutsche Fussball-Archiv. Retrieved 2008-08-09. Das deutsche Fussball Archiv The Hamburg Football Association
Kiyoshige Koyama, was a Japanese composer for orchestras and traditional Japanese instrumentation. He was born in Nagano Prefecture. Although nationalistic he did not compose until his thirties, after the period of Imperial expansionism. Many works by Koyama are published by Ongaku-no-tomo-sha. 1946 Shinano bayashi for Orchestra 1953/1958 Japanese Folk Songs for Chamber Orchestra 1957 Kobiki-Uta for Orchestra 1959 Symphonic Suite "Nohmen" 1964 Ainu no Uta for string orchestra 1976 Hinauta No. 1 for Orchestra 1978 Hinauta No. 2 for Orchestra 1981 Hinauta No. 3 for orchestra 1988 Hinauta No. 4 for orchestra 1970 Kobiki-uta for band 1970 Mogura-oi 1970 Otemoyan 1970 Echigo-jishi 1970 Dai-kagura 1980 Flow Festival 1991 Hinauta No. 5 1993 Noh-men Lullaby of Itsuki 1966 Kagome Variations 1969 Variations on "Kari kari watare" Children Songs for piano Collection of piano pieces Intro to piano thru Japanese harmony Coming Summer 1962 Ubusuna for koto and other Japanese musical instruments 1962 Quartet No. 1 for Japanese instruments 1963 Okume - Okiku 1964 Wagakki no tame no gassōkyoku 1965 Urashima Taro kodomo no yume 1966 Fudo yonsho 1968 Trio for 2 koto and jūshichi-gen 1968 Quartet No. 2 "Theme and Variations" for Japanese instruments 1971 Akatsuchi ni naru imōto 1973 Wagakki no tame no gojūsōkyoku, Quintet for Japanese instruments 1976 Chidori ni yoru hen'yō 1978 Wagakki no tame no hensōkyoku, Variations for Japanese instruments 1980 Hagoromo 1985 Nenyamonya Hensōkyoku 1996 Sakura sakura for koto ensemble Tenchi sosei Trio for 2 koto and jūshichi-gen 1972 Sansho Dayu 1974 Konyaku Mondo Kiyoshige Koyama, Nihon no hibiki wo tsukuru, ongaku-no-tomo-sha, 2004