SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Monument to the Ghetto Heroes

The Ghetto Heroes Monument is a monument in Warsaw, commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 during the Second World War. It is located in the area, a part of the Warsaw Ghetto, at the spot where the first armed clash of the uprising took place; the monument was built of Nazi German materials brought to Warsaw in 1942 by Albert Speer for his planned works. The completed monument was formally unveiled in April 1948; the monument was raised in the square bordered by Anielewicza Street, Karmelicka Street, Lewartowskiego Street and Zamenhofa Street. From August 1942 until the end of the Warsaw ghetto this was the last location of the Judenrat; the site witnessed several clashes between the Warsaw Ghetto Jewish partisans and the German and auxiliary troops. The decision to build a monument to the Ghetto partisans was made as early as in 1944, by the Central Committee of Polish Jews in Lublin; the monument was designed by Leon Suzin. The first part of the monument, a small memorial tablet, was unveiled on April 16, 1946.

Polish Jews". It was decided to build a larger monument in the future; the new, larger monument, sculpted by Nathan Rapoport, was unveiled on April 19, 1948. The monument stands 11 meters tall; as Rapoport himself explained, the "wall" of the monument was designed to evoke not just the Ghetto walls, but the Western Wall in Jerusalem. The great stones would thus have "framed the memory of events in Warsaw in the iconographic figure of Judaism's holiest site"; the western part of the monument shows a bronze group sculpture of insurgents - men and children, armed with guns and Molotov cocktails. The central standing figure of this frieze is that of Mordechai Anielewicz, the leader of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa known as the ŻOB, during the uprising; the eastern part of the monument shows the persecution of Jews at the hands of the Nazi German oppressors. The monument has a three-language sign: "Jewish nation to its fighters and martyrs." The labradorite used in parts of the monument comes from the German supplies, ordered by Albert Speer in 1942 for planned Nazi German monuments.

The Warschauer Kniefall gesture by Willy Brandt took place at the monument in 1970. The Museum of the History of Polish Jews located opposite the monument was opened in April 2013. Entry on the monument at sztuka.net, includes a gallery

Qusay Hussein

Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti was an Iraqi politician and heir. He was the second son of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, he was appointed as his father's heir apparent in 2000. He was in charge of the Military. Hussein was born in Baghdad around 1966 to Ba'athist revolutionary Saddam Hussein, in prison at the time, his wife and cousin, Sajida Talfah; some sources have said the birth year was 1967 while others have said 1968. As a child, his father would take his brother to watch executions. Unlike other members of his family and the government, little is known about Hussein, politically or personally, he married Sahar Maher Abd al-Rashid. Hussein played a role in crushing the Shiite uprising in the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf War and is thought to have masterminded the destruction of the southern marshes of Iraq; the wholesale destruction of these marshes ended a centuries-old way of life that prevailed among the Shiite Marsh Arabs who made the wetlands their home, ruined the habitat for dozens of species of migratory birds.

The Iraqi government stated that the action was intended to produce usable farmland, though a number of outsiders believe the destruction was aimed against the Marsh Arabs as retribution for their participation in the 1991 uprising. Hussein's older brother Uday was viewed as their father's heir-apparent until he sustained serious injuries in a 1996 assassination attempt. Unlike Uday, known for extravagance and erratic, violent behavior, Qusay kept a low profile so details regarding his actions and roles are obscure. Iraqi dissidents claim; the Sunday Times reported that Hussein ordered the killing of Khalis Mohsen al-Tikriti, an engineer at the military industrialization organization, because he believed Mohsen was planning to leave Iraq. In 1998, Iraqi opposition groups accused Hussein of ordering the execution of thousands of political prisoners after hundreds of inmates were executed to make room for new prisoners in crowded jails. Hussein's service in the Iraqi Republican Guard began in 2000.

It is believed that he became the supervisor of the Guard and the head of internal security forces, had authority over other Iraqi military units. On the afternoon of 22 July 2003, troops of the 101st Airborne 3/327th Infantry HQ and C-Company, aided by U. S. Special Forces, killed Hussein, his 14-year-old son Mustapha, his older brother Uday, during a raid on a house in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. Acting on a tip from Hussein's cousin, a special forces team attempted to apprehend everyone in the house at the time. After being fired on, the special forces called for backup. After Task Force 121 members were wounded, the 3/327th Infantry surrounded and fired on the house with a TOW missile, Mark 19 Automatic Grenade Launcher, M2 50 Caliber Machine guns and small arms. After about four hours of battle, the soldiers entered the house and found four dead, including the two brothers and their bodyguard. There were reports. Brigadier general Frank Helmick, the assistant commander of 101st Airborne, commented that all occupants of the house died during the gun battle before U.

S. troops were able to enter. On 23 July 2003, the American command stated that it had conclusively identified two of the dead men as Saddam Hussein's sons from dental records; because many Iraqis were skeptical of news of the deaths, the U. S. Government released photos of the corpses and allowed Iraq's governing council to identify the bodies despite the U. S. objection to the publication of American corpses on Arab television. Afterwards, their bodies were reconstructed by morticians. For example, Qusay's beard was shaved and gashes from the battle were removed, they announced that the informant the owner of the house, would receive the combined $30 million reward on the pair. Hussein was the ace of clubs in the coalition forces' most-wanted Iraqi playing cards, his father was the ace of spades and his brother was the ace of hearts. Hussein's other two sons, Yahya Qusay and Yaqub Qusay, are presumed alive, but their whereabouts are unknown. GlobalSecurity.org: Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti BBC News: Saddam's rival sons, 10 September 2002 BBC News: Saddam's hated sons, 23 July 2003

Ghoti

Ghoti is a creative respelling of the word fish, used to illustrate irregularities in English spelling and pronunciation. The word is intended to be pronounced in the same way, using these sounds: gh, pronounced as in enough or tough; the key to the phenomenon is that the pronunciations of the constructed word's three parts are inconsistent with how they would ordinarily be pronounced in those placements. To illustrate: gh can only resemble f when following the letters ou or au at the end of certain morphemes, while ti would only resemble sh when followed by a vowel sound; the expected pronunciation in English would sound like "goaty". In 1845, there were several examples of absurd spellings given in a book by Alexander J. Ellis, A Plea for Phonotypy and Phonography, which advocated spelling reform. However, ghoti was not among the examples, which were all lengthy and thus harder to remember; the first confirmed use of ghoti is in a letter dated 11 December 1855 from Charles Ollier to Leigh Hunt.

On the third page of the letter, Ollier explains, "My son William has hit upon a new method of spelling Fish." Ollier demonstrates the rationale, "So that ghoti is fish." The letter credits ghoti to William Ollier Jr. born 1824. An early known published reference is an October 1874 article by S. R. Townshend Mayer in St. James's Magazine, which cites the letter. Another early appearance of ghoti was in a 1937 newspaper article, the term is alluded to in the 1939 James Joyce milestone experimental work of fiction Finnegans Wake. Ghoti is cited to support English spelling reform, is attributed to George Bernard Shaw, a supporter of this cause. However, the word does not appear in Shaw's writings, a biography of Shaw attributes it instead to an anonymous spelling reformer. Similar constructed words exist that demonstrate English idiosyncrasies, but ghoti is the most recognized. In Finnegans Wake, James Joyce alludes to ghoti: "Gee each owe tea eye smells fish.". In the constructed language Klingon, ghotI' is the proper word for "fish".

In "An Egg Grows in Gotham", a 1966 episode of the television series Batman, the villain Egghead uses "Ghoti Oeufs" as the name for his caviar business, Batman explains the reference to Robin. Ghoti Hook is a 1990s Christian punk band. Ghoti has been used to test speech synthesizers; the Speech! allophone-based speech synthesizer software for the BBC Micro was tweaked to pronounce ghoti as fish. Examination of the code reveals the string GHOTI used to identify the special case. English-language spelling reform English orthography English phonology "The Chaos", a poem which demonstrates the irregularity of English spelling and pronunciation How to pronounce "ghoti" Hau tu pranownse Inglish, an essay on spelling-to-sound rules that discusses "ghoti" "What is ghoti?" by Jim Scobbie