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Moore's law

Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years. The observation is named after Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and was the CEO of Intel, whose 1965 paper described a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit, projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975, looking forward to the next decade, he revised the forecast to doubling every two years, a compound annual growth rate of 40%; the doubling period is misquoted as 18 months because of a prediction by Moore's colleague, Intel executive David House. In 1975, House noted that Moore's revised law of doubling transistor count every 2 years in turn implied that computer chip performance would double every 18 months. Moore's law is related to MOSFET scaling, as the rapid scaling and miniaturization of metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistors is the key driving force behind Moore's law.

Moore's prediction proved accurate for several decades and has been used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development. Advancements in digital electronics are linked to Moore's law: quality-adjusted microprocessor prices, memory capacity and the number and size of pixels in digital cameras. Digital electronics has contributed to world economic growth in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Moore's law describes a driving force of technological and social change and economic growth. Moore's law is an projection of a historical trend, it is an empirical relationship and not a natural law. Although the rate held steady from 1975 until around 2012, the rate was faster during the first decade. In general, it is not logically sound to extrapolate from the historical growth rate into the indefinite future. For example, the 2010 update to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors predicted that growth would slow around 2013, in 2015, Gordon Moore foresaw that the rate of progress would reach saturation: "I see Moore's law dying here in the next decade or so."Microprocessor architects report that semiconductor advancement has slowed industry-wide since around 2010, below the pace predicted by Moore's law.

Brian Krzanich, the former CEO of Intel, announced, "Our cadence today is closer to two and a half years than two." Intel stated in 2015 that improvements in MOSFET devices have slowed, starting at the 22 nm feature width around 2012, continuing at 14 nm. Krzanich cited Moore's 1975 revision as a precedent for the current deceleration, which results from technical challenges and is "a natural part of the history of Moore's law". Leading semiconductor manufacturers, TSMC and Samsung Electronics, have the 10 nm and 7 nm FinFET nodes in mass production, 5 nm nodes in risk production. In 1959, Douglas Engelbart discussed the projected downscaling of integrated circuit size in the article "Microelectronics, the Art of Similitude". Engelbart presented his ideas at the 1960 International Solid-State Circuits Conference, where Moore was present in the audience; the MOSFET known as the MOS transistor, was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, demonstrated in 1960. It was the first compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses, due to its high scalability, low power consumption, leading to increasing transistor density.

This made it possible to build high-density IC chips, enabling what would be known as Moore's law. In the early 1960s, Gordon E. Moore recognized that the ideal electrical and scaling characteristics of MOSFET devices would lead to increasing integration levels and unparalleled growth in electronic applications. For the thirty-fifth anniversary issue of Electronics magazine, published on April 19, 1965, Gordon Moore, working as the director of research and development at Fairchild Semiconductor at the time, was asked to predict what was going to happen in the semiconductor components industry over the next ten years, his response was a brief article entitled, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits". Within his editorial, he speculated that by 1975 it would be possible to contain as many as 65,000 components on a single quarter-square-inch semiconductor; the complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of a factor of two per year. Over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase.

Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. His reasoning was a log-linear relationship between device time. In 1974, Robert H. Dennard at IBM recognized the rapid MOSFET scaling technology and formulated what became known as Dennard scaling, it states that, as MOS transistors get smaller, their power density stays constant, so that the power use stays in proportion with area. MOSFET scaling and miniaturization has been the key driving force behind Moore's law. According to experts in microprocessor design, Dennard scaling ended in the 2000s, so power density no longer scales inversely with areal density. At the 1975 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Moore revised the forecast rate. Semiconductor complexity would continue to double annually until about 1980 after which it would decrease to a rate of doubling every two years, he outlined several contributing factors for this exponential beh

Yoie Bohlin

Yoie Bohlin is a Swedish multitalented sports woman who has competed in inter alia Athletics, Trail running, Soccer and Obstacle racing. She has won victories over the years in different disciplines, but emerged into public focus on August 20, 2016 when she came out of nowhere to beat the reigning skyrunning world champion Emelie Forsberg and the world cup #2 Malene Haukøy by 15 minutes in the 33 km Stranda Fjord Trail Race in Norway. Bohlin grew up in Åtvidaberg in Sweden in a sports family, her father Lars "Lasse" Bohlin today runs a marathon training camp in Kimbia Camp. Mother Ulla Bohlin runs a gym in Åtvidaberg, "Hälsofabriken". Bohlin's elder sister Amanda Bohlin, born in 1989, is an accomplished short distance triathlete with a couple of Swedish Championship gold medals. Bohlin's first name used to be Johanna but a cousin in the US called her Yoie; the nickname stuck and she officially changed her name. For many years Bohlin has used the dreadlocks hair style and for that reason sometimes goes under the pseudonym Rastarunner, a name that she now uses for her blog.

Bohlin ran her first marathon, the Stockholm Marathon, in 2008 in 2:59:00. Bohlin: "I did not think it was so tough"; the marathon performance led to a 5000m spot in the annual Finland-Sweden Athletics International, the first time that Bohlin ran in a track competition. The following year Bohlin improved her Stockholm Marathon time to 2:52:50; the following list is based on information from All-Athletics. In 2008 Bohlin became one of ten women to run the iconic Swedish 30K Lidingöloppet in less than two hours at 1:59:52, placing third; the following year Bohlin placed second in a slower race on her 19th birthday. In August 2016 won the 33K Stranda Fjord Trail Race in Norway by 15 minutes ahead of established trail running world stars Emelie Forsberg and Malene Haukøy; when a high school student Bohlin played soccer with Åtvidabergs FF and represented the province of Östergötland in its elite team for girls born in 1990. When at high school Bohlin started boxing in Åtvidabergs Boxningsklubb with a best result of bronze in the Junior Swedish Championships 48 kg class in 2008.

As of 2016 she fights for Narva Boxningsklubb. In 2015 Bohlin won the Toughest Minitour. In 2016 she placed 3rd in the Spartan race European Championship in Edinburgh, in 2017 she placed second in the same event in Andorra. In 2017 Bohlin won the Arena Run in Stockholm, ahead of OCR World Champion Lindsay Webster; as of 2016 Bohlin resides in Åtvidaberg in Sweden, but spends a lot of time in Åre in the summer and Kenya in the winter. For a living Bohlin works as a running coach for runners at different levels. Yoie Bohlin Yoie Bohlin on Instagram Yoie Bohlin's Swedish blog on Spring Löpning För Alla! Obstacle racing Spartan race website Toughest website

John Hanlon (record producer)

John Hanlon is an American record producer and recording engineer. He is best known for producing and mixing albums for Neil Young, Stephen Stills, T-Bone Burnett, R. E. M, Gillian Welch, Dennis Wilson, The Beach Boys, his relationship with Neil Young started in 1983, when he and David Briggs, Young's longtime producer, were working on Trans remixes. Hanlon joined Briggs again in 1990, engineering and mixing Neil Young and Crazy Horse's album Ragged Glory, he has been working with Young since. In an October 2012 interview with Mix magazine, John Hanlon described his recording style: "To me, some of the greatest records are the ones done with the fewest amount of microphones; the sound I like is orchestral. A classical engineer reading this might cringe, but I approach Neil Young and Crazy Horse orchestrally." 2020 Homegrown 2016: Peace Trail - Neil Young 2016: Earth - Neil Young & Promise Of The Real 2015: The Monsanto Years - Neil Young 2012: Psychedelic Pill - Neil Young & Crazy Horse 2012: Americana - Neil Young & Crazy Horse 2009: Roadsinger - Cat Stevens 2009: Dreamin' Man -Neil Young 2008: Bambu / Pacific Ocean Blue - Dennis Wilson 2007: Just Roll Tape - Stephen Stills 2006: Twenty Twenty – The Essential T-Bone Burnett - T-Bone Burnett 2003: Break Your Mother's Heart - Tim Easton 2002: Are You Passionate?

- Neil Young 2000: Road Rock: Friends & Relatives - Neil Young 1999: Debt & Departure - Those Bastard Souls 1998: Storefront Hitchcock - Robyn Hitchcock 1998: The Closer I Get - Hayden 1998: Up - R. E. M. 1997: Lovers Knot - Jeb Loy Nichols 1997: The Bridge School Collection, Vol.1 - Neil Young 1997: The Next Voice You Hear - Jackson Browne 1996: Dead Man - Neil Young 1996: Revival - Gillian Welch 1995: Ball-Hog or Tugboat? - Mike Watt 1995: Wild Night Out! - Jimmy Thackery & the Drivers 1994: Sleeps with Angels - Neil Young & Crazy Horse 1993: Unplugged - Neil Young 1992: Murder One - Killers 1992: The Criminal Under My Own Hat - T-Bone Burnett 1991: Back to the Country - Johnny Shines 1991: Weld - Neil Young & Crazy Horse 1990: Ragged Glory - Neil Young & Crazy Horse 1988: Man in Motion - Night Ranger 1987: Second Sight - Lonnie Mack 1985: Be Encouraged - Vickie Winans 1983: Out for Blood - Lita Ford 1982: Jump to It - Aretha Franklin 1979: L. A. - The Beach Boys 1978: M. I. U. Album - The Beach Boys 1977: Pacific Ocean Blue - Dennis Wilson 1977: Love You - The Beach Boys John Hanlon at the Internet Movie Database.

John Hanlon's AllMusic credits Mix Magazine interview with John Hanlon

The Trashmen

The Trashmen were a surf rock band formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1962. The original lineup of the group featured guitarists Tony Andreason and Dal Winslow, bassist Bob Reed, drummer Steve Wahrer. Along with Colorado-based contemporaries The Astronauts, The Trashmen have been described as "the premier landlocked Midwestern surf group of the'60s." The band took their name from "Trashman's Blues", a song written and recorded in 1961 by Minneapolis musician Kai Ray, who wrote songs for the band. The Trashmen's biggest hit was 1963's "Surfin' Bird", which reached No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the latter part of that year. The song was a combination of two R&B hits by The Rivingtons, "The Bird's the Word" and "Papa-Oom-Mow-Mow". Early pressings of the single credit the Trashmen as composers, but following a threat from The Rivingtons' legal counsel, that group was subsequently credited as composers; the early single was credited to the drummer and vocalist Steve Wahrer. The song was covered by The Ramones, The Cramps, The Psychotic Petunias, Pee-Wee Herman, Equipe 84, the thrash metal band Sodom.

It has been featured in several films, including Full Metal Jacket, Fred Claus, Pink Flamingos, Back to the Beach, The Big Year. "Surfin' Bird" was the subject of the episode "I Dream of Jesus" of the television series Family Guy, sending the song to No. 8 on the iTunes Top 10 Rock songs chart and No. 50 on the UK Singles Chart in 2009. The episode "Rich Old Stewie" included. In 2010, a Facebook campaign was launched to send the song to No. 1 in the UK over the Christmas season. The track debuted in the UK Top Ten for the first time on December 19, at No. 3. It was featured in the video game Battlefield Vietnam. Beyond "Surfin' Bird", The Trashmen experienced limited success. In 1964, "Bird Dance Beat" reached No. 30 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States and was a top 10 hit in Canada. A four-CD box set of their work was released by Sundazed Records; the group disbanded in 1967 but reunited in the 1980s, performing together until Steve Wahrer died due to esophageal cancer in 1987. Tony Andreason's brother Mark replaced Wahrer as drummer.

Reed's son Robin joined as a touring member in 2009 on drums. In 1999, the Trashmen played at the Las Vegas Grind, they performed in Illinois, Ohio and Spain in 2007 and 2008. The Trashmen toured Europe in 2008 and in 2010, performing in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Norway and Finland; the band recorded four tracks at Custom Recording Studios in Golden Valley, with longtime fan and guitarist Deke Dickerson, for the record label Major Label, releasing the 7" EP I'm a Trashman in March 2013. A full-length follow up LP Bringing Back the Trash, was released in April 2014. After several 2015 shows in the band's hometown of Minneapolis, the band re-entered retirement; the Trashmen at History of Rock The Trashmen discography at Discogs The Trashmen on IMDb

Proteus Design Suite

The Proteus Design Suite is a proprietary software tool suite used for electronic design automation. The software is used by electronic design engineers and technicians to create schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards, it was developed in Yorkshire, England by Labcenter Electronics Ltd and is available in English, French and Chinese languages. The first version of what is now the Proteus Design Suite was called PC-B and was written by the company chairman, John Jameson, for DOS in 1988. Schematic Capture support followed in 1990, with a port to the Windows environment shortly thereafter. Mixed mode SPICE Simulation was first integrated into Proteus in 1996 and microcontroller simulation arrived in Proteus in 1998. Shape based autorouting was added in 2002 and 2006 saw another major product update with 3D Board Visualisation. More a dedicated IDE for simulation was added in 2011 and MCAD import/export was included in 2015. Support for high speed design was added in 2017.

Feature led product releases are biannual, while maintenance based service packs are released as it is required. The Proteus Design Suite is a Windows application for schematic capture, PCB layout design, it can be purchased in many configurations, depending on the size of designs being produced and the requirements for microcontroller simulation. All PCB Design products include basic mixed mode SPICE simulation capabilities. Schematic capture in the Proteus Design Suite is used for both the simulation of designs and as the design phase of a PCB layout project, it is included with all product configurations. The micro-controller simulation in Proteus works by applying either a hex file or a debug file to the microcontroller part on the schematic, it is co-simulated along with any analog and digital electronics connected to it. This enables its use in a broad spectrum of project prototyping in areas such as motor control, temperature control and user interface design, it finds use in the general hobbyist community and, since no hardware is required, is convenient to use as a training or teaching tool.

Support is available for co-simulation of: Microchip Technologies PIC10, PIC12, PIC16,PIC18,PIC24,dsPIC33 Microcontrollers. Atmel AVR, 8051 and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers NXP 8051, ARM7, ARM Cortex-M0 and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers. Texas Instruments MSP430, PICCOLO DSP and ARM Cortex-M3 Microcontrollers. Parallax Basic Stamp, Freescale HC11, 8086 Microcontrollers; the PCB Layout module is automatically given connectivity information in the form of a netlist from the schematic capture module. It applies this information, together with the user specified design rules and various design automation tools, to assist with error free board design. PCB's of up to 16 copper layers can be produced with design size limited by product configuration; the 3D Viewer module allows the board under development to be viewed in 3D together with a semi-transparent height plane that represents the boards enclosure. STEP output can be used to transfer to mechanical CAD software such as Solidworks or Autodesk for accurate mounting and positioning of the board.

Comparison of EDA software List of free electronics circuit simulators Official site Discussion Forums

David Finnegan

David Ignatius Finnegan was an American attorney, talk show host, politician. He was a partner at Finnegan, Ryan & Tierney. Finnegan was a member of the Boston School Committee from 1975 to 1979 and served as its President from 1978 to 1979, he was a candidate for Mayor of Boston in 1979, finishing fourth out of six candidates with 14.59% of the vote. He ran again in 1983, finishing in third place with 24.99%. Finnegan began his media career in 1979 as host of The Dave Finnegan Show on WBZ Radio, he subsequently hosted Weekend with Dave Finnegan on WNAC-TV. He gave up both of his shows to run for Mayor in 1983. Finnegan was born on January 28, 1941, he was the uncle of actress Kate Collins. He was a graduate of Stonehill College, Boston University School of Law, Harvard University. Finnegan died on October 12, 2015 from lung cancer