A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water. "jetty" refers to a walkway accessing the centre of an enclosed waterbody. The term is derived from the French word jetée, "thrown", signifies something thrown out. Another form of jetties, wing dams are extended out, opposite one another, from each bank of a river, at intervals, to contract a wide channel, by concentration of the current to produce a deepening. Where docks are given sloping sides, openwork timber jetties are carried across the slope, at the ends of which vessels can lie in deep water or more solid structures are erected over the slope for supporting coal-tips. Pilework jetties are constructed in the water outside the entrances to docks on each side, so as to form an enlarging trumpet-shaped channel between the entrance, lock or tidal basin and the approach channel, in order to guide vessels in entering or leaving the docks. Solid jetties, lined with quay walls, are sometimes carried out into a wide dock,at right angles to the line of quays at the side, to enlarge the accommodation.
The approach channel to some ports situated on sandy coasts is guided and protected across the beach by parallel jetties. In some cases, these are made solid up to a little above low water of neap tides, on which open timber-work is erected, provided with a planked platform at the top raised above the highest tides. In other cases, they consist of solid material without timber-work; the channel between the jetties was maintained by tidal scour from low-lying areas close to the coast, subsequently by the current from sluicing basins. It is protected to some extent by the solid portion of the jetties from the inroad of sand from the adjacent beach, from the levelling action of the waves; the bottom part of the older jetties, in such long-established jetty ports as Calais and Ostend, was composed of clay or rubble stone, covered on the top by fascine-work or pitching, but the deepening of the jetty channel by dredging and the need that arose for its enlargement led to the reconstruction of the jetties at these ports.
The nes jetties at Dunkirk were founded in the sandy beach, by the aid of compressed air, at a depth of 22.75 feet. Below low water of spring tides. Above low water of neap tides. A small tidal rise spreading tidal water over a large expanse of lagoon or inland backwater causes the influx and efflux of the tide to maintain a deep channel through a narrows no longer confined by a bank on each side, becomes dispersed, owing to the reduction of its scouring force, is no longer able at a moderate distance from the shore effectually to resist the action of tending to form a continuous beach in front of the outlet. Hence a bar is produced. By carrying out a solid jetty over the bar, however on each side of the outlet, the tidal currents are concentrated in the channel across the bar, lower it by scour, thus the available depth of the approach channels to Venice through the Malamocco and Lido outlets from the Venetian Lagoon have been deepened several feet over their bars by jetties of rubble, carried out across the foreshore into deep water on both sides of the channel.
Other examples are provided by the long jetties extended into the sea in front of the entrance to Charleston harbour constructed of fascines weighed down with stone and logs, but subsequently of rubble stone, by the two converging rubble jetties carried out from each shore of Dublin Bay for deepening the approach to Dublin harbour. Jetties have been constructed on each side of the outlet river of some of the rivers flowing into the Baltic, with the objective of prolonging the scour of the river and protecting the channel from being shoaled by the littoral drift along the shore; the most interesting application of parallel jetties is in lowering the bar in front of one of the mouths of a deltaic river flowing into a tide — a virtual prolongation of its less sea, by extending the scour of the river out to the bar by banks. Jetties prolonging the Sulina branch of the Danube into the Black Sea, the south pass of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico, formed of rubble stone and concrete blocks, have enabled the discharge of these rivers to scour away the bars obstructing the access to them.
Where a river is narrow near its mouth, has a feeble discharge and a small tidal range, the sea is liable on an exposed coast to block up its outlet during severe storms. The river is thus forced to seek another exit at a weak spot of the beach, which along a low coast may be at some distance off; this inconvenient cycle of changes may be stopped by fixing the outlet of the river at a suitable site, by carrying a jetty on each side of this outlet across the beach, thereby concentrating its discharge in a definite channel and protecting the mouth from being blocked up by littoral drift. This system was lon
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into films, or shapes, it is made of repeating units linked by amide links similar to the peptide bonds in proteins. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations. Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications in fabric and fibers, in shapes, in films. Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer. DuPont began its research project in 1927; the first example of nylon was produced using diamines on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Hume Carothers at DuPont's research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station. In response to Carothers' work, Paul Schlack at IG Farben developed nylon 6, a different molecule based on caprolactam, on January 29, 1938. Nylon was first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush in 1938, followed more famously in women's stockings or "nylons" which were shown at the 1939 New York World's Fair and first sold commercially in 1940.
During World War II all nylon production was diverted to the military for use in parachutes and parachute cord. Wartime uses of nylon and other plastics increased the market for the new materials. DuPont, founded by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, first produced gunpowder and cellulose-based paints. Following WWI, DuPont produced other chemicals. DuPont began experimenting with the development of cellulose based fibers producing the synthetic fiber rayon. DuPont's experience with rayon was an important precursor to its marketing of nylon. DuPont's invention of nylon spanned an eleven-year period, ranging from the initial research program in polymers in 1927 to its announcement in 1938, shortly before the opening of the 1939 New York World's Fair; the project grew from a new organizational structure at DuPont, suggested by Charles Stine in 1927, in which the chemical department would be composed of several small research teams that would focus on “pioneering research” in chemistry and would “lead to practical applications”.
Harvard instructor Wallace Hume Carothers was hired to direct the polymer research group. He was allowed to focus on pure research, building on and testing the theories of German chemist Hermann Staudinger, he was successful, as research he undertook improved the knowledge of polymers and contributed to science. In the spring of 1930, Carothers and his team had synthesized two new polymers. One was neoprene, a synthetic rubber used during World War II; the other was a white elastic but strong paste that would become nylon. After these discoveries Carothers’ team was made to shift its research from a more pure research approach investigating general polymerization to a more practically-focused goal of finding “one chemical combination that would lend itself to industrial applications”, it wasn't until the beginning of 1935 that a polymer called "polymer 6-6" was produced. The first example of nylon was produced by Wallace Carothers on February 28, 1935, at DuPont's research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station.
It had all the desired properties of strength. However, it required a complex manufacturing process that would become the basis of industrial production in the future. DuPont obtained a patent for the polymer in September 1938, achieved a monopoly of the fiber. Carothers died 16 months before the announcement of nylon, therefore he was never able to see his success; the production of nylon required interdepartmental collaboration between three departments at DuPont: the Department of Chemical Research, the Ammonia Department, the Department of Rayon. Some of the key ingredients of nylon had to be produced using high pressure chemistry, the main area of expertise of the Ammonia Department. Nylon was considered a “godsend to the Ammonia Department”, in financial difficulties; the reactants of nylon soon constituted half of the Ammonia department's sales and helped them come out of the period of the Great Depression by creating jobs and revenue at DuPont. DuPont's nylon project demonstrated the importance of chemical engineering in industry, helped create jobs, furthered the advancement of chemical engineering techniques.
In fact, it developed a chemical plant that provided 1800 jobs and used the latest technologies of the time, which are still used as a model for chemical plants today. The ability to acquire a large number of chemists and engineers was a huge contribution to the success of DuPont's nylon project; the first nylon plant was located at Seaford, beginning commercial production on December 15, 1939. On October 26, 1995, the Seaford plant was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society. An important part of nylon's popularity stems from DuPont's marketing strategy. DuPont promoted the fiber to increase demand. Nylon's commercial announcement occurred on October 27, 1938, at the final session of the Herald Tribune's yearly "Forum on Current Problems", on the site of the approaching New York City world's fair; the “first man-made organic textile fiber”, derived from “coal and air” and promised to be “as strong as steel, as fine as the spider’s web” was received enthusiastically by the audience, many of them middle-class women, made the headlines of most newspapers.
Nylon was introduced as part of "The world of tomorrow" at the 1939 New York World's Fa
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A rope is a group of yarns, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than constructed cord and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, fibrous material, but is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, can be made to float on water, but synthetic rope possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, some can be damaged more by UV light. Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, linen, coir, jute and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, polyesters, polyethylene and acrylics; some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk and hair, but such ropes are not available.
Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope. The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load; the long history of rope means. In systems that use the "inch", large ropes over 1 inch diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches. In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres; the current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, the circumference in inches. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, exploration, sports and communications, has been used since prehistoric times. To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.
Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes; the modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall. Climbing ropes, however, do cut when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative. Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for double or twin use.
A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes 9 mm and under, are intended for use as a pair; these ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil, they are popular among traditional climbers, in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles; when using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation; however new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have replaced this type of rope. The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice.
Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil. Rope is an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops and hangs, they must be strong. See Corde lisse; the use of ropes for hunting, fastening, carrying and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is that the earliest "ropes" were occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired
The Star Ferry is a passenger ferry service operator and tourist attraction in Hong Kong. Its principal routes carry passengers across Victoria Harbour, between Hong Kong Island, Kowloon; the service is operated by the Star Ferry Company, founded in 1888 as the Kowloon Ferry Company, adopted its present name in 1898. With a fleet of twelve ferries, the company operates two routes across the harbour, carrying over 70,000 passengers per day, or 26 million per year. Though the harbour is crossed by railway and road tunnels, the Star Ferry continues to provide an inexpensive mode of harbour crossing; the company's main route runs between Tsim Sha Tsui. It has been rated first in the “Top 10 Most Exciting Ferry Rides” poll by the Society of American Travel Writers in February 2009. Before the steam ferry service was first established, people would cross the harbour in sampans. In 1870, a man named Grant Smith brought a twin-screw wooden-hulled boat from England and started running it across the harbour at irregular intervals.
In July 1873, an attempt was made to run steam ferries between Hong Kowloon. This was stopped at the request of the British consul in Canton, who feared it would enable visits to gambling houses in Kowloon, it is thought that a service to the public was established in the mid-to-late 1870s, after the cession of Kowloon to the British in 1860. The company was founded by Parsee merchant Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala as the "Kowloon Ferry Company" in 1888. Naorojee bought Smith's boat, acquired the steam vessels Morning Star and Evening Star from a Mr Buxoo; the popularity of this means of transport enabled him to increase his fleet to four vessels within 10 years: the Morning Star, Evening Star, Rising Star and Guiding Star. Each boat had a capacity of 100 passengers, the boats averaged 147 crossings each day, he incorporated the business into the "Star Ferry Co Ltd" in 1898, prior to his retirement to India. The company name was inspired by his love of Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem "Crossing the Bar", of which the first line reads "Sunset and evening star, one clear call for me!".
At the time regular service was initiated, ships were moored by having a sailor on the vessel toss the rope to another on the pier, who would catch it with a long billhook. This is still done today. On his retirement in 1898, Naorojee sold the company to The Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited, at that time owned by Jardine, Matheson & Co. and Sir Paul Chater. A pier constructed on the western end of Salisbury Road opened in 1906, it was a fine massive structure at that time and it had a separate compartment for the first and second class. However, it was destroyed by a typhoon in September 1906. In the early 1950s, construction of the present twin-piered terminal commenced on both sides of Victoria Harbour, designed to handle 55 million passenger trips a year; the structure was completed in 1957, concurrent with the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier built on the island side. At the turn of the century, Hong Kong currency and Canton currency were both accepted as legal tender in Hong Kong.
In the autumn of 1912, following a devaluation, the Star Ferry caused a controversy by insisting, together with the tramways, that payment had to be made in Hong Kong currency only. Canton coinage would no longer be accepted. In 1924 the Yaumati Ferry operated the route to Kowloon in a duopoly. In 1933 the Star Ferry made history by building the Electric Star, the first diesel electric passenger ferry of its kind. By 1941, the company had six vessels. During the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong, the competing Yaumati Ferry was allowed to continue, while the Japanese commandeered the Star Ferry for their own purposes; the Golden Star and the Meridian Star were used to transport prisoners of war from Sham Shui Po to Kai Tak Airport. In 1943, the Golden Star was bombed and sunk in the Canton River by the Americans, the Electric Star was sunk in the harbour. After the war, the ferries were returned to service; the Star Ferry accepted the request by the government of operating the Hung Hom route in 1963, it failed to operate as the company thinks it cannot make profit from it.
But with the reconsideration by the Star Ferry, the route were confirmed to be started operating starting from March 1965. Until the opening of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1972, the Star Ferry remained the main means of public transportation between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon side; the Star Ferry operates on a franchise from the Government, last renewed in March 2018. In 1966, a fare increase of 5 cents of the ferry was a political milestone, as it caused a 27-year-old student to go on hunger strike in protest at the Edinburgh Place terminal, his arrest sparked the 1966 Hong Kong Riots. On 11 November 2006, the end of an era was marked when the third generation pier in Central, the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, ended its mission, along with the big clock tower; the pier was demolished to make way for reclamation, amidst great controversy and important protests. The Star Ferry operates the following cross-harbour routes: Central to Tsim Sha Tsui. For lower deck, it costs $2.20 on Mondays to Fridays.
For upper deck, $2.70 on Mondays to Fridays. Wan Chai to Tsim Sha Tsui for $2.70 on Mondays to Fridays. Harbour Tour: a tourist cruise, making an indirect, circular route to all the stops, namely Tsim Sha Tsui and Wan Chai. Passengers may use tokens to pay for the ride. Tokens are available in the vending machines at the piers. Direct payment by coins at turnstile is no longer accepted; the Tsim Sha
USS Orion (AS-18)
USS Orion was a Fulton-class submarine tender of the United States Navy. She was laid down 31 July 1941 at the Moore Dry Dock Company, California. Following shakedown off southern California, Orion got underway for Pearl Harbor on 23 November 1943. Arriving there on the 28th, she received her first submarine, Gar alongside for repairs two days later. On 10 December she steamed for Australia, arriving at Fremantle 5 January 1944 to begin her mission of maintaining the material readiness of, an adequate stock of supplies for, submarines operating in the southwest Pacific, she remained in Western Australia until 6 August 1944 when she proceeded to Mios Woendi, Indonesia to establish Advanced Submarine Base Able. Arriving 26 August 1944, she serviced 24 submarines, 466 surface vessels, before being relieved, 9 December 1944, by Griffin; the next day Orion headed back to Hawaii for overhaul. On 8 April 1945 she sailed west again. At Saipan between 23 April and 1 September 1945, she served as CTG 17.7 and as SOPA for Tanapag Harbor in addition to her tender and repair activities which were performed for over 300 ships.
As the formal surrender documents were being signed in Tokyo Bay, Orion was en route to the United States. Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, she operated off the east coast for four months sailed south to Balboa, C. Z. Taking up duties with SubRon 6, 24 January 1946, she remained in the Panama Canal Zone, with one interruption for overhaul, until 11 May 1949. With SubRon 6, she steamed to Norfolk, her new homeport. After that change of homeport, Orion continued to service SubRon 6 at Norfolk and, during fleet exercises, in the Caribbean Sea. A FRAM II overhaul and conversion to nuclear support, 6 September 1960 – 25 February 1961, was followed by refresher training off Cuba. In June. Three years she added foreign nuclear submarines to her long list of services performed after completing work on HMS Dreadnought. Support of SubRon 6, continued to be Orion’s primary mission. Into 1970 she serviced the conventional and nuclear-powered ships of that squadron from the Destroyer/Submarine Piers at Norfolk.
Orion served SUBRON 4 out of Pier November during the 1970s. On 15 October 1970, Orion's homeport changed to Charleston, South Carolina under the command of Submarine Squadron FOUR. From July 1979 through March 1980, ORION underwent overhaul in Charleston Naval Shipyard in preparation for an overseas change of homeport. On 1 June 1980, ORION's homeport was changed to La Maddalena, Italy. Orion again changed homeport to La Maddalena, servicing ships of the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean Sea until 1993, when she was relieved by the Simon Lake. Orion returned to the United States and was decommissioned 3 September 1993. Ex-Orion was transferred to the Maritime Administration for storage 1 May 1999 and sold to North American Ship Recycling, Maryland to be dismantled on 27 July 2006. At the time of her decommissioning in 1993, Orion was the oldest active ship in the US Navy's fleet. Accordingly, she flew the "Don't Tread On Me" flag toward the end of her service; this article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.
S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. USS Orion AS-18 - Mothballed and Boneyard Pictures Photo gallery of USS Orion at NavSource Naval History