A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris that occurs in both and glaciated regions on Earth, through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris carried along by a glacier, consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier. Other types of moraine include medial moraines; the word "moraine" is derived from the French root moraine, which in turn is derived from the Savoyard Italian morena, from Franco-Provençal mor and from Vulgar Latin *murrum. Moraines may be composed of debris ranging in size from silt-sized glacial flour to large boulders; the debris is sub-angular to rounded in shape. Moraines may be on the glacier's surface or deposited as piles or sheets of debris where the glacier has melted. Moraines may form through a number of processes, depending on the characteristics of sediment, the dynamics on the ice, the location on the glacier in which the moraine is formed.
Moraine forming processes may be loosely divided into active. Passive processes involve the placing of chaotic supraglacial sediments onto the landscape with limited reworking forming hummocky moraines; these moraines are composed of supraglacial sediments from the ice surface. Active processes form or rework moraine sediment directly by the movement of ice, known as glaciotectonism; these form push moraines and thrust-block moraines, which are composed of till and reworked proglacial sediment. Moraine may form by the accumulation of sand and gravel deposits from glacial streams emanating from the ice margin; these fan deposits may coalesce to form a long moraine bank marking the ice margin. Several processes may combine to form and rework a single moraine, most moraines record a continuum of processes. Reworking of moraines may lead to the formation of placer deposits of gold as is the case of southernmost Chile. Moraines can be classified either by origin, location with respect to a glacier or former glacier, or by shape.
The first approach is suitable for moraines associated with contemporary glaciers—but more difficult to apply to old moraines, which are defined by their particular morphology, since their origin is debated. Some moraine types are known only from ancient glaciers, while medial moraines of valley glaciers are poorly preserved and difficult to distinguish after the retreat or melting of the glacier. Lateral moraines are parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier; the unconsolidated debris can be deposited on top of the glacier by frost shattering of the valley walls and/or from tributary streams flowing into the valley. The till is carried along the glacial margin; because lateral moraines are deposited on top of the glacier, they do not experience the postglacial erosion of the valley floor and therefore, as the glacier melts, lateral moraines are preserved as high ridges. Lateral moraines stand high because they protect the ice under them from the elements, causing it to melt or sublime less than the uncovered parts of the glacier.
Multiple lateral moraines may develop as the glacier retreats. Ground moraines are till-covered areas with irregular topography and no ridges forming rolling hills or plains, they are accumulated at the base of the ice as lodgment till, but may be deposited as the glacier retreats. In alpine glaciers, ground moraines are found between the two lateral moraines. Ground moraines may be modified into drumlins by the overriding ice. Rogen moraines or ribbed moraines are a type of basal moraines that form a series of ribs perpendicular to the ice flow in an ice sheet; the depressions between the ribs are sometimes filled with water, making the Rogen moraines look like tigerstripes on aerial photographs. Rogen moraines are named after Lake Rogen in Härjedalen, the landform's type locality. End moraines, or terminal moraines, are ridges of unconsolidated debris deposited at the snout or end of the glacier, they reflect the shape of the glacier's terminus. Glaciers act much like a conveyor belt, carrying debris from the top of the glacier to the bottom where it deposits it in end moraines.
End moraine size and shape are determined by whether the glacier is advancing, receding or at equilibrium. The longer the terminus of the glacier stays in one place, the more debris accumulate in the moraine. There are two types of end moraines: recessional. Terminal moraines mark the maximum advance of the glacier. Recessional moraines are small ridges left. After a glacier retreats, the end moraine may be destroyed by postglacial erosion. Recessional moraines are observed as a series of transverse ridges running across a valley behind a terminal moraine, they form perpendicular to the lateral moraines that they reside between and are composed of unconsolidated debris deposited by the glacier. They are created during temporary halts in a glacier's retreat. A medial moraine is a ridge of moraine, it forms when two glaciers meet and the debris on the edges of the adjacent valley sides join and are carried on top of the enlarged glacier. As the glacier melts or retreats, the debris is deposited and a ridge down the middle of the valley floor is created.
The 39th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand which began with the general election held on 25 November 1978, finished with the general election held on 28 November 1981. The dates of the Muldoon Ministry were from 13 December 1978 to 11 December 1981; the Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon of the National Party, led the Third National Government from 1975 to 1984. The table below shows the number of MPs in each party following the 1978 election and at dissolution: Notes The Working Government majority is calculated as all Government MPs less all other parties; the tables below shows the results of the 1978 general election: Key National Labour Social Credit Table footnotes: There were a number of changes during the term of the 39th Parliament. Bruce Barclay, the Labour MP for Christchurch Central, died in 1979; the ensuing by-election was won by Geoffrey Palmer of the Labour Party. Matiu Rata, a Labour cabinet minister, resigned from his party in 1979 due to disagreements with its policy towards Māori.
In 1980, Rata founded the Mana Motuhake party. Rata contested the ensuing by-election, but came second, he was replaced by Bruce Gregory of the Labour Party. Frank Rogers, the Labour MP for Onehunga, died in 1980; the ensuing by-election was won by Fred Gerbic of the Labour Party. Frank Gill, the National MP for East Coast Bays, resigned from parliament in 1980 in order to take up a position as New Zealand's ambassador in Washington; the ensuing by-election was won, much to the National Party's surprise, by Gary Knapp of the Social Credit Party. Bohan, Edmund. Burdon: a man of our time. Hazard Press. ISBN 978-1-877270-90-1. OCLC 62718931. Retrieved 20 June 2015. Chapman, Robert. New Zealand Politics and Social Patterns: Selected Works. Victoria University Press. Retrieved 1 September 2015. Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer.
The World Administrative Radio Conference bands are three portions of the shortwave radio spectrum used by licensed and/or certified amateur radio operators. They consist of 17 meters and 12 meters, they were named after the World Administrative Radio Conference, which in 1979 created a worldwide allocation of these bands for amateur use. The bands were opened for use in the early 1980s. Due to their small bandwidth of 100 kHz or less, there is a gentlemen's agreement that the WARC bands may not be used for general contesting; this agreement has been codified in official recommendations, such as the IARU Region 1 HF Manager's Handbook, which states: Contest activity shall not take place on the 10, 18 and 24 MHz bands. Non-contesting radio amateurs are recommended to use the contest-free HF bands during the largest international contests. Canada is part of region 2. Radio Amateurs of Canada offers the bandplan below as a recommendation for use by radio amateurs in that country, but it does not have the force of law and should only be considered a suggestion or guideline.
The United States is part of ITU Region 2. The Amateur Radio Relay League offers the bandplan below as a recommendation for use by radio amateurs in that country, but it does not have the force of law and should only be considered a suggestion or guideline. Canada is part of region 2. Radio Amateurs of Canada offers the bandplan below as a recommendation for use by radio amateurs in that country, but it does not have the force of law and should only be considered a suggestion or guideline; the United States is part of ITU Region 2. The Amateur Radio Relay League offers the bandplan below as a recommendation for use by radio amateurs in that country, but it does not have the force of law and should only be considered a suggestion or guideline. Throughout most of the world, the 30 meter band cannot be used for "phone" communications. SSB may be used during emergencies involving the immediate safety of life and property and only by stations involved in the handling of emergency traffic. However, a part of Region 1 is permitted to use phone at certain times.
The band segment 10.120 to 10.140 may only be used for SSB transmissions in the area of Africa south of the equator during local daylight hours. Canada is part of Region 2. Radio Amateurs of Canada offers the bandplan below as a recommendation for use by radio amateurs in that country, but it does not have the force of law and should only be considered a suggestion or guideline; the USA limits amateur radio users to 200 watts peak envelope power on this band. Australia has a unique set of privileges on 30 metres which allows voice operation on a section of the band for advanced licence holders; the digital segment begins at 10130 kHz. The current band plan has SSB from 10125 – 10135 kHz, with CW only below 10125. Amateurs are advised to use SSB below 10130. Amateur radio frequency allocations International Telecommunication Union World Radiocommunication Conference Regional Radiocommunication Conference Radio Regulations Federal Communications Commission Radio Amateurs of Canada Ofcom US Amateur Radio Bands chart