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Mormon fundamentalism

Mormon fundamentalism is a belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century during the administrations of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, the first two presidents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Mormon fundamentalists seek to uphold practices no longer held by mainstream Mormons; the principle most associated with Mormon fundamentalism is plural marriage, a form of polygyny first taught in the Latter Day Saint movement by the movement's founder, Smith. A second and associated principle is that of the United Order, a form of egalitarian communalism. Mormon fundamentalists believe that these and other principles were wrongly abandoned or changed by the LDS Church in its efforts to become reconciled with mainstream American society. Today, the LDS Church excommunicates any of its members who practice plural marriage or who otherwise associate themselves with Mormon fundamentalist practices. There is no single authority accepted by all Mormon fundamentalists.

Fundamentalists have formed numerous small sects within cohesive and isolated communities in the Western United States, Western Canada, northern Mexico. At times, sources have claimed there are as many as 60,000 Mormon fundamentalists in the United States, with fewer than half of them living in polygamous households. However, others have suggested that there may be as few as 20,000 Mormon fundamentalists with only 8,000 to 15,000 practicing polygamy. Founders of mutually rival Mormon fundamentalist denominations include Lorin C. Woolley, John Y. Barlow, Joseph W. Musser, Leroy S. Johnson, Rulon C. Allred, Elden Kingston, Joel LeBaron; the largest Mormon fundamentalist groups are the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Apostolic United Brethren. The LDS Church began prohibiting the contracting of plural marriages within the United States in 1890 after a decree by church president Wilford Woodruff. However, the practice continued underground in the U. S. and in Mormon colonies in northern Mexico and southern Alberta.

According to some sources, many polygamous men in the United States continued to live with their plural wives with the approval of church presidents Woodruff, Lorenzo Snow, Joseph F. Smith; some fundamentalists have argued that the 1890 Manifesto was not a real revelation of the kind given by God to Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, John Taylor, others, but that it was rather a politically expedient document intended by Woodruff to be a temporary measure until Utah Territory gained statehood. They make their argument based upon textual evidence and the fact that the "Manifesto" is not worded in accordance with similar revelations in the LDS scriptures; this argument further holds that after joining the Union, Utah would have had the authority to enact its own laws with respect to marriage, rather than being bound by U. S. territorial laws. Before statehood could be granted in 1896, the federal government required Utah to include a provision in its state constitution stating that "polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited."

Fundamentalists believe that a primary impetus for the 1890 Manifesto was the Edmunds–Tucker Act of 1887, a stringent federal law that dissolved the LDS Church, disenfranchised women, required voters to take an anti-polygamy oath before being permitted to vote in an election. With the selection of Latter-day Saint Reed Smoot to be one of Utah's representatives to the U. S. Senate in 1903, national attention was again focused on the continuation of plural marriage in Utah, which culminated in the Reed Smoot hearings. In 1904, church president Joseph F. Smith issued a "Second Manifesto", after which time it became LDS Church policy to excommunicate those church members who entered into or solemnized new polygamous marriages; the seriousness with which this new measure was taken is evinced in the fact that apostle John W. Taylor, son of the church's third president, was excommunicated in 1911 for his continued opposition to the Manifesto. Today, the LDS Church continues to excommunicate members who advocate early Mormon doctrines such as plural marriage, enter into or solemnize plural marriages, or support Mormon fundamentalist or dissident groups.

Although some LDS Church members continue to believe in the doctrine of plural marriage without practicing it, Joseph Smith's teachings on plural marriage remain part of the scriptural canon of the LDS Church. The LDS Church prevents any of its members who sympathize with Mormon fundamentalist teachings from entering its temples. During the 1920s, a church dissenter named Lorin C. Woolley claimed a separate line of priesthood authority from the LDS Church's hierarchy setting in motion the development of Mormon fundamentalism. Most of the Mormon polygamous groups can trace their roots to Woolley's legacy. For the most part, the Utah state government has left the Mormon fundamentalists to themselves unless their practices violate laws other than those prohibiting bigamy. For example, there have been recent prosecutions of men who belong to fundamentalist groups for marrying underage girls. In one publicized case, a man and one of his polygamist wives lost custody of all but one of their children until the wife separated herself from her husband.

The largest government effort to crack down on the practices of fundamentalist Mormons was carried out in 1953 in what is today Colorado City, which became known as

Margaret White Wrixon

Margaret White-Wrixon was the first woman to swim the Thames Estuary from Southend to Kent, a feat she completed in 3 hours 5 minutes on 7 August 1960, aged 16. On 25 June 1961, aged 17, she became the first person to complete the Thames Estuary two-way swim, which she did in 6 hours and 40 minutes She was accompanied on that swim by official observers from Leigh Swimming Club and the historic fishing boat The Endeavour. In 1961, she became the youngest person to swim the English Channel, swimming from France to England in 15 hours 8 minutes. Margaret White was born in Leigh-on-Sea, England, her parents were Vera Doreen Smith and William Henry White, a WW2 veteran Army Air Corps who won a Military Medal for participation in the invasion of Sicily. She had John White, career military. Margaret White attended Leigh North Street Primary School, Belfairs High School, The Southend Municipal College. Studied nursing at the Southend and Rochford Hospitals Group Essex, Queen Charlottes Maternity Hospital Chiswick London.

At age 5, White joined the Leigh-on-Sea Swimming Club. She swam under the guidance of his wife Doris, she participated in swim meets up to county levels, excelled in middle distance swimming. White got many medals and trophies and at age 11 became interested in the possibility of swimming the English Channel, she started training with her sights set on becoming the youngest person on record. Marilyn Bell from Canada was the record holder at the time. Other swims were achieved before the Channel. Swimming was a way of life for young children who lived along the shores of the Thames after the war when many families had fled during the blitz in London; the training involved participating in events organized by the British Long Distance Swimming Association, other swims organized with the help of others who had swum the Channel, notably June Gilbert and Michael Jennings. On 16 August 1959, White undertook the swim from Solent Portsmouth to the Isle of Wight, she succeeded in 3 hrs. 20 mins, at the time was the youngest, aged just 15, to have achieved it.

She had accompanied Channel Swimmer Dennis Pearson from Rhodesia on his successful Channel crossing with Captain Len Hutchison piloting. In those days of no GPS, her coach had come to trust this famous Dover pilot. On 7 August 1960 she swam the Thames Estuary from Southend to Kent in 3hrs.5mins. She was the first woman to have done it, was aged just 16, she was accompanied on. On 10 June 1925 Norman Derham had completed. On 27 August 1960 White swam Windermere in 7 hours 26 minutes, it was a British Long Distance Swimming Association race, age 16, she came second, finding the lake quite a challenge. For a salt water swimmer, the lack of buoyancy was difficult to overcome. On 25 June 1961 White completed. Southend to Kent and return, in 6 hours 40 minutes, she was the first person to accomplish this, at the age of 17. She was accompanied by official observers from Leigh Swimming Club and the historic fishing boat ‘The Endeavour’; as White says, ‘Swimming across the Thames Estuary two ways is difficult as one has to contemplate the tides.

The outgoing tide is difficult to swim against and one had to swim fast enough to time getting there and back on the one tide otherwise there is a danger of being stranded on the return. My swim found me walking across the mud flats approx. 100 yards from the Leigh tow path, which runs along the shoreline.’ At the time this swim was recognized by the BLDSA, when the organization was in its infancy. Author Caitlin Davies has included information on the swim on her blog for the Museum of London, including photos of White; the swim was accomplished without any aids using the Channel Swimming Association and the BLDSA rules. The port of London Authorities was notified in advance. On 2 September 1961, she became the youngest person to swim the English Channel from France to England in 15hrs 8mins. In January 1962 White started Midwifery training at the Southend Rochford Hospital Group. In August 1965 she commenced a one-year contract with the Zambian Government working as a nursing sister in the non-fee paying Lusaka Central Hospital in Zambia.

She travelled extensively through Africa during and after this tour of duty. Rhodesia, South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia. White joined the Zambian Flying Doctor Service headed and founded by Dr. James Lawless and his wife Margaret, working with a group of nurses and doctors to establish clinics in the remote areas of Zambia; the service still in existence. Dr. Lawless moved on to Australia. White went to Montreal in November 1969, stayed for 15 years, working first at the Montreal General and Jewish General Hospitals as an Emergency Room nurse, until changing careers. Between 1975 and 1986 she worked for Prudential Assurance Company, disability and group sales, she became a Member of The Million Dollar Round Table club in 1977. She formed Margaret White & Associates. Margaret White married George Wrixon in 1983, moved to Toronto in 1984 and had a son Phillip, born 1985, she retired in 2005. White-Wrixon is living in Oakville, close to Lake Ontario, where she manages family pension with husband and works as a community volunteer within the community with high risk and palliative care individuals

Desalpar Gunthli

Desalpar Gunthli is a village and site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located at Nakhtrana Taluka, Kutch District, India. Desalpar is 25 km away from Bhuj; this site is of modest dimensions, situated on the northern banks of once depredatory stream, Bamu-Chela, an affluent of the Dhrud river. The line of the walls, 2250 yards round and something of an oblong square in shape, though much decayed may be traced. Inside is nothing but a heap of the remains of houses and temples. In I828, the villagers turned up pieces of old vessels, ass coins, occasional boxes of money. An old Mahadev temple was believed to hold snake-guarded treasured. On the bank of a small lake to the west of the fort, seven grave stones, with peculiar designs but no writings, are said to have been raised in honour of seven claimants for the hand of Guntri the adopted sister of the seven Sands Vaghela Rajputs, once the rulers of the fort, it was from these seven Sands early in the fourteenth century, that the Sammas captured the fort and made themselves masters of western Kutch.

The story is that Mod and Mandi, two Samma outlaws from Sindh, by treachery gained possession of Vagham - Chavdagadh ten miles north of Kora near Lakhpat. Vagham Chavda, whom the Sammas killed, was a vassal of the seven Sands, they at first threatened punishment, but were appeased by the offer of a larger tribute and of one of the Samma brothers as hostage. Part of the tribute was paid in grass, one year the Sammas, in each cart of grass, hid some armed men; as the carts passed through the city gate, the blind gatekeeper smelling something more than grass, said, "There is either flesh or pulse in the cart?". A spear driven into one cart cut the thigh of a Jat soldier, but he, uttering no sound of pain, as the spear was pulled out rubbed off the blood, and, in spite of the blind man's warning, the carts passed in. At night the armed men left the carts, fell on the garrison, seized the fort, drove the seven Sands into Kathiawar. Archaeological Survey of India undertook excavation at this site during 1963.

Desalpar had a massive stone fortification with a base of about 4 m, height measuring from 2 m to 5 m. Several houses were built adjacent to fort wall inside the town and central part of the settlement had a structural complex with foundation offsets, massive walls and spacious rooms. Regular Harappan pottery, a thin grey ware potted and painted with lines of bluish green pigment were found at lower excavation levels, similar to that found at Mohenjodaro, described as'glazed ware'. Alongside the Harappan pottery, three scripts bearing seals were found. On each script the seal was made of a different material, one of steatite, one of copper and one of terracotta. List of Indus Valley Civilization sites Surkotada Gola dhoro Dholavira Pabumath Babar Kot This article incorporates Public Domain text from Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Cutch and Mahi Kantha. Printed at the Government Central Press. 1880. P. 222

List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals including a list of animals which are or may be undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or wild-caught, at least captive-bred, tameable. In order to be considered domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become domesticated. Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates: Pets Farm animals.

To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates. Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be domesticated. There are species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans. Many are in some way dependent on humans; the categories used in Taxon group column are: 1a: Artiodactyla except Bovidae, 1b: Bovidae, 1c: Carnivora, 1d: Rodentia, 1e: Other mammals 2a: Anseriformes, 2b: Galliformes, 2c: Columbiformes, 2d: Passeriformes, 2e: Psittaciformes, 2f: Other birds 3a: Serpentes, 3b: Lacertilia, 3c: Other reptiles 4a: Anura, 4b: Other amphibians 5a: Cyprinidae, 5b: Other fish 6a: Hymenoptera, 6b: Other insects, 6c: Other arthropods List of domesticated plants List of domesticated fungi and microorganisms

Protected areas of Belarus

The protected areas of Belarus are governed by the 1994 law "About the Protected Nature Areas". and its amendments. The law recognizes the following categories: zapovednik national park zakaznik Nature monument international protected area. A number of areas are classified as Ramsar wetlands of international importance; the first zapovednik was established in 1925 in the Byelorussian SSR. In 1939 the Belovezhskaya Pushcha zapovednik was created, in the territory added to BSSR after the Soviet invasion of Poland; the Pripyat nature reserve was created in 1969 and Palessya nature reserve in 1988. In 1991 Belovezhskaya Pushcha was classified as national park. In 1996, the Pripyat nature reserve was classified as the Pripyatsky National Park In 2008, there were five zapovedniks and national parks, 84 zakazniks of national significance, 349 zakazniks of local significance, 305 nature monuments of national significance, 544 nature monuments of local significance. List of national parks of Belarus Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve, Minsk Region and Vitebsk Region, 852 km2.

Polesie State Radioecological Reserve, Gomel Region, 2,161 km2. This reserve is contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl disaster, it borders the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Białowieża Forest National park and UNESCO biosphere reserve Naliboki forest Media related to Protected areas of Belarus at Wikimedia Commons

UFC 123

UFC 123: Rampage vs. Machida was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on November 20, 2010 at the Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn Hills, Michigan, it was the first UFC event in the Metro Detroit area since UFC 9. Before the start of the card, José Aldo was awarded the UFC Featherweight title by Dana White. UFC 123 featured preliminary fights live on Spike TV. On October 13, Rory MacDonald had to withdraw from his fight against Matt Brown, he was replaced by Brian Foster. Gabe Ruediger was scheduled to face Paul Kelly, but was forced off the card with a groin injury on October 25. T. J. O'Brien replaced Ruediger. Darren Elkins withdrew from his matchup with promotional newcomer Edson Barboza and was replaced by Mike Lullo. Fighters were awarded $80,000 bonuses. Fight of the Night: George Sotiropoulos vs. Joe Lauzon Knockout of the Night: B. J. Penn Submission of the Night: Phil Davis A formal complaint was filed with Michigan's Unarmed Combat Commission regarding the timekeeping of the Harris-Falcão match.

Near the end of the first round, Falcão was choking Harris. The allegation is that the timekeeper ended the round six seconds early and in turn had the round not ended early, Falcão may have choked out Harris. Despite Falcão winning the fight by decision, the formal complaint was filed on January 13, 2011. Ultimate Fighting Championship List of UFC champions List of UFC events 2010 in UFC