Agadir is a major city in mid-southern Morocco. Agadir is located on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean near the foot of the Atlas Mountains, just north of the point where the Sus River flows into the ocean, it is 508 km south of Casablanca. It is the capital of the Agadir Ida-U-Tanan Prefecture and of the Sus-Massa economic region. A majority of its inhabitants speak one of the varieties of the Berber language. Agadir is one of the major urban centres of Morocco; the municipality of Agadir recorded a population of 421,844 in the 2014 Moroccan census. According to the 2004 census, there were 346,106 inhabitants in that year and the population of the Prefecture of Agadir-Ida Outanane was 487,954 inhabitants. Three languages are spoken in the city: Tashelhit, Moroccan Arabic, French; the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 1960. It is now the largest seaside resort in Morocco, where foreign tourists and many residents are attracted by an unusually mild year-round climate. Since 2010 it has been well served by a motorway from Tangier.
The city attracts. The mild winter climate and good beaches have made it a major "winter sun" destination for northern Europeans; the name Agadir is a common Berber noun agadir meaning "wall, fortified building, citadel". This noun is attested in most Berber languages, may be a loanword from Phoenician-Punic, a Semitic language spoken in North-Africa until the fifth century CE. There are many; the city of Agadir's full name in Tashelhit is Agadir n Yighir "the fortress of the cape", referring to the nearby promontory named Cape Rhir on maps. A single male inhabitant or native of the town is known in Tashelhit as a gg ugadir, plural ayt ugadir "men of Agadir". In Moroccan Arabic, an inhabitant is a agadiri, plural agadiriyin, feminine agadiriya, plural agadiriyat. Little history is recorded on Agadir before the 12th century. In the 2nd century AD, the historian Polybius referred to North Africa on the Atlantic, a place called cap Rhysaddir, that may have been located near Agadir but its location is still under debate.
The oldest cartographic mention of Agadir is on a map from 1325: at the approximate location of the modern city there was an indication of a place called Porto Mesegina, after the name of a Berber tribe mentioned in the 12th century, the Mesguina, to say the Ksima. At the end of the medieval period, Agadir was a town of some notoriety; the name itself, Agadir al-harba, was attested to for the first time in 1510. In 1505, the Portuguese, who were installed on the Moroccan coast, founded a trading post and a fort at the foot of the hill to the sea, Santa Cruz do Cabo de Aguer on the site of the now-vanished neighborhood of Founti under a governor; the Portuguese were exposed to the hostility of the tribes of the region. From 1530, they were blockaded in Santa Cruz. Portuguese weakness showed itself on 12 March 1541 when Sherif Saâdien Mohammed ash-Sheikh captured the fortress of Santa Cruz de Aguer. Six hundred Portuguese survivors were taken prisoner, including the governor, Guterre de Monroy, his daughter, Dona Mecia.
The captives were redeemed by the holy men from Portugal. Dona Mecia, whose husband was killed during the battle, became the wife of Sheikh Mohammed ash-Sheikh but died in childbirth in 1544. In the same year, Mohammed ash-Sheikh released the Governor Guterre de Monroy, whom he had befriended; the Portuguese possessions in Morocco, acquired between 1505 and 1520, were regressing. After the loss of Agadir, the Portuguese were obliged to abandon Azemmour. Morocco was beginning to be less important for Portugal which now turned to Brazil. After 1550, the Portuguese no longer held anything in Morocco other than Mazagan and Ceuta; the story of the Portuguese presence is described in manuscript entitled "ESTE HE O ORIGEM E COMEÇO E CABO DA VILLA DE SANTA CRUZ DO CABO DE GUE D'AGOA DE NARBA", written by anonymous, captured in 12-III-34 and was five years inprisioned in Taroudannt. In 1572, the Casbah was built on top of the hill by Moulay Abdallah al-Ghalib, successor to Mohammed ash-Sheikh, it was now called Agadir N'Ighir, literally: fortified granary of the hill in Tachelhit.
In the 17th century, during the reign of the Berber dynasty of Tazerwalt, Agadir was a harbour of some importance, expanding its trade with Europe. There was, however, no real port nor a wharf. Agadir traded in sugar, copper and skins. Europeans took their manufactured goods weapons and textiles. Under the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismail and his successors, the trade with France, until an active partner regressed to the English and the Dutch. In 1731, the town was destroyed by an earthquake; the harbour of Agadir was ordered to be closed when Essaoui
Parsley or garden parsley is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region, but has naturalized elsewhere in Europe, is cultivated as a herb, a spice, a vegetable. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves, 10–25 cm long, with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem with sparser leaves and umbels with yellow to yellowish-green flowers. Parsley is used in European, Middle Eastern, American cuisine. Curly leaf parsley is used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe, southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Flat leaf parsley is similar, but it is easier to cultivate, some say it has a stronger flavor. Root parsley is common in central and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups and casseroles.
The word "parsley" is a merger of Old English petersilie and the Old French peresil, both derived from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum, the latinization of the Greek πετροσέλινον, "rock-celery", from πέτρα, "rock, stone", + σέλινον, "celery". Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, in Linear B, is the earliest attested form of the word selinon. Garden parsley is a bright green, biennial plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers; the seeds are ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol; the plant dies after seed maturation.
Parsley is a source of flavonoids and antioxidants luteolin, folic acid, vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin A. Half a tablespoon of dried parsley contains about 6.0 µg of lycopene and 10.7 µg of alpha carotene as well as 82.9 µg of lutein+zeaxanthin and 80.7 µg of beta carotene. Excessive consumption of parsley should be avoided by pregnant women. Normal food quantities are safe for pregnant women, but consuming excessively large amounts may have uterotonic effects. Parsley grows best in well-drained soil, with full sun, it grows best between 22–30 °C, is grown from seed. Germination is slow, taking four to six weeks, it is difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat. Plants grown for the leaf crop are spaced 10 cm apart, while those grown as a root crop are spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the root development. Parsley attracts several species of wildlife; some swallowtail butterflies use parsley as a host plant for their larvae. Bees and other nectar-feeding insects visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds.
In cultivation, parsley is subdivided into several cultivar groups, depending on the form of the plant, related to its end use. These are treated as botanical varieties, but they are cultivated selections, not of natural botanical origin; the two main groups of parsley used as herbs are curly leaf. Of these, the neapolitanum group more resembles the natural wild species. Flat-leaved parsley is preferred by some gardeners as it is easier to cultivate, being more tolerant of both rain and sunshine, is said to have a stronger flavor — although this is disputed — while curly leaf parsley is preferred by others because of its more decorative appearance in garnishing. A third type, sometimes grown in southern Italy, has thick leaf. Another type of parsley is grown as the Hamburg root parsley; this type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Although used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is common in central and eastern European cuisine, where it is used in soups and stews, or eaten raw, as a snack.
Although root parsley looks similar to the parsnip, among its closest relatives in the family Apiaceae, its taste is quite different. Parsley is used in Middle Eastern, European and American cooking. Curly leaf parsley is used as a garnish. Green parsley is used as a garnish on potato dishes, on rice dishes, on fish, fried chicken, lamb and steaks, as well in meat or vegetable stews. In central Europe, eastern Europe, southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green, chopped parsley sprinkled on top. In southern and central Europe, parsley is part of bouquet garni, a bundle of fresh herbs used as an ingredient in stocks and sauces. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups such as chicken soup, green salads, or s
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food, though she wrote about French cuisine, she and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding olive oil and pasta, wine. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid; the region spans a wide variety of cultures with distinct cuisines, in particular the Maghrebi, Levantine, Greek, Provençal, Spanish. However, the historical connections of the region, as well as the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the region's climate and economy, mean that these cuisines share dishes beyond the core trio of oil and wine, such as roast lamb or mutton, meat stews with vegetables and tomato, the salted cured fish roe, found across the region.
Spirits based on anise are drunk in many countries around the Mediterranean. The cooking of the area is not to be confused with the Mediterranean diet, made popular because of the apparent health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil and other grains, vegetables, a certain amount of seafood, but low in meat and dairy products. Mediterranean cuisine encompasses the ways that these and other ingredients, including meat, are dealt with in the kitchen, whether they are health-giving or not; the cookery writer Elizabeth David's introduction to A Book of Mediterranean Food defines her scope as "the cooking of the Mediterranean shores". She sketches out the geographical limits as from Gibraltar to the Bosphorus, down the Rhone Valley, through the great seaports of Marseilles and Genoa, across to Tunis and Alexandria, embracing all the Mediterranean islands, Sicily, Crete, the Cyclades, Cyprus, to the mainland of Greece and the much disputed territories of Syria, the Lebanon and Smyrna. David defines the region as coextensive with the range of the olive tree: "those blessed lands of sun and sea and olive trees".
The olive's natural distribution is limited by availability of water. It is therefore constrained to a more or less narrow zone around the Mediterranean Sea, except in the Maghreb and in Spain, where it is distributed more and on the islands of the Mediterranean, where it is widespread; the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid defines the region by the olive's presence, along with bread and the grape as the "basic products of Mediterranean folk cuisine": Mediterranean cuisine is defined by the presence of fundamental elements which are said to play a more important role than others, reflecting a community of beliefs and practices which transcend religions and societies. The olive tree, the emblematic tree on more than one account, traces the bounds of a frontier of landscapes and lives on either side of which the Mediterranean begins or ends. Above Montelimar, nicknamed "Gates of Provence", is the limit of the olive. Essid, as mentioned, identifies the "trinity" of basic ingredients of traditional Mediterranean cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding oil and wine respectively.
The archaeologist Colin Renfrew calls this the "Mediterranean triad". The olive appears to come from the region of Mesopotamia, at least 6,000 years ago, it spread from there to nearby areas, has been cultivated since the early Bronze Age in southern Turkey, the Levant, Crete. The ten countries with the largest harvests are all near the Mediterranean: together, they produce 95% of the world's olives; the olive yields bitter fruits, made edible by curing and fermentation, olive oil. Some 90% of the fruit production goes into olive oil; the Mediterranean region accounts for the world's highest consumption of olive oil: in 2014, the highest-consuming country, used 17 kg per head. Wheat was domesticated in and near the Levant some 10,000 years ago, its ancestors include wild emmer wheat. It had been spread across the Mediterranean region as far as Spain by 5,000 BC. Wheat is a staple food in the Mediterranean region. Wheat bread was critically important in the empire of Ancient Rome, which included the entire region.
Other staple wheat-based Mediterranean foods include pasta and semolina products such as couscous and burgul. In turn, these are made into dishes such as the Greek dessert galaktoboureko, consisting of filo pastry parcels around a custard made with semolina. A widespread wheat dish from Turkey and the Levant to Iran and India is halva, a dessert of sweetened semolina with butter and pine kernels; the grape was domesticated between 4,000 BC between the Black Sea and Persia. Winemaking started in Italy in the ninth century BC, in France around 60
The cuisine of Algeria is influenced by Algeria's interactions and exchanges with other cultures and nations over the centuries. Algerian cuisine is a mix of Berber, Arabic and Mediterranean cuisines with slight European. Algerian cuisine differs from region to region; every region has its own cuisine, including Kabylie and Constantine. Algerian Cuisine is influenced by various cultures such as Berber, Ottoman and French, it is a rich cuisine but it still is not known around the world. Most of the Algerian dishes are centered around bread, beef or poultry, olive oil, fresh vegetables and fresh herbs. Traditionally, no Algerian meal is complete without bread, traditional bread is always made with semolina, french bread is widespread. Pork consumption is forbidden to devout Muslim inhabitants of Algeria in accordance with Sharia, religious laws of Islam. Algeria, like other Maghreb countries, produces a large range of Mediterranean fruits and vegetables and some tropical ones. Lamb is consumed. Mediterranean seafood and fish are eaten and produced by the little inshore fishing.
Algerians consume a high amount of meat, as it is found in every dish. Mutton is the most eaten meat in the country and beef are used, other uncommon types of meat such as game and venison and they are considered a delicacy, wild boar is hunted and eaten, but pork will not be available on stores, it can only be bought from hunters directly. In the south, dromedary meat is eaten. Vegetables that are used include potatoes, Turnip, tomatoes, garlic, eggplant, pennyroyal, broad bean and Chili pepper. Vegetables are used in stews tagine or and soups or fried or boiled; the Kesra, traditional Algerian flatbread, eaten at many meals. A popular Algerian meal is merguez, an Berber sausage. A common and one of the most favorite dishes of Algerian cuisine is couscous, with other favorites such as shakshouka, marqa bel a'assel, a speciality from Tlemcen, chakhchoukha, popular. Spices used in Algerian cuisine are dried red chillies of different kinds, Twenty-seven spices are combined for the famous Algerian spice mixture ras el hanout, cumincinnamon, ginger, coriander, mace, fennel, nutmeg, cayenne pepper, caraway, black pepper.
Algerians use tagines, handmade in Algeria. Algerian food is cooked in clay vessels, much like Maghrib cuisine. Algerian cuisine represents west of the Nile. Algerian chefs take a lot of pride in cooking skills and methods and their many secrets lie in the variety of ways they mix special spices. There are many different types of Algerian salads,include both raw and cooked vegetables, served either hot or cold.hot salads include zaalouka, an aubergine and tomato mixture, chakchouka influenced by the Algerian and Mediterranean, which may include beetroot or anchovies. There are dishes of Spanish origin in Algeria, like the Gaspacho Oranais, an Algerian version of a Manchego dish. Bagita – a French bread staple food Shakshouka, shakhshosha – fried vegetables and egg on top Frites – fries and egg on top Dolma – stuffed vegetables cooked in a stock tagineorJwaz – a stew consisting of vegetables and meat, sometimes navy beans,kidney beans are included. Common pastries include Kalb Elouz and Zlabiya.
Another is "griwech", pretzel-shaped dough deep-fried, soaked in honey and sprinkled with sesame seeds. During the month of Ramadan and some pastries are prepared for special occasions like for Eid-al-fitr and weddings. Tea is drunk in the afternoon and for ceremonies with pastries. Algerians are heavy coffee consumers and thick espresso black coffee is popular and green tea with mint traditionally, making good mint tea in the dessert of Algeria. Fruit juice and soft drinks are common and are drunk daily. Algeria produced a large quantity of wine during the French colonization but production has decreased since its independence,but there are some secular activist that want to produce wine again. Between 1976 and 1984, the average Algerian family spent around 56% of their income on food and drink, more than 10% of that number was spent on bread and other cereal products. Bread is thought to contain baraka, it is traditionally seen as a symbol of life and functions in rituals symbolic of life and abundance.
Khubz as-dâr: wheat flour, water and yeast. Traditionally flat and round, a few centimeters thick, made at home and baked in a gas oven or communal oven. Khubz at-tajîn or matlû: wheat semolina, yeast and salt. Flattened pan-bread, baked in a heated earthenware or cast-iron plate on a fire. Variations are made by the quali
Anise called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise and liquorice, it is cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks around the Mediterranean. It served as a carminative in herbal medicine; the name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, referring to dill. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall; the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels; the fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long called "aniseed". Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.
Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon; because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes and candies; the word is used for both the species of its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China called star anise used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, East Asian dishes. Star anise is less expensive to produce, has displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise; as with all spices, the composition of anise varies with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.
Moisture: 9–13% Protein: 18% Fatty oil: 8–23% Essential oil: 2–7% Starch: 5% N-free extract: 22–28% Crude fibre: 12–25%In particular, the anise seeds products should contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice. Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide; the yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anise is sweet and aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour; the seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes, as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, Peruvian picarones.
It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, similar to hot chocolate, it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India. The Ancient Romans served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive; this tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings. Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo. Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Mexican Xtabentún; these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States; the main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine: The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine maketh abundance of milke, stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske, the white flux in women.
In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as appetizer and diuretic drug. Anise has been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic. In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic; this method was found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites. In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi in doses of 5–20 minims. Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so
A spice is a seed, root, bark, or other plant substance used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are the leaves, flowers, or stems of plants used for flavoring or as a garnish. Many spices have antimicrobial properties; this may explain why spices are more used in warmer climates, which have more infectious diseases, why the use of spices is prominent in meat, susceptible to spoiling. Spices are sometimes used in religious rituals, cosmetics or perfume production; the spice trade developed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East by at earliest 2000 BCE with cinnamon and black pepper, in East Asia with herbs and pepper. The Egyptians used herbs for mummification and their demand for exotic spices and herbs helped stimulate world trade; the word spice comes from the Old French word espice, which became epice, which came from the Latin root spec, the noun referring to "appearance, kind": species has the same root. By 1000 BCE, medical systems based upon herbs could be found in China and India.
Early uses were connected with magic, religion and preservation. Cloves were used in Mesopotamia by 1700 BCE; the ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves. The Romans had cloves in the 1st century CE; the earliest written records of spices come from ancient Egyptian and Indian cultures. The Ebers Papyrus from Early Egyptians that dates from 1550 B. C. E. Describes some eight hundred different medicinal remedies and numerous medicinal procedures. Historians believe that nutmeg, which originates from the Banda Islands in Southeast Asia, was introduced to Europe in the 6th century BCE. Indonesian merchants traveled around China, the Middle East, the east coast of Africa. Arab merchants facilitated the routes through India; this resulted in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria being the main trading center for spices. The most important discovery prior to the European spice trade were the monsoon winds. Sailing from Eastern spice cultivators to Western European consumers replaced the land-locked spice routes once facilitated by the Middle East Arab caravans.
In the story of Genesis, Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers to spice merchants. In the biblical poem Song of Solomon, the male speaker compares his beloved to many forms of spices. Spices were among the most demanded and expensive products available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cumin, nutmeg and cloves. Given medieval medicine's main theory of humorism and herbs were indispensable to balance "humors" in food, a daily basis for good health at a time of recurrent pandemics. In addition to being desired by those using medieval medicine, the European elite craved spices in the Middle Ages. An example of the European aristocracy's demand for spice comes from the King of Aragon, who invested substantial resources into bringing back spices to Spain in the 12th century, he was looking for spices to put in wine, was not alone among European monarchs at the time to have such a desire for spice. Spices were all imported from plantations in Africa, which made them expensive.
From the 8th until the 15th century, the Republic of Venice had the monopoly on spice trade with the Middle East, along with it the neighboring Italian maritime republics and city-states. The trade made the region rich, it has been estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and 1,000 tons of the other common spices were imported into Western Europe each year during the Late Middle Ages. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.5 million people. The most exclusive was saffron, used as much for its vivid yellow-red color as for its flavor. Spices that have now fallen into obscurity in European cuisine include grains of paradise, a relative of cardamom which replaced pepper in late medieval north French cooking, long pepper, spikenard and cubeb. Spain and Portugal were interested in seeking new routes to trade in spices and other valuable products from Asia; the control of trade routes and the spice-producing regions were the main reasons that Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1499.
When Gama discovered the pepper market in India, he was able to secure peppers for a much cheaper price than the ones demanded by Venice. At around the same time, Christopher Columbus returned from the New World, he described to investors new spices available there. Another source of competition in the spice trade during the 15th and 16th century was the Ragusans from the maritime republic of Dubrovnik in southern Croatia; the military prowess of Afonso de Albuquerque allowed the Portuguese to take control of the sea routes to India. In 1506, he took the island of Socotra in the mouth of the Red Sea and, in 1507, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. Since becoming the viceroy of the Indies, he took Goa in India in 1510, Malacca on the Malay peninsula in 1511; the Portuguese could now trade directly with Siam and the Maluku Islands. With the discovery of the New World came new spices, including allspice, chili peppers and chocolate; this development kept the spice trade, with America as a late comer with its new seasonings, profitable well into the 19th century.
One issue with spices today is dilution, where spices are blended to make inferior quality powdered spices, by including roots and other admixture in production of spice powder. A spice may be available in several forms: pre-ground dried. Spices are dried. Spices may be ground into a powder for c
Paprika is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper. The most common variety used for making paprika is tomato pepper, sometimes with the addition of more pungent varieties, called chili peppers, cayenne pepper. In many languages, but not English, the word paprika refers to the plant and the fruit from which the spice is made. Although paprika is associated with Hungarian cuisine, the peppers from which it is made are native to the New World and were introduced to the Old World. Originating in central Mexico, paprika was brought to Spain in the 16th century; the seasoning is used to add color to many types of dishes. The trade in paprika expanded from the Iberian Peninsula to Africa and Asia, reached Central Europe through the Balkans under Ottoman rule, which explains the Hungarian origin of the English term. In Spanish, paprika has been known as pimentón since the 16th century, when it became a typical ingredient in the cuisine of western Extremadura.
Despite its presence in Central Europe since the beginning of Ottoman conquests, it did not become popular in Hungary until the late 19th century. Paprika can range from mild to hot – the flavor varies from country to country – but all plants grown produce the sweet variety. Sweet paprika is composed of the pericarp, with more than half of the seeds removed, whereas hot paprika contains some seeds, stalks and calyces; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika is due to its content of carotenoids. The plant used to make the Hungarian version of the spice was grown in 1569 by the Turks at Buda. Central European paprika was hot until the 1920s, when a Szeged breeder found a plant that produced sweet fruit, which he grafted onto other plants; the first recorded use of the word paprika in English is from 1896, although an earlier reference to Turkish paprika was published in 1831. The word derives from the Hungarian word paprika, a diminutive of the Serbo-Croatian word papar meaning "pepper", which in turn came from the Latin piper or modern Greek piperi.
Paprika and similar words, peperke and paparka, are used in various Slavic languages in the Balkans for bell peppers. Paprika is produced in various places including Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands and some regions of the United States. Hungary is a major source of commonly-used paprika, it is available in different grades: Noble sweet – pungent Special quality – the mildest Delicate – a mild paprika with a rich flavor Exquisite delicate – similar to delicate, but more pungent Pungent exquisite delicate – an more pungent version of delicate Rose – with a strong aroma and mild pungency Semi-sweet – a blend of mild and pungent paprikas. The most common Spanish paprika, Pimentón de la Vera, has a distinct smoky flavor and aroma, as it is dried by smoking using oak wood. Pimentón de Murcia is not smoked, traditionally being dried in kilns. Paprika is used as an ingredient in numerous dishes throughout the world, it is principally used to season and color rices and soups, such as goulash, in the preparation of sausages, mixed with meats and other spices.
In the United States, paprika is sprinkled raw on foods as a garnish, but the flavor is more brought out by heating it in oil. Hungarian national dishes incorporating paprika include gulyas, a meat stew, paprikash. In Moroccan cuisine, paprika is augmented by the addition of a small amount of olive oil blended into it; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika powder derives from its mix of carotenoids. Yellow-orange paprika colors derive from α-carotene and β-carotene, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas red colors derive from capsanthin and capsorubin. In a typical serving size of one teaspoon, paprika supplies 6 calories and is rich in vitamin A, moderate in vitamin B6 and vitamin E, provides no other nutrients in significant content; the dictionary definition of paprika at Wiktionary