Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Appenai-sous-Bellême is a commune in the Orne department in northwestern France. Communes of the Orne department INSEE
Émile-Auguste Chartier known as Alain, was a French philosopher and pacifist. He adopted his pseudonym in homage to the 15th-century Norman poet Alain Chartier. Alain was born in 1868, he studied there for five years. On 13 June 1956, the lycée was renamed lycée Alain, after its most famous student. After Alain qualified at the École Normale Supérieure and received the agrégation in philosophy, he taught at various institutions: Pontivy, Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen, and, in Paris:. From 1903, he contributed to several journals using Alain, he was most referred to as "Alain" by his pupils and peers. In 1909, he was appointed a teacher at the Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, he influenced his pupils, who included Raymond Aron, Simone Weil, Georges Canguilhem, André Maurois. Reviewing the beneficial effect he had on his former pupils Simone Weil and Simone de Beauvoir, Professor John Hellman writes that Alain was the greatest teacher of their generation. Among his most important publications are The Dreamer, 81 chapters about the spirit and passions, About Happiness and The citizen against powers.
He was a leading theorist of radicalism, his influence extended through the Third and Fourth Republics. He stressed individualism, he warned against all forms of power – military and economic. To oppose them he exalted the small farmer, the small shopkeeper, the small town, the little man, he saw Paris as a dangerous font of power. He died in 1951, he is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery. Petit Traité d'Harmonie 1918 Mars. D. 1930 Alain on Happiness, New York, Ungar, 1973 The Gods, New directions, 1974 Media related to Alain at Wikimedia Commons Works written by or about Émile Chartier at Wikisource Quotations related to Émile Chartier at Wikiquote Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Alain Works by or about Émile Chartier in libraries About Alain Alain and Humanistic Norman Works by Alain
Estates General of 1789
The Estates General of 1789 was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, the commoners. Summoned by King Louis XVI, it was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the King; this signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution. The suggestion to summon the Estates General came from the Assembly of Notables installed by the King on 22 February 1787, it had not met since 1614. The usual business of registering the King's edicts as law was performed by the Parlement of Paris. In this year it was refusing to cooperate with Charles Alexandre de Calonne's program of badly needed financial reform, due to the special interests of its noble members. Calonne was the Controller-General of Finances, appointed by the King to address the state deficit; as a last measure, Calonne was hoping to bypass them by reviving an archaic institution. The initial roster of Notables included 137 nobles, among them many future revolutionaries, such as the Comte de Mirabeau and the Marquis de Lafayette, hero of the American Revolution.
Lafayette had served in George Washington's army. Much of the debt had been incurred on behalf of the Americans; the final defeat of Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown was due in large part to the participation of the French army and navy. If Calonne thought he would find more cooperation by changing the assembly, he was mistaken, he proposed a "land tax," Subvention Territoriale, to be imposed on all rich or poor. A storm of protest arose. Charges of mismanagement were made. Calonne was dismissed on 8 April 1787 and was exiled, he commented on the French political scene from London. Calonne's replacement was Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, President of the Assembly of Notables, he was offered the post of Prime Minister, to include being Controller. The Notables remained recalcitrant, they made a number of proposals but they would not grant the King money. Lafayette suggested. Brienne asked him. On receiving an affirmative answer, Brienne recorded it as a proposal. Frustrated by his inability to obtain money, the King staged a day-long harangue, on 25 May dissolved the Notables.
Their proposals reverted to the Parlement. Turning again to the parliament, the King found that they were inclined to continue the issues, raised in the Assembly of Notables, their proper legal function, besides giving advice to the King, was only to register, or record, his edicts as law, a matter of simple obedience, which the King's father and grandfather had been able to command, sometimes by sternness and losses of temper. Unless registered, the edicts were not lawful. On 6 July 1787, Loménie forwarded the Subvention Territoriale and another tax, the Edit du Timbre, or "Stamp Act," based on the American model, for registration. Parlement refused an illegal act, demanding accounting statements, or "States," as a prior condition, it was the King's turn to refuse. The members of the Parlement began to jest that they required either the accounting States or the Estates General; the King could not let this slight to his authority pass. Parlement was commanded to assemble at the King's palace at Versailles where, on 6 August, he ordered them in person to register the taxes.
On 7 August back in Paris, the Parlement declared, in earnest this time, that the order was null and void, repudiating all previous registrations of taxes. Only the Estates General, could register taxes. For the second time, the King summoned Parlement away from Paris, where crowds of people cheered their every act from the street, this time to meet at Troyes, Champagne on 15 August, he did not appear. By messenger he and Parlement negotiated an agreement: the King withdrew the Stamp Tax and modified the Land Tax to exclude the lands of people of title in return for the assured registration of further loans. Parlement was allowed to return on 20 September. Encouraged, Loménie, with the support of the King, went beyond the intent of the Parlement, to grant specific loans, he proposed an Emprunt Successif until 1792 giving the King a blank cheque. When Parlement delayed the King resorted to a ruse. On that day at 11:00 AM the King and his peers noisily entered the session of Parlement dressed in hunting clothes.
They would confer with each other and have the decisions registered they said. Nearly the entire government was now face-to-face, they argued the issues concerned until dusk, some six hours later. Parlement believed that the problem had gone beyond the government and needed the decisions of the Estates General which did not correspond to the King's concept of monarchy. At the end of the day, the King demanded the registration of the Successive Loan; the Duc d'Orléans, known as Philippe Égalité, asked if this were a Royal Session of the Peers or a Session of Parlement. On being told it was a Royal Session he replied; the King retorted, Vous êtes bien le maître with some sarcasm as the King's will was required, strode angrily from the session with a retinue. Lettres de Cachet, or arbitrary arrest warrants, followed on the 20th for two others, they were held under comfortable conditions away from Paris. Parlement began a debate on the legality of Lettres de Cachet; the men being held became a cause célèbre.
As the King and Parlement could accomplish no more togeth
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain was a French colonist, cartographer, soldier, geographer, ethnologist and chronicler. He made between 21 and 29 trips across the Atlantic Ocean, founded New France and Quebec City, on July 3, 1608. An important figure in Canadian history, Champlain created the first accurate coastal map during his explorations, founded various colonial settlements. Born into a family of mariners, Champlain began exploring North America in 1603, under the guidance of his uncle, François Gravé Du Pont. From 1604 to 1607, he participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida, Port Royal, Acadia, as well as the first European settlement that would become Saint John, New Brunswick. In 1608, he established the French settlement, now Quebec City, Canada. Champlain was the first European to describe the Great Lakes, published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives, he formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu, with others farther west — tribes of the, with Algonquin and Wendat.
In 1620, Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status, he established trading companies that sent goods fur, to France, oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death, in 1635. Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of Acadia", with many places and structures in northeastern North America bearing his name, most notably Lake Champlain. Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain and Marguerite Le Roy, in either Hiers-Brouage, or the port city of La Rochelle, in the French province of Aunis, he was born on or before August 13, 1574, according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, French genealogist. Although in 1870, the Canadian Catholic priest Laverdière, in the first chapter of his Œuvres de Champlain, accepted Pierre-Damien Rainguet's estimate and tried to justify it, his calculations were based on assumptions now believed, or proven, to be incorrect.
Although Léopold Delayant wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguet's estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to Champlain and is regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, choosing 1570 or 1575 instead of 1567. In 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlain's birth year and concluded, "Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France." Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, preferred years when Brouage was under Catholic control. Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book and to be Saintongeois in the title of his second book, he belonged to either a Protestant family, or a tolerant Roman Catholic one, since Brouage was most of the time a Catholic city in a Protestant region, his Old Testament first name was not given to Catholic children.
The exact location of his birth is thus not known with certainty, but at the time of his birth his parents were living in Brouage. Born into a family of mariners, Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, make nautical charts, write practical reports, his education did not include Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. As each French fleet had to assure its own defense at sea, Champlain sought to learn to fight with the firearms of his time: he acquired this practical knowledge when serving with the army of King Henry IV during the stages of France's religious wars in Brittany from 1594 or 1595 to 1598, beginning as a quartermaster responsible for the feeding and care of horses. During this time he claimed to go on a "certain secret voyage" for the king, saw combat. By 1597 he was a "capitaine d'une compagnie" serving in a garrison near Quimper. In 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was chartered to transport Spanish troops to Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him.
After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose ship was chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West Indies, again offered him a place on the ship. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera, instructed the young Champlain to watch over the ship; this journey lasted two years, gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City. Along the way he took detailed notes, wrote an illustrated report on what he learned on this trip, gave this secret report to King Henry, who rewarded Champlain with an annual pension; this report was published for the first time in 1870, by Laverdière, as Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiag
Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial
Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, marquis de Vaudreuil was a Canadian-born colonial governor of Canada in North America. He in 1755 became the last Governor-General of New France. In 1759 and 1760 the British conquered the colony in the Seven Years' War, he was born to the Governor-General of New France, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil and his wife Louise-Élisabeth, daughter of Pierre de Joybert de Soulanges et de Marson, in Quebec. He was the uncle of Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil. Vaudreuil-Cavagnial rose through the New France military and civil service, in part owing to his father's patronage but due to his own innate ability. Commissioned an officer of the French army while still a youth, in 1733 he was appointed governor of Trois-Rivières, in 1742 of French Louisiana, serving there from to May 10, 1743 to February 9, 1753 and proving himself a skilled officer and capable administrator, he moved to France in 1753 before being appointed by King Louis XV as governor of New France in 1755.
The first governor of New France to be born in Canada, his leadership was questioned and some of his orders were ignored by officials of the French army such as Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, who judged him to be "too Canadian". Although Vaudreuil-Cavagnial held supreme civil authority in Canada and was technically commander-in-chief of all French forces there, he clashed with Montcalm, the military commander in the field, who resented his oversight role; the two men grew to detest one another, much to the detriment of the French war effort. Vaudreuil-Cavagnal had excellent relations with the Canadian militia and with the Native-Canadian tribes allied with France. After Montcalm lost to the British forces under Maj. Gen. James Wolfe at Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Vaudreuil-Cavagnial tried to rally resistance to the British, but to no avail, he was forced to surrender Montreal on 8 September 1760 to Maj. Gen. Jeffrey Amherst. One of several scapegoats for France's losses in the New World, Vaudreuil was imprisoned in the Bastille on March 30, 1762 but released on May 18, 1762.
He was joined by Bigot, Pean, Varin, Le Mercier, Penisseault and Copron amongst others. Of the 21 men brought to trial, 10 were condemned, six were acquitted, three received an admonition and two were dismissed for want of evidence. Absent were 34, of whom seven were sentenced in default, judgement was reserved in the case of the rest. Exonerated in a military tribunal held in December 1763, he was awarded a pension and military decoration. After selling his Canadian seigneuries at Vaudreuil and Rigaud to his cousin, Michel Chartier de Lotbinière, Marquis de Lotbinière, he retired to his ancestral estate near Rouen, although the episode ruined his fortunes, he died in Paris on 4 August 1778. His nephew Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil was the second in command of the French naval units supporting the Americans during the American Revolution, he was present at the defeat of the British fleet by the French at the pivotal Battle of the Chesapeake during the siege of Yorktown in 1781, although he was defeated by the Royal Navy at the Battle of the Saintes.
Canadian Hereditary Peers Articles of Capitulation of Montreal Timeline of Quebec history Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil Joseph Hyacinthe François de Paule de Rigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil Barron, Bill. The Vaudreuil Papers: A Calendar and Index of the Personal and Private Records of Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Royal Governor of the French Province of Louisiana, 1743-1753, New Orleans: Polyanthos, 543 p. Frégault, Guy. Le Grand marquis: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil et la Louisiane, Montréal: Fides, 481 p. Frégault, Guy. La Guerre de la Conquête, Montréal: Fides, 514 p. Roy, Pierre-Georges. La Famille de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Lévis, 216 p. Le Jeune, Louis, "Pierre de Cavagnal, marquis de Vaudreuil", in Dictionnaire général de biographie, littérature, commerce, industrie et des arts, sciences, mœurs, institutions politiques et religieuses du Canada, volume II, Ottawa: Université d’Ottawa, 1931, pp. 764–767. Casgrain, Henri-Raymond. Lettres du marquis 215 p. Casgrain, Henri-Raymond.
Extraits des archives des Ministères de la marine et de la guerre à Paris: Canada, Correspondance générale, MM. Duquesne et Vaudreuil, Gouverneurs-generaux, 1755-1760, Québec: L. J. Demers, 322 p. Vaudreuil, Pierre de Rigaud de. Mémoire pour le marquis de Vaudreuil, grand-croix de l'Ordre royale & militaire de Saint-Louis, ci-devant gouverneur & lieutenant général de la Nouvelle France, Imprimerie de Moreau, 46 p. CyberAcadie: Biographie: Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, marquis de Vaudreuil. Canadian Military Heritage - Mutual Dislike Between Colonial and Metropolitan Officers. 1759 From the Warpath to the Plains of Abraham. National Battlefields Commission