National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom; the trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone". The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907; the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland; the Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament. The National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests, it owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites.
Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased, on terms; the Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares of land, including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon. In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure; the review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms. The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971. It is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006, its formal purpose is: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang.
The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy; the last is a notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses.
In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers. In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Wiltshire; the building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she owned in Cumbria; the trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and
For the aerodynamic device, see Bargeboard. Bargeboard is a board fastened to the projecting gables of a roof to give them strength, to conceal the otherwise exposed end of the horizontal timbers or purlins of the roof to which they were attached. Bargeboards are sometimes moulded only or carved, but as a rule the lower edges were cusped and had tracery in the spandrels besides being otherwise elaborated. An example in Britain was one at Ockwells in Berkshire, moulded and carved as if it were intended for internal work. In New Orleans, bargeboard is the wood from which many of the creole cottages were constructed in the early to mid-1800s. Barges were constructed up-river to carry goods to New Orleans, upon arrival dismantled and used for construction of houses; the planks are 2 inches thick and of varying lengths and widths, although 10 inches width is common. It is solid wood that has lasted between 150 and 200 years in a wet, humid climate. Antefix Cornice Eaves Fascia Karamon – use in Japanese architecture Soffit Media related to Bargeboards at Wikimedia Commons
Moseley Old Hall, Cheadle
Moseley Old Hall is a small 17th century country house in Cheadle, Greater Manchester, England. The construction date of the hall is uncertain though there is an inscription carved into the doorway, reading,'R. M. 1663'. It would have been surrounded by fields and farmland, but is now at the end of a suburban road. Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester Listed buildings in Cheadle and Gatley
Boscobel House is a Grade II* listed building in the parish of Boscobel in Shropshire. It has been, at various times, a farmhouse, a hunting lodge, a holiday home. Today it is managed by English Heritage; the building is just inside Shropshire, as is clear from all Ordnance Survey maps of the area, although part of the property boundary is contiguous with the Shropshire – Staffordshire border, it has a Stafford post code. Boscobel is on land which belonged to White Ladies Priory in the Middle Ages, at that time it was extra-parochial; the priory was described as being at Brewood, in Staffordshire, this may have contributed to the widespread belief that the house and priory are in Staffordshire. Brewood is the neighbouring parish, the house is just south of the small village of Bishops Wood, a constituent part of Brewood. Although technically still a separate civil parish, Boscobel's small population means it shares a parish council with Donington, Shropshire. Local government reform in 1974 brought the parish, including Boscobel House and White Ladies, into Bridgnorth District, which in 2009 was superseded by the new unitary authority of Shropshire Council.
The nearest city is Wolverhampton. The house is just north of the M54 Motorway. Boscobel House was created around 1632, when landowner John Giffard of White Ladies Priory converted a timber-framed farmhouse, built some time in the 16th century on the lands of White Ladies Priory, into a hunting lodge; the priory and its estate, including the farmhouse site, had been leased from the Crown by William Skeffington of Wolverhampton at the Dissolution of the Monasteries about a century earlier. It passed into the Giffard family because Skeffington left it to his widow and she subsequently married Edward Giffard, son of Sir John Giffard of Chillington Hall; the reversion was sold to William Whorwood in 1540, which made him the effective owner, but one of the early lessees must have paid off Whorwood, because it was passed on to Edward Giffard's heir, John. John Giffard decided to make the farmhouse more useful by building a substantial extension to the south, including a living room and bedrooms more fitted to use by a gentry family.
Giffard called the new hunting lodge Boscobel House. Thomas Blount, the main source for the events, portrays the naming as an after-dinner activity, attributes it to Sir Basil Brook, a prominent recusant from Madeley, one of Giffard's guests at the housewarming party. Boscobel is believed to come from the Italian phrase bosco bello meaning "in the midst of fair woods": in 1632, Boscobel House was surrounded by dense woodlands; the many branches of the Giffard family all claim ancestry from the lords of Bolbec or Bolebec and Longueville in Upper Normandy: Osbern de Bolebec became lord of Longueville in the early 11th century and his sons, Osbern Giffard and Gautier or Walter Giffard of Bolbec, were companions of William the Conqueror. The Giffard family were recusants – Catholics who refused to participate in the worship of the established Church of England. For them, this brought fines and discrimination; the Giffards took care to surround themselves with reliable retainers. The house itself served as a secret place for the shelter of Catholic priests, with at least one priest-hole.
This secret purpose of the house was to play a key part in the history of the country. By 1651, when Boscobel played host to Charles II, it was owned by John Giffard's heir, his daughter, Frances Cotton. Frances was a widow by this time, she was not resident at the time of the events that made Boscobel House one of the most evocative sites in the English royalist imagination. It was here that Charles II hid in a tree to escape discovery by Parliamentary soldiers during his escape after the Battle of Worcester. Charles was led to White Ladies Priory by Charles Giffard, a cousin of the owner, his servant Francis Yates, the only man subsequently executed for his part in the escape. There, the Penderel family and servants of the Giffard family began to play important roles in guiding and caring for him. From White Ladies, Richard Penderel led Charles in an unsuccessful attempt to cross the Severn near Madeley, Shropshire, they were forced to retrace their steps and Charles took refuge at Boscobel, where he was met by Colonel William Careless, whose brother rented land from the Giffards at Broom Hall, Brewood.
Careless and the King spent all day hiding in a nearby oak tree, from where he could see the patrols searching for him. Charles spent the night hiding in one of Boscobel’s priest holes, he was moved from Boscobel to Moseley Old Hall, another Catholic redoubt near Wolverhampton, escaped the region posing as the servant of Jane Lane of Bentley, whose family were landowners at Broom Hall and at the Hyde in Brewood. The Lanes, although friends and business partners of the Giffards, were not recusants but of Puritan sympathies and Jane's brother, Colonel John Lane, had taken Parliament's side in fighting around Wolverhampton during the Civil War. Frances Cotton, née Giffard, died shortly after these events, both White Ladies and Boscobel passed via her daughter, Jane Cotton, who had married Basil Fitzherbert in 1648, to the Fitzherbert family of Norbury Hall, Derbyshire; the Fitzherberts were major landowners and let Boscobel as a farm to a succession of tenants, including several members
Cheadle, Greater Manchester
Cheadle is a suburban village in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. In Cheshire, it borders Cheadle Hulme, Heald Green and Cheadle Heath in Stockport, East Didsbury in Manchester. In 2011, it had a population of 14,698. There has been human occupation in the area, now Cheadle since prehistoric times; the earliest evidence of civilisation is of burial mounds dating from the iron age, belonging to Celts who occupied Britain. The area was occupied by Brigantes, whose activity was discovered in the form of axe fragments. In the first millennium, Romans occupied the area, their coins have been discovered. During the 7th century St. Chad preached in the area, a stone cross dedicated to him was found close to the confluence of the River Mersey and Micker Brook in 1873; this area became known as a corruption of Chad' Hill. The village is first recorded in the Domesday Book under the name "Cedde", which comes from the Celtic word for "wood", it was held by a free Saxon under Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester.
This early manor occupied the approximate areas of Cheadle Hulme. By June 1294, Geoffrey de Chedle was lord of the manor, it was valued at about £20 per annum. Geoffrey's descendant Robert died in the early 1320s, leaving the estate to his wife Matilda who held it until her death in 1326; as there were no male heirs the manor, now worth £30 per annum, was divided between her daughters and Agnes. Agnes inherited the northern half, Clemence inherited the southern half; the two areas became known as "Chedle Bulkeley" and "Chedle Holme" respectively. William de Bulkeley succeeded his mother, was a participant in several wars in France for Edward, the Black Prince, his son, was sent to live at the court Richard II, to a baron whose daughter Margery married Richard. Richard died at the age of 21, she was succeeded by her grandson and great-grandson, both named William. Shortly after the Battle of Bosworth, the latter William was succeeded by his brother Richard. During the reign of Henry VIII, the current St Mary's Church on High Street was built.
There has been a church on the site since the 12th century, the original being constructed of wood, but it was rebuilt in stone between 1520 and 1550. The church contains an effigy of John Stanley who, along with many other men from the area, fought in the Battle of Flodden, he claimed the manor for himself, but was imprisoned by Thomas Wolsey who ensured the land went to its rightful owner. The Bulkeleys continued to hold the lands as lords of the manor until the 18th century, when the manor was purchased by Thomas Egerton. During the uprising of Bonnie Prince Charlie, his troops marched through Cheadle; some remains have been found, including swords. Moseley Old Hall, an early Stuart mansion dating from 1666 is owned privately, it is situated at the end of a blocked-off public road, making hard to find and therefore quite unheard of. Abney Hall is a late Victorian hall from 1847 and is the old Cheadle town hall, though is now used for offices, it is surrounded by parkland, open to the public all year round and features some of the only wetlands left in Stockport.
Cheadle grew during the Industrial Revolution when it was used as a stopping point for travellers and merchants on their way to central Manchester. Cheadle is a suburban village in the Metropolitan Borough of Greater Manchester. Cheadle is situated 8 miles from Manchester Town Hall, it is close to Manchester Airport. Cheadle lies on the Cheshire Plain in the final meander of the Ladybrook, before it joins the River Mersey to the north. Cheadle is on the A560 road from Stockport to Chester and borders onto the A34 Manchester to Birmingham road, its geology is boulder clay and gravels: the parkland of Abney Hall to the north is on the flood plain of the Mersey. Lying within the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, Cheadle was an ancient parish in the Hundred of Stockport; the parish included the townships of Cheadle Moseley. Following the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, part of Cheadle Bulkeley was amalgamated into the Municipal Borough of Stockport. Cheadle Bulkeley and Cheadle Moseley became separate civil parishes in 1866, but in 1879 they were united to form the civil parish of Cheadle.
In 1886, Cheadle was in the Cheadle and Gatley local board of health, a regulatory body responsible for standards of hygiene and sanitation for the area of Stockport Etchells township and the part of Cheadle township outside the Municipal Borough of Stockport. The board of health was part of Stockport poor law union. In 1888 the board was divided into four wards: Adswood, Cheadle Hulme and Gatley. Under the Local Government Act 1894 the area of the local board became Cheadle and Gatley Urban District. There were exchanges of land with the neighbouring former urban districts of Wilmslow and Handforth in 1901, the wards were restructured again, splitting Cheadle Hulme into north and south, merging in Adswood. Due to the fast-paced growth of the district, the wards were again restructured in 1930, with the addition of Heald Green. In 1940 the current wards of Adswood, Cheadle East, Cheadle West, Cheadle Hulme North, Cheadle Hulme South and Heald Green were established. Under the Local Government Act 1972 the Cheadle and Gately Urban District was a
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Father John Huddleston was a Catholic priest, a monk of the Order of St. Benedict who helped Charles II during his escape and was present when Charles converted to the Catholic faith on his deathbed. John Huddleston was born at Farington Hall, the second son of Joseph Huddleston from Hutton John, near Penrith in Cumberland, his uncle, Richard Huddleston, was a Benedictine priest. John was educated at the school at nearby Great Blencow; when he was twenty he was sent to St Omer's College, on 17 October 1632, entered the English College in Rome. On 22 March, 1637, Huddleston was ordained priest in St. John Lateran's, left Rome for England on 28 March, 1639. In 1651 he was staying at Moseley Old Hall, Staffordshire, as chaplain to Thomas Whitgreave's family, prominent local Catholics. After the defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles II was conducted by Colonel Gifford to Whiteladies Priory on Gifford's Boscobel estate. At Whiteladies, the King was sheltered by the five Penderell brothers.
John Penderell happened to meet Father Huddleston, who suggested that the King should go to Moseley Old Hall on the night of 7 September. Huddleston bandaged the King's sore feet. To guard against surprise Huddleston was in attendance on the king. On 9 September, Parliamentary troops questioned Whitgreave, while the King and Huddleston were hiding in the priest-hole; the troops were persuaded. The troops left without searching the house. Before the King left to meet Jane Lane at Bentley Hall, he promised to look after Huddleston when restored to his throne; some time after this Huddleston joined the Benedictines of the Spanish Congregation. After the Restoration in 1660, Huddleston was invited to live at Somerset House, under the protection of Queen Henrietta Maria. After her death in 1669, he was appointed chaplain with a salary of £ 100 a year. During the disturbances produced by Titus Oates's pretended revelations, the House of Lords voted on 7 December 1678 that Huddleston, Thomas Whitgreave, the brothers Penderell, others involved in Charles II's escape should "for their said service live as as any of the King's Protestant subjects, without being liable to the penalties of any of the laws relating to Popish recusants".
When Charles II lay dying on the evening of 5 February 1685, his brother and heir the Duke of York brought Huddleston to his bedside, saying, "Sire, this good man once saved your life. He now comes to save your soul." Charles declared that he wished to die in the communion of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. Huddleston heard the King's confession, reconciled him to the Church and absolved him, afterwards administering Extreme Unction and the Viaticum. On the accession of James II, Huddleston continued to stay with the Queen Catherine at Somerset House. Shortly before his death his mind failed and he was placed in the charge of a trustee, he was buried in the churchyard of St Mary-le-Strand. Several portraits of Huddleston exist: Houseman's done in 1685 is at Hutton John; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "John Huddleston". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. More detail and a portrait