The caddisflies are an order, Trichoptera, of insects with approximately 7,000 described species. Also called sedge-flies or rail-flies, they are small moth-like insects having two pairs of membranous wings. They are closely related to Lepidoptera which have scales on their wings, caddisflies have aquatic larvae and are found in a wide variety of habitats such as streams, lakes, spring seeps and temporary waters. The larvae of species use silk to make protective cases of gravel, sand. The name Trichoptera comes from Greek, θρίξ + πτερόν, although caddisflies may be found in waterbodies of varying qualities, species-rich caddisfly assemblages are generally thought to indicate clean water. The caddisfly can be found in lakes and marshes, together with stoneflies and mayflies, caddisflies feature importantly in bioassessment surveys of streams and other water bodies. Most caddisfly larvae are underwater architects and use silk, excreted from salivary glands near their mouths, for building. Net-making caddisflies usually live in running water, and their nets, often made amongst aquatic vegetation, caddisfly cases are open at both ends, the larva drawing oxygenated water through the posterior end, over their gills, and out of the wider anterior end.
The anterior end is wider and it is to this end that they add material as they grow. Their abdomens are soft, but their front ends project from their larval tubes. Caddisfly cases resemble bagworm cases, which are constructed by various terrestrial moth species, free-living caddisflies do not build retreats or carry portable cases until they are ready to pupate, and their bodies tend to be tougher than caddisflies that build. Many species of caddisfly larvae enter a stage of inactivity called the stage for weeks or months after they mature. Their emergence is triggered by cooling temperatures in the fall. In the Northwestern US, caddisfly larvae within their gravel cases are called periwinkles, caddisfly pupation occurs much like pupation of Lepidoptera. That is, caddisflies pupate in a cocoon spun from silk, caddisflies that build the portable cases attach their case to some underwater object, seal the front and back apertures against predation though still allowing water flow, and pupate within it.
In a minority of species, the swim to shore—either below the water or across the surface—and crawl out to emerge. Many of them are able to fly immediately after breaking from their pupal skin, the adult stage of caddisflies, in most cases, is very short-lived, usually only 1–2 weeks, but can sometimes last for 2 months. Most adults are non-feeding and are equipped mainly to mate, once mated, the female caddisfly will often lay eggs by attaching them above or below the water surface
Midges are a group of insects that include many kinds of small flies. They are found on every land area outside permanently arid deserts. The term midge does not define any particular group. Some midges, such as many Phlebotominae and Simuliidae, are vectors of various diseases, many others play useful roles as prey items for insectivores, such as various frogs and swallows. Others are important as detritivores, participating in various nutrient cycles, the habits of midges vary greatly from species to species, though within any particular family midges commonly have similar ecological roles. One type of midge ceratopogonid midges is a pollinator of Theobroma cacao because of its unique morphological and behavioral characteristics. Having natural pollinators has beneficial effects in both agricultural and biological production because it increases Theobroma cacao crop yield and density of predators of the midges. Some of them spread the livestock diseases blue tongue and African horse sickness – other species though, are at least partly nectar feeders, most other midge families are not bloodsuckers, but it is not possible to generalise rigidly because of the vagueness of the term midge.
There is for no objective basis for excluding the Psychodidae from the list. Most midges, apart from the gall midges, are aquatic during the larval stage, some Cecidomyiidae are significant plant pests. The larvae of some Chironomidae contain haemoglobin and are referred to as bloodworms. Non-biting midge flies are a nuisance around man-made bodies of water
Laothoe populi is a moth of the family Sphingidae. It is found throughout the Palearctic region and the Near East and is one of the most common members of the family in the region and this is a large, odd-looking, species due to its habit of resting with its hindwings held further forward than the forewings. It is said to look like a cluster of leaves of the main host. When disturbed, the moth will suddenly reveal a bright orange-red basal patch on the hindwing, half female and half male, are common. The wings are marked with darker grey fascia but with the greys occasionally replaced by buffish tones. There is a white spot at the distal edge of the cell on the fore wings. One or two broods are produced each year and adults can be seen from May to September, the species overwinters as a pupa. The egg is large, pale green, and glossy, females lay up to 200 eggs. On first hatching the larva is green with small yellow tubercules. Later, it develops yellow diagonal stripes on its sides, individuals feeding on willows may become quite heavily spotted with red.
Others are more bluish white with cream stripes and tubercules and they are stout bodied, and grow to 65–85 mm. The larva pupates in an earthen cell 2–3 cm below the surface, although they emerge late at night or early in the morning, the moth flies starting from the second night and is strongly attracted to light. Having no functional proboscis, it does not feed and it feeds mainly on poplar and aspen but sometimes on willow, apple, elm and ash. The food plant often depends on location, Laothoe populi populi Laothoe populi lappona Chinery, Michael. Insects of Britain & Northern Europe, The Complete Insect Guide, the Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles, description in Richard South The Moths of the British Isles
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, the group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers and the most recent analyses suggest it contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago, Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the plant on which their larvae, known as caterpillars. The caterpillars grow, sometimes rapidly, and when fully developed. When metamorphosis is complete, the skin splits, the adult insect climbs out. Butterflies are often polymorphic, and many species use of camouflage, mimicry. Some, like the monarch and the lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, flies, some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic crops or trees, other species are agents of pollination of some plants.
Larvae of a few butterflies eat harmful insects, and a few are predators of ants, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts. The Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly, similar names in Old Dutch, the earliest Lepidoptera fossils are of a small moth, Archaeolepis mane, of Jurassic age, around 190 million years ago. Butterflies evolved from moths, so while the butterflies are monophyletic, the oldest butterflies are from the Palaeocene MoClay or Fur Formation of Denmark. The oldest American butterfly is the Late Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds, the butterflies have been divided into the superfamily Papilionoidea excluding the smaller groups of the Hesperiidae and the more moth-like Hedylidae of America. Butterfly adults are characterized by their four scale-covered wings, which give the Lepidoptera their name, as in all insects, the body is divided into three sections, the head and abdomen.
The thorax is composed of three segments, each with a pair of legs, in most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery. The long proboscis can be coiled when not in use for sipping nectar from flowers, some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Butterfly larvae, have a head with strong mandibles used for cutting their food. They have cylindrical bodies, with ten segments to the abdomen, generally with short prolegs on segments 3–6 and 10, many are well camouflaged, others are aposematic with bright colours and bristly projections containing toxic chemicals obtained from their food plants
Caterpillars /ˈkætərˌpɪlər/ are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera. As with most common names, the application of the word is arbitrary, caterpillars of most species are herbivorous, but not all, some are insectivorous, even cannibalistic. Some feed on other products, for example clothes moths feed on wool. Caterpillars as a rule are voracious feeders and many of them are among the most serious of agricultural pests. In fact many moth species are best known in their caterpillar stages because of the damage cause to fruits and other agricultural produce, whereas the moths are obscure. Conversely, various species of caterpillar are valued as sources of silk, as human or animal food, the origins of the word caterpillar date from the early 16th century. They derive from Middle English catirpel, probably an alteration of Old North French catepelose, cat + pelose, caterpillars have soft bodies that can grow rapidly between moults. Only the head capsule is hardened, the mandibles are tough and sharp for chewing leaves.
Behind the mandibles of the caterpillar are the spinnerets, for manipulating silk, antennae are present on either side of the labrum, but small and relatively inconspicuous. Some larvae of the Hymenoptera order can appear like the caterpillars of the Lepidoptera, such larvae are mainly seen in the sawfly family. Caterpillars can be confused with the larvae of sawflies, lepidopteran larvae can be differentiated by, the numbers of pairs of pro-legs, sawfly larvae have 6 while caterpillars have up to 5 pairs. The number of stemmata, the larvae have only two, while a caterpillar has six. The presence of crochets on the prolegs, these are absent in the Symphyta, sawfly larvae have an invariably smooth head capsule with no cleavage lines, while lepidopterous caterpillars bear an inverted Y or V. Many animals feed on caterpillars as they are rich in protein, as a result, caterpillars have evolved various means of defense. The appearance of a caterpillar can often repel a predator, its markings and certain body parts can make it seem poisonous, or bigger in size and thus threatening, some types of caterpillars are indeed poisonous.
Caterpillars have evolved defenses against physical conditions such as cold, hot or dry environmental conditions, some Arctic species like Gynaephora groenlandica have special basking and aggregation behaviours apart from physiological adaptations to remain in a dormant state. Many caterpillars are cryptically colored and resemble the plants on which they feed and they may even have parts that mimic plant parts such as thorns. Their size varies from as little as 1 mm to about 75 millimetres, some look like objects in the environment such as bird droppings
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
Insects are a class of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species, the number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans. The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs, insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts. The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure and habitat, Insects that undergo 3-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The higher level relationship of the Hexapoda is unclear, fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm.
The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants, adult insects typically move about by walking, flying or sometimes swimming. As it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with adaptations that include gills. Some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water, Insects are mostly solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies. Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs, Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances, other species communicate with sounds, crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males.
Lampyridae in the beetle order communicate with light, humans regard certain insects as pests, and attempt to control them using insecticides and a host of other techniques. Some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, leaves or fruits, a few parasitic species are pathogenic. Some insects perform complex ecological roles, blow-flies, for example, help consume carrion, Many other insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms and bees have been used extensively by humans for the production of silk and honey, in some cultures, people eat the larvae or adults of certain insects. Insect first appears documented in English in 1601 in Hollands translation of Pliny, translations of Aristotles term form the usual word for insect in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc. The evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear, in the Pancrustacea theory, together with Entognatha and Cephalocarida, make up a natural clade labeled Miracrustacea
The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. 180,000 species of Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies and it is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Ancient Greek λεπίδος, the Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features, some of the most apparent being the scales covering their bodies and wings, the scales are modified, flattened hairs, and give butterflies and moths their extraordinary variety of colors and patterns. Almost all species have some form of wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults, normally near or on host plants for the larvae. As they grow, these change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once fully matured, the larva develops into a pupa A few butterflies and many species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin, once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many involved in the observation, collection, rearing of. A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist, in many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day. The caterpillars hatching from eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the word Lepidoptera comes from the Latin word for scaly wing, from the Ancient Greek λεπίς meaning scale and πτερόν meaning wing.
The origins of the common names butterfly and moth are varied, the English word butterfly is from Old English buttorfleoge, with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the yellow color of many species wings suggesting the color of butter. The species of Heterocera are commonly called moths, the origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe from Common Germanic. The Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects, among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, which is found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level
Lavandula is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India. The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is referred to as lavender. The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, and shrub-like perennials, leaf shape is diverse across the genus. They are simple in some commonly cultivated species, in other species they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, sometimes multiple pinnate, in most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which normally contain the essential oils. Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, some species produce coloured bracts at the apices. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, the corolla is tubular, usually with five lobes. L. stoechas, L. pedunculata and L.
dentata were known in Roman times, from the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera and Lavandula, until Linnaeus combined them. He only recognised five species in Species Plantarum, L. multifida and L. dentata and L. stoechas, L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas. By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised, the latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, and by 1848 eighteen species were known, one of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not easily be assigned and her sections included Stoechas, Subnudae, Pterostoechas and Dentatae. However all the cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas. There were four species within Stoechas while Spica had three and she believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender.
More recently, work has been done by Upson and Andrews, subgenus Lavandula is mainly of woody shrubs with entire leaves. It contains the species grown as ornamental plants and for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to northeast Africa and western Arabia, subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, and it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India. Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are distinct from the other species
One study pointed out widely divergent perceptions of the criteria for invasive species among researchers and concerns with the subjectivity of the term invasive. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats and this includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant communities. It has been used in this sense by government organizations as well as groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The European Union defines Invasive Alien Species as those that are, outside their natural distribution area and it is used by land managers, researchers, horticulturalists and the public for noxious weeds. The kudzu vine, Andean Pampas grass, and yellow starthistle are examples, an alternate usage broadens the term to include indigenous or native species along with non-native species, that have colonized natural areas. Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern, sometimes the term is used to describe a non-native or introduced species that has become widespread.
However, not every introduced species has adverse effects on the environment, a nonadverse example is the common goldfish, which is found throughout the United States, but rarely achieves high densities. Scientists include species and ecosystem factors among the mechanisms that when combined, while all species compete to survive, invasive species appear to have specific traits or specific combinations of traits that allow them to outcompete native species. In some cases, the competition is about rates of growth, in other cases, species interact with each other more directly. Researchers disagree about the usefulness of traits as invasiveness markers, one study found that of a list of invasive and noninvasive species, 86% of the invasive species could be identified from the traits alone. Another study found invasive species tended to have only a subset of the presumed traits. Repeated patterns of movement, such as ships sailing to and from ports or cars driving up. An introduced species might become if it can outcompete native species for resources such as nutrients, physical space, water.
If these species evolved under great competition or predation, the new environment may host fewer able competitors, allowing the invader to proliferate quickly. Ecosystems in which are being used to their fullest capacity by native species can be modeled as zero-sum systems in which any gain for the invader is a loss for the native, such unilateral competitive superiority is not the rule. For example, barbed goatgrass was introduced to California on serpentine soils, which have low water-retention, low nutrient levels, a high magnesium/calcium ratio, and possible heavy metal toxicity. Plant populations on these soils tend to low density, but goatgrass can form dense stands on these soils. Some species, like Kalanchoe daigremontana, produce allelopathic compounds, that might have an effect on competing species
The codling moth is a member of the Lepidopteran family Tortricidae. They are known as an agricultural pest and it is native to Europe and was introduced to North America, where it has become one of the regular pests of apple orchards. It attacks pears and other tree fruits, the codling moth is bivoltine in most regions of the USA — in the Pacific Northwest there is a partial third generation. The codling moth is greyish with light grey and copper stripes on its wings, the females lay eggs on fruit or leaves in summer and the black-headed yellow larvae attack the fruit immediately upon hatching. Each larva burrows into the fruit, eats for around three weeks, leaves the fruit to overwinter and pupate elsewhere in spring and emerge as a moth in summer. Most nourishment is obtained by feeding on the proteinaceous seeds, a prime difficulty in dealing with codling moth infestations seems to lie with appropriate timing. The method of calculating degree-days is often used by orchardists to approximate when a particular pest will reach a stage of development during a given season.
Since stages of development are triggered by the accumulation of a certain amount of heat over time. In the case of codling moths, adults emerging from pupae in bark and other overwintering spaces will mate, for a given moth, this migration can take place within a mere two to three hours. Effective control using any method, depends crucially on identifying when decisive moments such as these occur, Codling moth infestations are often managed with pesticides. Successful synthesis of codlemone, the codling moth female sex pheromone blend, has led to behavior-based monitoring, pheromone traps are used to capture male moths for monitoring and setting biofix, which is the time of first flight for codling moth. A kairomone, which is an attractant, can be used to capture males and females. Mating disruption can be used to effectively manage codling moth populations in many cases, mating disruption involves the use of a pheromone-impregnated release device, typically made of plastic or rubber. Dispensers are distributed throughout the orchard and emit female pheromone at a high, another method for control and sampling, trunk banding, consists of wrapping a corrugated cardboard strip around the tree trunk.
Larvae making their way down the tree to pupate after exiting the infested fruits will use bands as pupation sites, bands may be removed and burned. Recent trials of nontoxic kaolin clay-based sprays indicate an alternative means of codling moth suppression may be on the horizon. Codling moths and other pests find leaves and fruit covered in kaolin clay unfit for laying eggs, tiny particles of the clay tend to attach to their bodies and repelling them. In addition, trees covered in clay can make them less recognizable as habitat to codling moths