A mother is the female parent of a child. Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child, supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof; such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and first categories fall under the terms'birth mother' or'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, those who meet only the first or only the third a surrogacy mother. An adoptive mother is a female who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological mother is the female genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or egg donation.
A biological mother may have legal obligations to a child not raised by her, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative mother is a female whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established. A stepmother is a female, the wife of a child's father and they may form a family unit, but who does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child; the above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of'mother' may vary based on how social and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Motherhood and fatherhood are not limited to those who have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less applied to fathers or adoptive parents; the process of becoming a mother has been referred to as "matrescence".
The adjective "maternal" comparatively to "paternal" for a father. The verb "to mother" means to procreate or to sire a child from which derives the noun "mothering". Related terms of endearment are mom, mumsy and mammy. A female role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a mother-figure. Biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum. A female can become pregnant through sexual intercourse. In well-nourished girls, menarche takes place around the age of 12 or 13. A fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus. In humans, gestation is around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth; this is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation. Once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process; the mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune system, the sole source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods.
Childlessness is the state of not having children. Childlessness may have social or political significance. Childlessness may be voluntary childlessness, which occurs by choice, or may be involuntary due to health problems or social circumstances. Motherhood is voluntary, but may be the result of forced pregnancy, such as pregnancy from rape. Unwanted motherhood occurs in cultures which practice forced marriage and child marriage. Mother can apply to a woman other than the biological parent if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child; this is either an adoptive mother or a stepmother. The term "othermother" or "other mother" is used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother. Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history predating human civilization. Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more common.
Adoption in the United States is common and easy from a legal point of view. In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the US accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. A surrogate mother is a woman who bears a child that came from another woman's fertilized ovum on behalf of a couple unable to give birth to children, thus the surrogate mother carries and gives birth to a child that she is not the biological mother of. Surrogate motherhood became possible with advances in reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Not all women who become pregnant via in vitro fertilization are surrogate mothers. Surrogacy involves both a genetic mother, who provides the ovum, a gestational mother, who carries the child to term; the possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships to become mothers has increased over the past few decades due to technological developments. Mod
The Women's Prize for Fiction is one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious literary prizes, annually awarded to a female author of any nationality for the best original full-length novel written in English, published in the United Kingdom in the preceding year. The prize was due to be launched in 1994 with the support of Mitsubishi but public controversy over the merits of the award caused the sponsorship to be withdrawn. Funding from Orange, a UK mobile network operator and Internet service provider, allowed the prize to be launched in 1996 by a committee of male and female "journalists, agents, librarians, booksellers", including current Honorary Director Kate Mosse. In May 2012, it was announced. In 2012, the award was formally known as the "Women's Prize for Fiction", was sponsored by "private benefactors" led by Cherie Blair and writers Joanna Trollope and Elizabeth Buchan. In 2013, the new sponsor became Baileys. In January 2017 the company announced. In June 2017, the prize announced it would change its name to "Women's Prize for Fiction" starting in 2018, will be supported by a family of sponsors.
The prize was established to recognise the contribution of female writers, whom Mosse believed were overlooked in other major literary awards, in reaction to the all-male shortlist for the 1991 Booker Prize. The winner of the prize receives £30,000, along with a bronze sculpture called the Bessie created by artist Grizel Niven, the sister of actor and writer David Niven. A longlist of nominees is announced around March each year, followed by a shortlist in June; the winner is selected by a board of "five leading women" each year. In 2005, judges named Andrea Levy's Small Island as the "Orange of Oranges", the best novel of the preceding decade; the BBC suggests that the prize forms part of the "trinity" of UK literary prizes, along with the Booker Prize and the Costa Book Awards. Levy's 2004 winning book sold one million copies, while sales of Helen Dunmore's A Spell of Winter quadrupled after being awarded the inaugural prize. Valerie Martin's 2003 award saw her novel sales increase tenfold after the award, British libraries, who support the prize with various promotions, reported success in introducing people to new authors: "48% said that they had tried new writers as a result of the promotion, 42% said that they would try other books by the new authors they had read."However, the fact that the prize singles out female writers is not without controversy.
After the prize was founded, Auberon Waugh nicknamed it the "Lemon Prize" while Germaine Greer claimed there would soon be a prize for "writers with red hair". Winner of the 1990 Booker Prize, A. S. Byatt called it a "sexist prize", claiming "such a prize was never needed." In 1999, the chairwoman of the judges, Lola Young, said that the British fiction they were asked to appraise fell into two categories, either "insular and parochial" or "domestic in a piddling kind of way", unlike American authors who "take small, intimate stories and set them against this vast physical and cultural landscape, appealing.". Linda Grant suffered accusations of plagiarism following her award in 2000, while the following year, a panel of male critics produced their own shortlist and criticised the genuine shortlist. Though full of praise for the winner of the 2007 prize, the chair of the judging panel Muriel Gray decried the fact that the shortlist had to be whittled down from "a lot of dross", while former editor of The Times Simon Jenkins called it "sexist".
In 2008, writer Tim Lott called the award "a sexist con-trick" and said, "the Orange Prize is sexist and discriminatory, it should be shunned". No woman has won the award more than once but Margaret Atwood has been nominated three times without a win. Since the inaugural award to Helen Dunmore, British writers have won five times, while North American authors have secured the prize nine times. Orange Award for New Writers List of British literary awards List of years in literature "Orange Prize for Fiction – Archive". Orange. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2011. "Orange prize for fiction". The Guardian. London. 10 February 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2011. Women's Prize for Fiction, official website Shortlisted works for the Orange Prize at LibraryThing
Blue Parade is the first full-length album by Canadian artist Sarah Slean. "Playing Cards with Judas" "Bonnie's Song" "My Invitation" "Before Your Time" "Habit" "Twin Moon" "Awake Soon" "High" "Eliot" "Blue Parade" "Narcolepsy Weed" "I Want to be Brave" All songs by Sarah Slean Sarah Slean - vocals, wurlitzer, toy piano, rhodes Mark Mariash - drums, maracas, crazy moog on "Habit", glockenspiel on "Eliot", finger cymbals Drew Birston - bass, except for tracks 6 and 9 Maury Lafoy - bass on track 6 and 9 Kurt Swinghammer - guitars, electric sitar, moog bass on "High", feedback, e-bow, lap steel, loveton Kevin Fox - cello except track 11 Todd Lumley - Hammond B3, accordion Erin Donovan - vibraphone on track 2 Hayden - guest appearing on "Madeleine"