International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Automobile is an American automobile magazine published by TEN, The Enthusiast Network. A group of employees of Car and Driver led by David E. Davis founded Automobile in 1986 with support from Rupert Murdochs News Corporation – using the credo No Boring Cars. Unlike most other magazines, Automobile does not often do instrumented tests of cars or provide much technical data. Instead, the reviews of vehicles are subjective experiential reports with the cars in their naturally intended, Automobile reserves a good portion of each issue covering vehicles no longer in production, but still relevant to collectors or automotive history as a whole. For example, the magazine includes features such as Collectible Classic, a review of a particular older car. Automobile of the Year Automobile All-Stars http, //jalopnik. com/automobile-magazine-cuts-90-of-staff-and-fires-editor-1583277569 Official website
A minivan is a vehicle designed primarily for passengers, with two or three rows of seating accessed via large doors. In international markets, the minivan is classified as multi-purpose vehicle or people carrier, in North America, the term minivan derives from the size comparison to traditional full-size vans. Full-size vans derived their underpinnings upon full-size pickup trucks, while the first generation of minivans sold in North America derived from either compact pickup trucks or passenger cars. Predecessors include the 1936 Stout Scarab, which featured a removable table, the DKW Schnellaster, manufactured from 1949 to 1962 was one of the first vehicles to feature the characteristics of modern minivans. In 1950, the Volkswagen Type 2 adapted a bus-shaped body to the compact Volkswagen Beetle, Fiat built a similar vehicle, the 1956 Multipla based on the Fiat 600 with the same cab over engine and door layout. In 1972, designers at Ford Motor Company developed the Ford Carousel prototype as a variant of the redesign of the 1975 Ford E-Series.
The vehicle was never produced, due to the fuel crisis. Nearly a decade later, the concept was revisited by designers, in the late 1970s Chrysler began a six-year development program to design a small affordable van that looked and handled more like a car. The automaker introduced the first modern minivans in 1983, the front-wheel-drive Dodge Caravan, in Taiwan, the Taiwanese market features the Luxgen M7. BYD M6 is the choice of minivan in China. The Japanese market has had the Mazda Bongo since 1966 and more recently includes the Toyota Alphard, the Nissan Elgrand, in South Korea, minivans include the Kia Carnival and SsangYong Rodius. The Buick GL8 is produced and sold since 2000 in China under the Buick brand name by SAIC-GM, for the 1984 model year, the Chrysler minivans arrived on the market to great success. The minivan replaced the station wagon as the passenger car of choice in the US. In 1987 Chrysler introduced the extended-length minivans, the Chrysler Town & Country debuted in 1990.
The term minivan came into use in North America in contrast to full-size vans, the minivans market share peaked in 2000 with sales of 1.4 million units in US. This shrank to half a million in 2013. In 2014, sales of minivans in America increased 6% over 2013, the remaining 6% of the segment is shared largely by the Ford Transit Connect, Kia Sedona, Mazda 5, and Nissan Quest. Toyota, former models included the Van/Wagon from 1984 to 1989, General Motors, former models included the Chevrolet Astro/GMC Safari from 1985 to 2005, a rear-wheel drive minivan based on light trucks
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Four Wheeler was the first, and is the oldest, magazine for the 4x4 and off-road truck and SUV enthusiast. The first issue was published in February 1962, and in 2012, Four Wheeler is published monthly by Source Interlink Media and headquartered in El Segundo, California. The first Four Wheeler Top Truck Challenge took place in 1993, the last Top Truck Challenge was held in June,2015. Although competitors were selected by Four Wheeler readers, that process didn’t actually begin until 1995, competition vehicles no longer needed to be street legal starting with the 2004 Top Truck Challenge. Over the years, the challenges have included a course, a mini Rubicon trail. In 2012, Four Wheeler held the first-ever Top Truck Champions’ Challenge, segments from Top Truck Challenge have been broadcast on the Outdoor Channel. One of the most popular Four Wheeler writers was Granville King and he was Four Wheeler’s Baja correspondent from 1984 until the time of his death in 1989. Annually, Four Wheeler hands out two awards to automakers of new 4x4s, Four Wheeler of the Year and Pickup Truck of the Year.
As voted on by the editors, it is a competition that began in 1974 with the Four Wheeler Achievement Award. In 1989, pickup trucks were separated into the own contest, vehicles are evaluated in categories such as off-road performance, highway performance and empirical data and exterior. The 2016 competitions took place five days and 1,000 miles. No manufacturer has won both Four Wheeler of the Year and Pickup Truck of the Year in the same year. In 2012, Motor Trend included a behind the look at the Four Wheeler of the Year. Cohen,1986 Rich Johnson, 1984-1985 Dianne Jacob, 1983-1984 Julian G
Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is a touring car series using a silhouette racing car based in Germany, but with rounds elsewhere in Europe. From 2000 onwards, this new DTM continued the former Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, since 1997 many ideas have been discussed in order to find a compromise for rules of a new DTM. As too many races were planned outside Germany, no Championship status was granted by the DMSB, Alfa Romeo, who at the time were mounting successful campaigns in the European Touring Car Championship, did not return to the series. BMW was involved in the ETCC and was not satisfied with a championship only for Germany, Audi did not enter as they insisted on using their signature quattro 4WD. Unlike the previous incarnation which primarily used sedan models like the Mercedes-Benz W201, Opel used the upcoming Coupé version of the Astra as in the concept car, and Mercedes the CLK model which already was used as a pattern for the Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR. Attempts of Zakspeed to enter with a car looking like a Volvo C70 were not approved, the 1999 STW-Supertouring-champion Christian Abt could not defend his STW title as this series was discontinued, with Opel moving into DTM.
Abt used the Audi TT as a basis, as Audi had no suitable 2-door coupé, in May 2000, the new DTM started with the traditional Hockenheimring short track version. Some cars still had no or few sponsorship decals, while Opel could match the speed of most Mercedes in the 2000 season, the hastily developed Abt-Audis were mainly outclassed. As the TT shape had rather poor aerodynamic properties, Abt was allowed to use a form later. Further benefits like a rear wing helped the Abt-Audi TT-R win the DTM championship in 2002 with Laurent Aïello. In 2000, Manuel Reuter came second in the championship, after that year, no Opel driver was among the top three, with few podium finishes and no victory for the disappointing lightnings. The Opels did not win in most of their entries in the VLN endurance races as they were testing, but the speed was impressive. They won however the 2003 Nürburgring 24 Hours against factory efforts by Audi, after their successes with the Audi R8 and the official support of the Abt-TTRs at the Nürburgring, Audi finally joined the DTM as a factory entry in 2004.
The three constructors involved decided to switch to saloon bodies, the road models used as patterns since 2004 are the Audi A4, Opel Vectra GTS and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class. All dimensions, like wheelbase, are identical in order to equal opportunities without the actual design of the road cars having any influence. Initially the gap looked set to be filled by MG Rover, however their plans to enter the series were cancelled after the company collapsed in April 2005. Audi and Mercedes fielded 10 cars each in 2006, but the important television deal with the television station ARD required three marques in 2007. Rumours surfaced that Alfa Romeo would return to the DTM in 2007 and these rumors were helped by Alfa Romeo Sport boss Claudio Berro being seen in the Barcelona paddock
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2,1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House, the agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Scott Pruitt, the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the ten regions. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education and it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U. S. states, EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures. The agency works with industries and all levels of government in a variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs.
In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees, more than half of EPAs employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists, other employees include legal, public affairs and information technologists. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment, in the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on RCA, President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1,1970. The law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President, NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions significantly affecting the environment.
The detailed statement would ultimately be referred to as an impact statement. On July 9,1970, Nixon proposed a reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal, the agency’s first administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4,1970. In May 2013, Congress renamed the EPA headquarters as the William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building, the EPA is led by an Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. As of 2017 Scott Pruitt is the 14th administrator, each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agencys programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states
A sedan /sᵻˈdæn/ or saloon is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine and cargo. The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the compartment for adult passengers. The cargo compartment is typically in the rear, with the exception of some rear-engined models, such as the Renault Dauphine, Tatra T613, Volkswagen Type 3 and it is one of the most common car body styles. A battery electric sedan such as the Tesla Model S has no engine compartment, but a front cargo compartment, the primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the body style have a central pillar that supports the roof and come in two-. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body, popular in the U. S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare. For example,1962 Rambler Classic sedans feature identical windshield, A-pillar, roof, C-pillar, and rear window. A two- or four-door design built on a chassis, but with a shorter roof and interior space.
Originating from the car on a Pullman passenger train that was well appointed. A notchback sedan is a sedan, where the passenger volume is clearly distinct from the trunk volume of the vehicle. The roof is on one plane, generally parallel to the ground, the window at a sharp angle to the roof. A fastback sedan is a sedan, with continuous slope from the roof to the base of the decklid. They are not fastbacks because their bodyline changes from the roof to the rear deck and their steeply raked rear windows end with a decklid that does not continue down to the bumper. Instead, their ends are tall — sometimes in a Kammback style — to increase trunk space. Typically this design is chosen for its aerodynamic advantages, automakers can no longer afford the penalty in fuel consumption produced by the traditional notchback three box form. In historic terminology, a sedan will have a frame around the door windows, a true hardtop design has no center or B pillar for roof support behind the front doors).
This pillarless body style offers greater visibility, however, it requires extra underbody strengthening for structural rigidity. The hardtop design can be considered separately, or it can be called a hardtop sedan, during the 1960s and 1970s, hardtop sedans were often sold as sport sedans by several American manufacturers and they were among the top selling body styles
TCR International Series
The TCR International Series is an international Touring Car championship. The championship – founded by former World Touring Car Championship boss Marcello Lotti – is marketing itself as a cost-effective spin-off of the WTCC, on 15 July Lotti revealed further details on the TCR series. On the same day it was announced that the TCR series will award a Drivers Championship title, the number of teams will be limited to eight and the number of competitors to twenty-four. It was announced that the series run alongside Formula One at selected events. On 15 September the TCR organisation announced the first cars, regulations, Target Competition became the first team to confirm entry in the series and will run SEAT León Eurocup cars in 2015. Onyx Race Engineering has confirmed they are developing the Ford Focus for the championship, a week Paolo Coloni Racing announced plans to enter the championship in 2015. Team principal Paolo Coloni, son of F1-team founder Enzo Coloni, is known for its accomplishments in the GP2 Series in 2005, the team will confirm at a date their planned car and driver line-up.
On 31 October a provisional calendar for its season was released. It will consist of twelve weekends, four in Asia, five in Europe, on 7 November the fourth team was announced, the Swedish STCC team WestCoast Racing will join the series with three Honda Civics build by JAS Motorsport. On 20 November Liqui Moly Team Engstler announced they will participate with Volkswagen Golfs, on 5 December the series was approved by the FIA and renamed TCR International Series instead of using the original TC3 International Series name. On 27 January Marcello Lotti announced three new teams for the season, Zengő Motorsport, Proteam Racing and Campos Racing. On 13 February Jordi Oriola announced he will be driving a Target Competition SEAT at Valencia and Monza, on 20 March the TCR International Series organisation announced the first TV deals for the inaugural season. On 29 May, David Sonenscher announces the TCR Thailand Series, on 15 September 2014, technical regulations for the category were announced.
On 22 January 2016, minor changes were applied.20 metresMaximum overall width,1.95 metresEngine, David Sonenscher, boss of the company Motorsport Asia, will be maintaining the series. He has previously run the Asian Touring Car Series and the Porsche Carrera Cup Asia, initially seven races were planned for 2015, but were reduced to 5 and the final calendar was with 4. The Singapore and Thailand rounds will be run together with the TCR International Series, in December 2014 the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium and Kronos Events announced the formation of the TCR Benelux Touring Car Championship. The inaugural season is set for 2016 with one-off event planned for 15 October 2015 at the Circuit Jules Tacheny Mettet, the schedule consists of seven rounds in the Benelux region, across Belgium and Luxembourg. Each round includes five races, a 60 minutes endurance race, with pit stop