Tesla Model S
The Tesla Model S is a full-sized all-electric five-door, luxury liftback, produced by Tesla Inc. and introduced in June 2012. EPA rated the 2012 85kWh Model Ss energy consumption at 237.5 watt-hours per kilometer for a fuel economy of 89 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent. In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to closely match that of the Model X, as of January 2017, the following versions are available,60, 60D,75, 75D, 90D and P100D. Owners of the earlier 70 and 70D Model S have the option to unlock the 75 kWh capacity via a software update, adding up to 19 miles per charge. The 60 and 60D Model S, reintroduced in June 2016, have a US$9,000 option to unlock the full 75 kWh capacity via a software update any time after purchase, in August 2016, Tesla introduced the P100D as the new top-level model. The P100D model has a 100 kWh battery, a 0–60 mph time of 2.28 seconds, and over 300 miles of EPA rated range. The Model S became the first electric car to top the new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and December 2013.
Global Model S sales passed the 150,000 unit milestone in November 2016, other leading country markets are Norway, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Denmark and Switzerland. The Tesla Model S has ranked as the worlds best-selling plug-in electric car for two years in a row,2015 and 2016, the Model S ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in the U. S. for two years running,2015 and 2016. As of December 2016, the Model S is the second best selling plug-in electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf. In 2015, Car and Driver named the Model S the Car of the Century, after declining to recommend the Model S in 2015 due to reliability issues, one year Consumer Reports added the car to the magazines recommended list. The Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who worked for Mazda North American Operations. The car was codenamed WhiteStar during research and preliminary development and it was officially announced in a press release on June 30,2008. The prototype vehicle was displayed at a conference on March 26,2009.
In February 2008 it was reported that Tesla Inc. was planning to offer a version of its Model S. This version would have included an engine to extend the driving range of the vehicle. At the GoingGreen conference in September 2008 Teslas CEO, Elon Musk, construction of an assembly factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was cancelled. A factory to be built in San Jose, California was announced, in May 2010 Tesla announced it would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI assembly plant in Fremont, now known as the Tesla Factory
Toyota Prius (XW20)
The Toyota Prius is a full series-parallel hybrid electric mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The second generation Prius had been redesigned as a mid-size hatchback. The XW20 series represented the second generation of the Toyota Prius, Toyota sold about 1,192,000 of the second generation Prius worldwide. In 1999, Toyota began development on a second generation Prius under chief engineer Shigeyuki Hori, in 2001, Hiroshi Okamotos exterior design was approved and frozen for production. The 2004 Prius is even more environmentally-friendly than the 1997–2003 model and its more aerodynamic Kammback body balances length and wind resistance resulting in a drag coefficient of 0.26. Chief engineer Shigeyuki Horis development effort, led to 530 patents for the vehicle, the Prius uses an all-electric A/C compressor for cooling, an industry first, and adds an electric power steering system to further minimize engine belt-driven engine accessories. Combined with a smaller and lighter NiMH battery, the XW20 is more powerful, in the U. S.
the battery pack of the 2004 Prius is warranted for 100,000 miles or 8 years. The warranty for hybrid components in California and the seven Northeastern states that have adopted the stricter California emission control standards is 150,000 miles or 10 years. The second generation Toyota Prius makes use of a 201. 6-volt NiMH battery composed of 28 modules, the 7. 2-volt modules each contain a charge controller and a relay. The 28 modules are connected in series to produce an energy storage capacity of 1.310 kWh. The shallow cycling enables the battery to last tens of thousands of cycles. The computer controlled charging and discharging of the battery enhances its cycle life, calendar life and it is classified as a SULEV and is certified by California Air Resources Board as an Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle. Among the Priuss options are Toyotas implementation of a Smart Key System, DVD navigation on the display, Vehicle Stability Control. A new Intelligent Parking Assist system was available in Japan and Europe since its launch, from 2005 to 2009, the second generation Prius had been built by FAW-Toyota in the city of Changchun for the Chinese market.
It was reported that a total of 2,152 Prius were sold in 2006 and 414 in 2007. The relatively low sales was blamed on price, about US$15,000 higher than the equivalent in Japan or the U. S. caused by high duties on imported parts. In early March 2008, Toyota cut the price of Prius by up to eight percent or US$3,000 to CN¥259,800 and it was thought that the sales dropped as a result of both a lack of acceptance and increased competition. The Honda Civic Hybrid was exported to China from 2007, Toyotas design and development efforts paid off during the 2005 European Car of the Year competition where the Prius won ahead of the Citroën C4 and the Ford Focus
The Cadillac Seville is a luxury car that was manufactured by Cadillac from 1975 to 2004, as a smaller-sized premium Cadillac. Despite its smaller size, the Seville typically carried the highest price tag among Cadillacs sedan models and it was replaced by the Cadillac STS in 2005. After painstaking research, LaSalle was the top pick, with St. Moritz a distant second, a troubled past and difficult pronunciation, cleared the way for Sevilles use. Seville is a Spanish province and the city of that province, renowned for its history and its treasures of art. The Spanish master painters Diego Velázquez and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo were from Seville, the Seville name first entered use by Cadillac as the designation for the two-door hardtop version of the 1956 Cadillac Eldorado. 1960 was the last model year for the Eldorado Seville, the Seville, introduced in May 1975, was Cadillacs answer to the rising popularity of such European luxury imports as Mercedes-Benz and BMW. GM planners were becoming concerned that the divisions once-vaunted image as The standard of the world was fading as the 1970s unfolded, especially among the younger generation of car buyers.
Seeking to counter Cadillacs heavy slant towards the age group. Over time European luxury cars had become quite luxurious and even more expensive than the much larger Cadillacs, as the market share of these imports continued to climb, it became obvious that the traditional American automotive paradigm of bigger equals better had begun to falter. The Seville became the smallest and most expensive model in the lineup, Full size design prototypes were created as early as winter of 1972-73. Subsequent design prototypes looked more edgy, styling took strong cues from the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow. Substantial re-engineering and upgrades from these humble origins earned it the unique designation K-body, shared with the corporate X platform was part of the roof stamping and trunk floor pan. Cadillac stylists added a crisp, angular body that set the tone for GM styling for the decade, along with a wide-track stance giving car a substantial. The wrap-around taillights might have come from a sketch of a rejected Coupe DeVille concept.
Another proposal during the development of the Seville was a front-wheel drive layout similar to the Cadillac Eldorado and this proposal met with budget concerns since the transaxle used for the Eldorado was produced on a limited basis solely for E-body production, alongside the GMC motorhome of the mid-1970s. This was the first time Cadillac began engineering one of its vehicles based on previously used in a Chevrolet model. Introduced in mid-1975 and billed as the new internationally-sized Cadillac, the Seville was almost 1,000 pounds lighter than the full-sized Deville, the Seville was thus more nimble and easier to park, as well as remaining attractive to customers with the full complement of Cadillac features. More expensive than every other Cadillac model at US$12,479 and it spawned several imitators including models like the Lincoln Versailles, and the Chrysler LeBaron
A caliper is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing points. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured, the caliper is removed and it is used in many fields such as mechanical engineering, forestry, woodworking and medicine. A plurale tantum sense of the word calipers coexists in natural usage with the regular noun sense of caliper, existing colloquially but not in formal usage is referring to a vernier caliper as a vernier or a pair of verniers. In imprecise colloquial usage, some extend this even to dial calipers. In machine-shop usage, the caliper is often used in contradistinction to micrometer. In this usage, caliper implies only the factor of the vernier or dial caliper. The earliest caliper has been found in the Greek Giglio wreck near the Italian coast, the ship find dates to the 6th century BC. The wooden piece already featured a fixed and a movable jaw, although rare finds, caliper remained in use by the Greeks and Romans.
A bronze caliper, dating from 9 AD, was used for minute measurements during the Chinese Xin dynasty, the caliper had an inscription stating that it was made on a gui-you day at new moon of the first month of the first year of the Shijian guo period. The calipers included a slot and pin and graduated in inches, the modern vernier caliper, reading to thousandths of an inch, was invented by American Joseph R. Brown in 1851. It was the first practical tool for exact measurements that could be sold at a price within the reach of ordinary machinists, the inside calipers are used to measure the internal size of an object. The upper caliper in the image requires manual adjustment prior to fitting, fine setting of this caliper type is performed by tapping the caliper legs lightly on a handy surface until they will almost pass over the object. A light push against the resistance of the pivot screw spreads the legs to the correct dimension and provides the required. The lower caliper in the image has a screw that permits it to be carefully adjusted without removal of the tool from the workpiece.
Outside calipers are used to measure the size of an object. The same observations and technique apply to this type of caliper, with some understanding of their limitations and usage, these instruments can provide a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. They are especially useful when measuring over very large distances, consider if the calipers are used to measure a large diameter pipe, a vernier caliper does not have the depth capacity to straddle this large diameter while at the same time reach the outermost points of the pipes diameter
Honda Civic (eighth generation)
The eighth generation of the Honda Civic was introduced in September 2005, for the 2006 model year. This generation introduced the instrument panel. In many countries, all models come standard with power windows, anti-lock brakes, the 2006 models acquired ULEV-2 certification and boast a more powerful 1. 8-litre engine than the 2005 counterparts while retaining almost equal fuel economy. In the North American market, the sedan and coupe styles are available, the sedan and coupe are available in several trim levels. The Hybrid only comes as a sedan, while the Si coupe was joined by a sedan in 2007, in Canada, the Japanese-market type Civic 2. 0GL is sold as the Acura CSX, and uses a 155 hp K20Z2. A CSX Type-S is sold, which is similar, while the arcing line sweeping across the front fascia is retained, the main headlights dip away from the main arc for a more sporty appearance. The front bumper has more vents with a steeper angle, the taillights are more reminiscent of the Integra, with the main round brake lights dipping slightly down into the indicators.
By contrast, the taillights of the U. S, Civic resemble those of an Audi A4. On the interior side, the Asian-market Civic has contrasting two tone colour scheme, the three-spoke steering wheel from the American Civic Si and the European hatchback is standard. There is a 1. 6-litre variant available in Singapore and Turkey, a vehicles in the vehicle numbers curbing system in Singapore, while maintaining a higher standard than the 1.3 L variant. It uses an SOHC i-VTEC engine, similar to that of the 1. 8-litre variant and it produces 123 bhp at 6500 rpm. For the hybrid, there is the 1. 3-litre SOHC i-VTEC with the IMA, in Israel, South Africa, Australia and Republic of Ireland, both the 4-door Asian and 5-door European Civic models are available. In certain European countries, the four-door JDM Civic is available with the hybrid powertrain, in other markets where sedans are more popular, a range of sedans similar to the JDM models are available with the 1.8 L i-VTEC. In Singapore and Brunei, the 3-door European Civic Type R was available.
In the Philippines, the Civic is offered in 3 grades, the entry-level 1.8 V, producing 140 bhp at 6300 rpm, and mated to either a 5-speed manual transmission or 5-speed automatic transmission. The 1.8 S has the features as the V, however, it had different wheels, which is a 15 alloy. The 2.0 S produces 155 bhp at 6000 rpm, the S-L is only mated to a 5-speed automatic transmission with paddle shifters, while the manual transmission version has been discontinued. The S-L variant has a 17 7-spoke alloy wheels, 3-spoke leather steering wheel, HID lamps, all of the variants has a digital instrumental gauge
Chevrolet Corvette (C5)
The Chevrolet Corvette was the fifth generation of the Chevrolet Corvette sports car, produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1997 through 2004 model years. A major change from its predecessor the C4, the C5 featured a box frame. To improve handling, the transmission was relocated to form an integrated, rear-mounted transaxle assembly, connected to the all-new LS1 engine via a torque tube, the engine/transmission arrangement enabled a 50-50% front-rear weight distribution. The LS1 engine initially produced 345 hp, subsequently increased in 2001 to 350 hp, the 4L60-E automatic transmission carried over from previous models, but the manual was replaced by a Borg-Warner T-56 6-speed capable of a 175 mph top speed. Relative to the C4, the new platform and structural design substantially reduced squeaks, in the inaugural model year, only the fastback coupé was offered, with the convertible – the first to offer a trunk since 1962 – following in 1998. In 1999, a body style, the hardtop, was added to the lineup.
This body style, as its name suggests, featured a top with a roofline shape and trunk space similar to that of the convertible. Aside from cosmetic differences, horsepower boosts, and new offerings for optional equipment, one of the more popular high-tech options introduced to the Corvette line was a head-up display or HUD, while another innovation was the Active Handling System. The C5 was the first Corvette to incorporate a drive-by-wire throttle, a number of factors are responsible for this, the relatively light weight of the C5, the C5s low drag coefficient, and the vehicles tendency to upshift into the higher gears as soon as possible. Late in the run, the F55 Magnetic Selective Ride Control Suspension replaced the F45 as the third suspension choice. The racing-inspired FE4 suspension used for the Z06 is stiffer again than any offered on the base model C5, the C5s suspension consisted of independent unequal-length double wishbones with transverse fiberglass mono-leaf springs and optional magnetorheological dampers.
The C5 is capable of matching or besting the 0–60 mph acceleration times of some of the premier sports cars, including the Aston Martin DB7 Vantage. A composite of published performance numbers for the base-model coupé and convertible gives a 0–60 mph time of around 4.5 seconds, SMC provides better protection against direct blows because it is very stiff and will not dent. The floor boards on the C5 are a sandwich of SMC with balsa wood in the middle. Balsa wood was chosen for its stiffness, light weight. The composite leaf springs are much lighter and sit lower than typical coil springs and help provide the C5 with its excellent ride characteristics. A successor to the ZR-1 made its debut in 2001 as the Z06, instead of a heavy, double-overhead cam engine like in the ZR-1, the Z06 used a high-output, tuned version of the standard LS1 Corvette engine, which initially produced 385 hp. Although its total output was less than that of the last ZR-1, the Z06 was much lighter
The Ford Probe is a liftback coupé produced by Ford, introduced in 1989 which replaced the Ford EXP as the companys sport compact car. The Probe was fully based on the Mazda G-platform using unique sheet metal, the instrument cluster and pop-up headlight mechanisms are borrowed from the FC RX-7. During that time, Fords marketing team had deemed that a front-wheel drive platform would have lower costs for production, Mustang fans objected to the front-wheel drive configuration, Japanese engineering, and lack of a V8, so Ford began work on a new design for the Mustang instead. On March 17,1997, Ford announced the discontinuation of the Probe, starting in the late 1970s, Ford and Ghia started exploring a series of futuristic designs with the Probe series of concept vehicles. The Probe I, first shown in 1979, was a design that incorporated a number of drag-reducing features like covered rear wheels. This was followed the year by a much more conventional looking Probe II. The 1981 Probe III was a demonstrator with covered wheels.
The 1982 Probe IV was a radical concept car with a low Cd. After the 1979 energy crisis, the economic slump initiated by high fuel prices prompted Ford to give the Ford Mustang a major redesign, the new design would be based on a totally new platform introduced to Ford by Japanese car manufacturer and Ford partner Mazda. The car was released, not as a Ford Mustang. The Ford Probe is a product of the joint Ford and Mazda venture called the AutoAlliance International, both generations of the Probe were sold in Japan as Fords, at Ford/Mazda sales channels called Autorama. The Ford Probe was introduced to the U. S. market in 1989 and was different from the Mazda MX-6. The Ford Probe shares most of its parts with the Mazda MX-6 and 626. Both the Ford Probe and the Mazda MX-6 were based on the Mazda GD platform from 1988 to 1992, initially planned to replace Mustang, Ford executives expected the Probe to achieve success in the market. However, the car short of Ford’s expectations. The Probes styling, while modern, was not universally accepted and it was not affordable, making many buyers choose another, more-prestigious brand, for the price of a Ford Probe.
The first generation Ford Probe was based on the Mazda GD platform and it debuted in 1988 for the 1989 model year and was produced until 1993 in the United States. The Probe was available in several levels that differ depending on the market in which the vehicle was sold
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Chevrolet Camaro (sixth generation)
The sixth generation Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car produced by Chevrolet that was first revealed to the public on May 16,2015. Sales started in 2015 for the 2016 model year, the sixth generation Camaro now utilizes the GM Alpha platform shared with the Cadillac ATS and CTS and features MacPherson struts in front, rather than the former Multi-link setup. General Motors claims that 70 percent of components in the new Camaro are unique to the car. The sixth generation Camaro sees production return to the United States, like its predecessor, the sixth generation Chevrolet Camaro is available in coupe and convertible bodystyles. Compared to the generation, it is 2.3 in shorter,0.8 in less wide and 1.1 in shorter in height. With similar equipment and engine, it is more than 200 lb lighter. Trim levels introduced at launch include 1LT, 2LT, 1SS, standard equipment on all trims includes automatic air conditioning, cruise control, tilt/telescoping steering-wheel, satellite radio, parking assist and seven airbags.
A ZL1 trim level with a supercharged 6 and it features wider front fenders to accommodate wider tires for improved handling, unique rockers and Magnetic Ride suspension. Transmission choices are a rev matching six-speed manual or a new 10-speed automatic, the 10-speed 10R90 gearbox was lead designed and patented by Ford. To reflect this, GM uses Fords alphanumeric nomenclature of R rather than L, the Ford unit is adapted for use behind GM engines by using a different bell housing, and shift logic calibration. In October,2016, Chevrolet announced that there would be a 2017 base 1LS trim level of the Camaro that would be introduced by the end of November,2016, the 1LT trim now receives the 8-speed automatic transmission with shift paddles as standard equipment for 2017. Pricing for the 1LS trim will start at around $26,000 and this follows the announcement that Chevrolet would be lowering prices throughout the 2017 Camaro lineup. For the 2017 Model Year the 1LE packages return, tailored for V6 and it is available on 1LT and 2LT trims, it trails the sixth generation Ford Mustangs Ecoboost 4-cylinder by 35 bhp.
The 3.6 L LGX V6 generates 335 bhp @6,800 rpm and 284 lb·ft of torque @5,300 rpm and it is 12 bhp greater than the previous generations V6 and 35 bhp more than the sixth generation Mustangs V6. The 6.2 L LT1 V8 is shared with the Chevrolet Corvette, the 6.2 L LT4 V8 will be featured on the ZL1 models. Output is 650 bhp and 650 lb·ft of torque, the 2017 Camaro ZL1 will accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.5 seconds, covering the 1/4 mile in 11.4 seconds @127 mph. The ZL1s official top speed is 198 mph, all engines are available with 6-speed manual and 8-speed automatic transmissions except for the ZL1 models which use a 10-speed automatic in addition to a 7-speed manual found in the Z06. Motor Trend Magazine 2016 Car of the Year
Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was premiered in June 2015, with launch scheduled for February 2016. The Giulia is the first saloon by Alfa Romeo in over two decades to use a longitudinal engined rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75 was discontinued in 1992, Giulia was second in the Car of the Year 2017 competition. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates and it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engined, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed Giorgio. Development of the Giulia, and indeed of the entire Giorgio project, has been overseen by Ferrari technical director and secondee, the occasion coincided with companys 105th anniversary, which saw the company debuted a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models. The Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan, the car is assembled at FCA Italys Cassino Plant in, in central Italy.
Pre-series production emerged in late August 2015, with production and sales originally scheduled for November 2015 and February 2016. The production of Giulia started on 19 April 2016, the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an even 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution. Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front, All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered, besides the high-performance Quadrifoglios twin turbo 90° V6, the engine line-up will comprise turbocharged six- and four-cylinder petrol engines, as well as six- and four-cylinder turbodiesels. A four-cylinder and a V6, the latter different from the Quadrifoglios, diesel engines are built in Pratola Serra plant. The first models on sale from February 2016 will be the new 2.2 L Multijet II turbodiesel and the 2.9 L V6 Quadrifoglio.
A2.0 L MultiAir2 turbo petrol engine was announced at the time of the Giulia Quadrifoglio making its North American debut at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2015,2.0 liter gasoline engines are part of all new FCA Global Medium Engine family. Alfa version of GME will share up to 70% parts with GME for other FCA brands, the eight-speed automatic transmission is co-developed with ZF. The high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range to be revealed and it made its official world debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Carabinieri took delivery of two Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglios wrapped in blue paint, that appear virtually black. They sport red stripes over the car and have flashing lights over the chin spoilers, the Quadrifoglio competes with cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V. The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium, twin-turbocharged 90° V6 petrol engine, with a displacement of just under half a litre
Ford Thunderbird (second generation)
The second generation of the Ford Thunderbird was the first personal luxury car, and won Motor Trend Car of the Year in 1958. It was produced by Ford for the 1958 to 1960 model years, while intended as the successor for the 1955-1957 two-seater, two major changes were made to attract potential buyers. Convertible and fixed-roof pillarless hardtop bodystyles were offered, whereas the first generation models had been available with a detachable hard top. Most visibly, the 1958 Thunderbird was nearly two feet longer as Ford had added two seats to the vehicle. Along with the 1958 Lincolns, the 1958 Thunderbird was the first Ford Motor Company vehicle designed with unibody construction, although the 1955-1957 Ford Thunderbird had proved successful, Ford executives—particularly Robert McNamara—still felt its overall sales volume had room to improve. Market research suggested sales of the Thunderbird were limited by its two-seat configuration, as a response, Ford executives decided to add a rear seat to the Thunderbird.
The new Thunderbird had a new styling theme. The design was entirely by the styling department and approved before the engineering was considered. The design was one of two proposals, styled primarily by Joe Oros, who worked on the 1964 Ford Mustang. However, the proposal, styled by Elwood Engel, would gain its own place in Ford Motor Company history, after minor revisions. The four-seat Thunderbird was designed with construction, eschewing a separate chassis. The intent was to allow the interior space in a relatively small exterior package. The 1958 Thunderbird was only 52.5 inches tall, nearly 9 inches shorter than an average American sedan, the remainder of the engineering was conventional. Fords new 300-hp FE-series engine was used, with 352 cu in displacement, standard transmission remained a three-speed manual transmission, with optional overdrive or Cruise-O-Matic three-speed automatic transmission. Front suspension was independent, with springs and unequal-length A-arms. The rear was initially a live axle suspended by coil springs, drum brakes were used at all four wheels.
Various delays conspired to have production start only on December 20,1957, much than the normal September start, the new Thunderbird captured Motor Trends Car of the Year award in its debut season, making history as the first individual model line to do so. Only 2,134 convertibles were built, the convertible did not go on sale until June 1958, for the 1959 model year, Ford made changes to the front and side ornamentation, leather upholstery was available for the first time
The Ford Torino is an automobile which was produced by Ford for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. It was a competitor in the market segment. The car was named after the city of Turin, considered the Italian Detroit, the Torino was initially an upscale variation of the intermediate sized Ford Fairlane, which Ford produced between 1955 and 1970. After 1968, the Fairlane name was retained for the models with lower levels of trim than those models which wore the Torino name. During this time, the Torino was considered a subseries to the Fairlane, by 1970 Torino had become the primary name for Fords intermediate, and the Fairlane was now a subseries of the Torino. In 1971 the Fairlane name was dropped altogether, and all Ford intermediates were called Torino and this name was one of several originally proposed for the Mustang while in development. The Torino was essentially a twin to the Mercury Montego line, most Torinos were conventional cars, and generally the most popular models were the 4-door sedans and 2-door hardtops.
However, Ford produced some versions of the Torino by fitting them with large powerful engines. These cars are classified as muscle cars, Ford chose the Torino as the base for its NASCAR entrants, and it has a successful racing heritage. In 1968 Ford Motor Company introduced its line with a new body. Along with the new body and styling came a new subseries in the Fairlane line, the Fairlane name continued to be used for lower level models, and the Torino was considered a sub-series to the Fairlane during this time. The 1968 Fairlane and Torino used the same wheelbases as its 1967 predecessor,116 in on 2- and 4-door models, styling was all new for the 1968 Fairlane/Torino, and it was drastically changed from the 1967 models. The new intermediate had grown in size and weight, and a new model was added. The front fascia featured a full width recessed grille, with quad headlights placed at the outer edges. Horizontal dividing bars were featured in the grille depending on the model, parking lights were placed at the outer edge of the front fenders and wrapped around the corner to act as side marker lights.
The body sides were smooth with one horizontal body crease running just below the beltline from front to back, the taillights were rectangular in shape and vertically situated in the rear panel above rear bumper. Reverse lights were located in the middle of the taillights, Fastback models, which Ford called SportsRoof, featured a slightly concaved rear taillight panel unique to that body style. The new SportsRoof body style featured a gently sloped long roof line that extended to the edge of the trunk lid and this new fastback body style gave the Fairlane and the Torino excellent aerodynamics that would prove to be advantageous on the race track