A motorboat, speedboat, or powerboat is a boat, powered by an engine. Some motorboats are fitted with inboard engines, others have an outboard motor installed on the rear, containing the internal combustion engine, the gearbox and the propeller in one portable unit. An inboard-outboard contains a hybrid of an inboard and an outboard, where the internal combustion engine is installed inside the boat, the gearbox and propeller are outside. There are two configurations of an V-drive and direct drive. A direct drive has the powerplant mounted near the middle of the boat with the propeller shaft straight out the back, where a V-drive has the powerplant mounted in the back of the boat facing backwards having the shaft go towards the front of the boat making a V towards the rear; the V-drive has become popular due to wakeboarding and wakesurfing. Although the screw propeller had been added to an engine as early as the 18th century in Birmingham, England, by James Watt, boats powered by a petrol engine only came about in the part of the 19th century with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
The earliest boat to be powered by a petrol engine was tested on the Neckar River by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1886, when they tested their new "longcase clock" engine. It had been constructed in the former greenhouse in Daimler's back yard; the first public display took place on the Waldsee in Cannstatt, today a suburb of Stuttgart, at the end of that year. The engine of this boat had a single cylinder of 1 horse power. Daimler's second launch in 1887 had a second cylinder positioned at an angle of 15 degrees to the first one, was known as the "V-type"; the first successful motor boat was designed by the Priestman Brothers in Hull, under the direction of William Dent Priestman. The company began trials of their first motorboat in 1888; the engine was used an innovative high-tension ignition system. The company was the first to begin large scale production of the motor boat, by 1890, Priestman's boats were being used for towing goods along canals. Another early pioneer was Mr. J. D. Roots, who in 1891 fitted a launch with an internal combustion engine and operated a ferry service between Richmond and Wandsworth along the River Thames during the seasons of 1891 and 1892.
The eminent inventor Frederick William Lanchester recognized the potential of the motorboat and over the following 15 years, in collaboration with his brother George, perfected the modern motorboat, or powerboat. Working in the garden of their home in Olton, they designed and built a river flat-bottomed launch with an advanced high-revving engine that drove via a stern paddle wheel in 1893. In 1897, he produced a second engine similar in design to his previous one but running on benzene at 800 r.p.m. The engine drove a reversible propeller. An important part of his new engine was the revolutionary carburettor, for mixing the fuel and air correctly, his invention was known as a "wick carburetor", because fuel was drawn into a series of wicks, from where it was vaporized. He patented this invention in 1905; the Daimler Company began production of motor boats in 1897 from its manufacturing base in Coventry. The engines had two cylinders and the explosive charge of petroleum and air was ignited by compression into a heated platinum tube.
The engine gave about six horse-power. The petrol was fed by air pressure to a large surface carburettor and an auxiliary tank which supplied the burners for heating the ignition tubes. Reversal of the propeller was effected by means of two bevel friction wheels which engaged with two larger bevel friction wheels, the intermediate shaft being temporarily disconnected for this purpose, it was not until 1901 that a safer apparatus for igniting the fuel with an electric spark was used in motor boats. Interest in fast motorboats grew in the early years of the 20th century; the Marine Motor Association was formed in 1903 as an offshoot of the Royal Automobile Club. Motor Boat & Yachting was the first magazine to address technical developments in the field and was brought out by Temple Press, London from 1904. Large manufacturing companies, including Napier & Son and Thornycroft began producing motorboats; the first motorboating competition was established by Alfred Charles William Harmsworth in 1903.
The Harmsworth Cup was envisioned as a contest between nations, rather than between boats or individuals. The boats were to be designed and built by residents of the country represented, using materials and units built wholly within that country; the first competition, held in July 1903, at Cork Harbour in Ireland, officiated by the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland and the Royal Victoria Yacht Club, was a primitive affair, with many boats failing to start. The competition was won by Dorothy Levitt in a Napier launch designed to the specifications of Selwyn Edge; this motorboat was the first proper motorboat designed for high speed. She set the world's first water speed record when she achieved 19.3 mph in a 40-foot steel-hulled, 75-horsepower Napier speedboat fitted with a three-blade propeller. As both the owner and entrant of the boat, "S. F. Edge" was engraved on the trophy as the winner. An article in the Cork Constitution on 13 July reported "A large number of spectators viewed the first mile from the promenade of the Yacht Club, at Cork several thousand people collected at both sides of the river to see the finishes."
Levitt was commanded to the Royal yacht of King Edward VII where he congratulated her on her pluck and skill, they discussed the performance of the motorboat and its potential for British government despatch work. France w
Douglas E. "Doug" Berger is an attorney, former prosecutor and Democratic politician who served as a member of the North Carolina General Assembly representing the state's 7th Senate district for four terms, starting in 2005. His district included Franklin, Granville and Warren counties. Berger is the former senator for district 18, he was born in Miami and raised in Smithfield, North Carolina where his father Jack Berger owned and operated a metal fabrication shop "Ace Welding" from 1966 to 1996. In 1978, he graduated from Smithfield Selma High School where he served as the president of his high school political science club and editorial editor of his high school newspaper. From 1978 to 1982, he attended and graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he earned Bachelor of Arts Degrees in Political Science and Speech Communications. During his college years he became involved in a wide range of political activities, he worked as a volunteer in the John B. Anderson campaign for president in 1980.
Following the 1980 campaign, he initiated the first college chapter of "Americans for Common Sense", a political group led nationally by former presidential candidate George McGovern. Upon graduation, he was employed by Ralph Nader's organization, PIRG. In October 1982, he initiated the South Africa divestment movement at UNC when he produced a report showing how UNC was investing in companies operating in South Africa. In 1982, he organized students to support and participate in the effort to stop the dumping of PCBs in Warren County. From 1983 to 1985, he attended the UNC School of Law. In 1983, he organized a campus political party that won 13 out of 27 seats on the student government legislative council, he was elected as a campus representative to serve the UNC School of Law. In 1985, he ran for student body president coming in first out of a field of 9 candidates only to lose in a runoff. From 1985 to 1988, he served as a public school teacher in Kinston, North Carolina, where he taught North Carolina History, United States History and World History.
In 1989, he returned to law school and graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Law. In 1990, he started his legal career as an Assistant District Attorney for the 11th Judicial District prosecuting cases ranging from DWI, sexual assault to murder cases, he moved to the 9th Judicial District where he served as an Assistant District Attorney from 1991 to 1994. He prosecuted cases in Warren, Granville & Vance Counties. From 1994 through 2004, he served in a judicial capacity as a Deputy Commissioner at the North Carolina Industrial Commission, where he rendered over 500 decisions. Berger was first elected in North Carolina's seventh Senate District in 2004, he ran for the Senate after a losing bid for the state's Commissioner of Labor in 2000. During his race for North Carolina Commissioner of Labor, North Carolina Democratic Party leaders questioned Berger's past involvement with the Democratic Socialists of America. A private internal memo between two party leaders became public during the N.
C. Board of Elections investigation of former N. C. Governor Mike Easley; the memo's author states, "We need to decide whether it's worth attempting to find a replacement for Berger now. If not we need to work on a damn good response to the attack." Berger's involvement with the socialist group became an issue in the general election campaign being cited in several news reports. The Associated Press and Triangle Business Journal wrote about his socialist past during the 2000 election; the Carolina Journal brought it up again during Berger's first race for state senate. Berger defeated Republican Harold Frazier in 2004 with 57% percent of the vote; the election box below shows the results of his subsequent elections. Berger joined the Law Offices of James Scott Farrin in 2005 where he handles Workers’ Compensation litigation and dispute resolution. Berger is a member of the North Carolina State Bar, the North Carolina Bar Association, the State Employees Association of North Carolina and the North Carolina Advocates for Justice.
Günter Pröpper is a retired German footballer who played as a forward. Born in Dorsten, Pröpper started his career in amateur football before joining VfL Osnabrück in 1964, he spent three seasons with the club, moving on to Rot-Weiss Essen in 1967. Two years he joined Wuppertaler SV, where he played for the remainder of his career. A prolific goalscorer, Pröpper set the German record for most goals in a season in 1971–72, scoring 52 goals in 34 league games. By the end of his career, he had scored 258 goals, the joint-eighth highest total in German football history. Pröpper was born on 8 December 1941 in Dorsten, a town in the North Rhine-Westphalia region of Germany, he began his career playing amateur football in his home town for BVH Dorsten, a team which two of his brothers and Erich played for, helped the club achieve promotion to the Verbandsliga, the highest level of amateur football at the time. After an impressive first season in the Verbandsliga, with the club finishing in fifth place, a number of players had attracted the attention of bigger clubs, in 1964, Pröpper joined Regionalliga side VfL Osnabrück.
He spent three years at the club, was top scorer in the 1966–67 season of the Regionalliga Nord with 25 goals. He subsequently joined Rot-Weiss Essen in 1967. After a good first season with Essen, Pröpper was dropped to the bench during the following season by new coach Kuno Klötzer. Despite being the club's second highest scorer in the 1968–69 season, Pröpper was not a regular in the side, was sold to Wuppertaler SV for DM 30,000 in 1969. Pröpper's most successful season came in 1971–72. In the third game of the season, he scored five goals in a game against SpVgg Erkenschwick, in October 1971, Wuppertal had an away match against Pröpper's former club Rot-Weiss Essen, he went on to score four times in an eventual 5–0 win, received a standing ovation from both sets of supporters as he was substituted. By the end of the season, Pröpper had scored a total of 52 goals in 34 league games – a record in German professional football for most goals in one season, a further eight goals in the Aufstiegsrunde as Wuppertal won promotion to the Bundesliga.
Pröpper scored 21 goals in his first Bundesliga season, helping the club finish in fourth place and qualify for the UEFA Cup. He continued to score in the following season as Wuppertal struggled in the league, but scored only two goals in the 1974–75 season as the club finished in last place and were relegated to the 2. Bundesliga North. Despite reported interest from other Bundesliga clubs, Pröpper remained at Wuppertal for the rest of his playing career until his retirement in 1979, he scored 170 goals during his ten years at Wuppertal, taking his career total to 258, making him the eighth highest top scorer of all-time in German football. Pröpper was born as one of eight children, his father died during the Second World War when Pröpper was still young. At the age of 14, he began an apprenticeship as a miner, trained to become a welder. Pröpper's son and his nephews and Thomas, are former footballers. Günter Pröpper at fussballdaten.de