Motorola 6800

The 6800 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974. The MC6800 microprocessor was part of the M6800 Microcomputer System that included serial and parallel interface ICs, RAM, ROM and other support chips. A significant design feature was that the M6800 family of ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages; the M6800 Microcomputer System was announced in March 1974 and was in full production by the end of that year. The 6800 has a 16-bit address bus that can directly access 64 kB of memory and an 8-bit bi-directional data bus, it has 72 instructions with seven addressing modes for a total of 197 opcodes. The original MC6800 could have a clock frequency of up to 1 MHz. Versions had a maximum clock frequency of 2 MHz. In addition to the ICs, Motorola provided a complete assembly language development system; the customer could use the software on a remote timeshare computer or on an in-house minicomputer system.

The Motorola EXORciser was a desktop computer built with the M6800 ICs that could be used for prototyping and debugging new designs. An expansive documentation package included datasheets on all ICs, two assembly language programming manuals, a 700-page application manual that showed how to design a point-of-sale computer terminal; the 6800 was popular in computer peripherals, test equipment applications and point-of-sale terminals. It found use in arcade games and pinball machines; the MC6802, introduced in 1977, included an internal clock oscillator on chip. The MC6801 and MC6805 included RAM, ROM and I/O on a single chip and were popular in automotive applications. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation was founded in 1928, they began commercial production of transistors at a new US$1.5 million facility in Phoenix in 1955. Motorola's transistors and integrated circuits were used in-house for their communication, military and consumer products and they were sold to other companies. By 1973 the Semiconductor Products Division had sales of $419 million and was the second largest semiconductor company after Texas Instruments.

In the early 1970s Motorola started a project that developed their first microprocessor, the MC6800. This was followed by single-chip microcontrollers such as the MC6801 and MC6805. Motorola did not chronicle the development of the 6800 microprocessor the way that Intel did for their microprocessors. In 2008 the Computer History Museum interviewed four members of the 6800 microprocessor design team, their recollections can be confirmed and expanded by magazine and journal articles written at the time. The Motorola microprocessor project began in 1971 with a team composed of designer Tom Bennett, engineering director Jeff LaVell, product marketer Link Young and systems designers Mike Wiles, Gene Schriber and Doug Powell, they were all located in Arizona. By the time the project was finished, Bennett had 17 chip designers and layout people working on five chips. LaVell had 15 to 20 system engineers and there was another applications engineering group of similar size. Tom Bennett had a background in industrial controls and had worked for Victor Comptometer in the 1960s designing the first electronic calculator to use MOS ICs, the Victor 3900.

In May 1969 Ted Hoff showed Bennett early diagrams of the Intel 4004 to see if it would meet their calculator needs. Bennett joined Motorola in 1971 to design calculator ICs, he was soon assigned as the chief architect of the microprocessor project that produced the 6800. Others have taken credit for designing the 6800. In September 1975 Robert H. Cushman, EDN magazine's microprocessor editor, interviewed Chuck Peddle about MOS Technology's new 6502 microprocessor. Cushman asked "Tom Bennett, master architect of the 6800", to comment about this new competitor. After the 6800 project Bennett worked on automotive applications and Motorola became a major supplier of microprocessors used in automobiles. Jeff LaVell worked in the computer industry marketing organization. LaVell had worked for Collins Radio on their C8500 computer, built with small scale ECL ICs. In 1971, he led a group that examined the needs of their existing customers such as Hewlett-Packard, National Cash Register, Control Data Corporation, Digital Equipment Corporation.

They would study the customer's products and try to identify functions that could be implemented in larger integrated circuits at a lower cost. The result of the survey was a family of 15 building blocks; some of these blocks were implemented in the initial M6800 release and more were added over the next few years. To evaluate the 6800 architecture while the chip was being designed, LaVell's team built an equivalent circuit using 451 small scale TTL ICs on five 10 by 10 inch circuit boards, they reduced this to 114 ICs on one board by using ROMs and MSI logic devices. John Buchanan was a memory designer at Motorola when Bennett asked him to design a voltage doubler for the 6800. Typical n-channel MOS IC's required three power supplies: -5 volts, +5 volts and +12 volts; the M6800 family was to use +5 volts. It was easy to eliminate the -5 volt supply but the MOS transistors needed a supply of 10 to 12 volts; this on-chip voltage doubler would supply the higher voltage and Buchanan did the circuit design and layout for the 6800 microprocessor.

He received patents on the 6800 chip layout. Rod Orgill assisted Buchanan with 6800 chip layout. Orgill would design the MOS Technology 6501 microprocessor, socket compatible with the 6

H. Scott Salinas

H. Scott Salinas is an American composer and musician. Playing guitar since the age of twelve, Salinas began his music career on the small island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. Scott soon toured the island in reggae and blues bands. In 1993, Scott left his island home to major in music at Princeton University. At Princeton, Scott discovered jazz and classical music, turning his whole musical world upside down, he scored three short films including the all-guitar psychological thriller Kentucky Motel, completed a 20-minute mini-opera that debuted at a concert heralding classical greats Yo-Yo Ma and Edgar Meyer, Pulitzer Prize–winning author Toni Morrison. After graduating from Princeton Magna Cum Laude in 1997, Scott continued his education at Berklee College of Music in Boston, where he concentrated in film scoring and honed his jazz guitar skills. In the summer of 2000, he was awarded the prestigious Berklee College of Music Segue Internship Award; this included a scholarship for his final semester at Berklee and an all-expenses paid trip to Los Angeles for a month-long internship at Segue Music, the largest film music editing company in Hollywood.

At Segue, Scott had the unique opportunity to work with world-renowned composers and directors, sealing his decision to forge a career in scoring for film. Upon graduating from Berklee Magna Cum Laude in 2001, Scott worked at Verité Music with critically acclaimed film composer Sheldon Mirowitz and orchestrating music for television films and commercials. In June 2002, Scott was the youngest person to be named Grand Prize Winner in the Turner Classic Movies Young Film Composers Competition. Scott was selected from over 450 contestants by a panel of film industry experts including Don Davis; the prize included a paid assignment to compose the score to a classic silent film and the opportunity to record the score with a Hollywood film scoring orchestra. Scott’s assignment was to score the 1928 film, Clown, starring Loretta Young and Lon Chaney; the score debuted on Turner Classic Movies with much critical acclaim. In June 2004, Scott moved to Los Angeles and joined Machine Head, a collective of composers, sound designers and electronic artists.

Scott’s work includes Edison, an action thriller starring Kevin Spacey, Morgan Freeman, LL Cool J, Justin Timberlake. Zipper Original ScoreNo Ordinary Hero: The SuperDeafy Movie Original ScoreStrictly Sexual Original ScoreJust Friends Original Song, “Jamie Smiles”Edison Original Score Toronto Film Festival Selection 2005Pool Hall Prophets Original Song, “Venus” Toronto Film Festival Selection 200551 Birch Street Original Score Toronto Film Festival Selection 2005The Conventioneers Original Score Tribeca Film Festival Selection 2005Yesterday's Dreams Original ScoreThe Red Lily Original Modern Score for Turner Classic Movies, 2005Dark Warrior Additional MusicRaise Your Voice Additional ScoreThe Squaw Man Original Modern Score for Turner Classic Movies, 2004Latin Dragon Original ScoreDuplex Source CuesThe Divine Emerald Original Score New York Independent Film Festival Selection 2004Laugh, Laugh Original Modern Score For Turner Classic Movies, 2002 Commissioned as Grand Prize Winner of 2002 TCM Young Film Composers Competition I Hate My Job2004, RDF Media / Spike TV Main Title SongJohnson County War2001, Larry Levinson Productions / Hallmark Entertainment Assistant to ComposerEvolution2001, Clear Blue Sky Productions / PBS Additional Orchestration The Matrix: Path of Neo2005, Atari / Shiny Entertainment Additional Music CiscoLinksysToyota • Hyundai • MattelCoca-Cola • Kool Aid • History Channel • New York • Olympics 2012 • Nationwide • Special OlympicsClorox Winner, AICP Award Best Commercial Music Arrangement “Buglers Dream” Composer Select, Exclusive Summer Program, ASCAP Film Scoring Workshop Grand Prize Winner, Turner Classic Movies Young Film Composers Competition Recipient, Georges Delerue Scholarship, Berklee College of Music Composer Select, Atelier with Toni Morrison and Yo-Yo Ma, Princeton University

Papa Sartre

Papa Sartre is a famous Arabic novel by Iraqi writer Ali Bader, it was published in Arabic in Beirut, 2001, met warmly by the cultural critics and Intellectuals in Arabic world. An English translation was published in AUC press, Cairo / New York City, it was this book. The novel opens with two charlatans commissioning a biographical novel. A starving academic is hired to write the life story of an Existential philosopher who died in the late 1960s and was acclaimed as the. Father Hanna and his sexy consort, Nunu Bihar, are pragmatic and clear from the beginning: philosophy is a business and the narrator's assignment is to create a larger than life Iraqi equivalent of the original Jean-Paul Sartre; the would-be narrator is introduced to a third party. He is handed dossiers of documents, diaries and assigned a dubious research assistant, who looks more like a pickpocket, to accompany him on interviews with the remaining few friends of the late philosopher; the charlatans demonstrate an amorality that fascinates the narrator, with their wide latitude for unconstrained heckling and recklessness along with factual discrepancies.

Not to mention the scandalously seductive nature of Nunu Bihar's overt sexuality. A biography can depict a life with all its flaws and baseness, thinks the narrator; this proves difficult for him at first, with collective memory being subject to strict cultural variables. He finds there were those who admired all the dead: servants overlooked and forgave mistakes, hesitated at admitting domestic scandals, attributing superhuman qualities in hagiographic proportions to those no longer living; the philosopher's friends, on the other hand, told another story, accurate but flawed. They decked him out like a Christmas tree. Glossing over a sense of shame, they assigned to themselves important roles, their talk of the 1960s sounded like an elegy for a lost Paradise that had expelled its most prominent philosopher with no recognition. A solipsistic gaze constructed the only life worth living. Existentialist of Al-sadriyah Documents prove discouraging for the narrator: "All spoke a single character, a unique and towering figure, one that summarized for an entire society a tragic world and symbolized for an entire notion tragic anomie" Overriding these methodological obstacles, the narrator succeeds in producing a candid account of the life of Abdel Rahman Sartre's, the Existentialist of al-Sadriyah.

One day, as on many other days, the Sartre of Baghdad woke up feeling nauseous. He admired the physical resemblance between them, but adoration turned to feelings of inadequacy. He glanced at the philosopher's bad eye. "Abdel Rahman had immense faith in the philosophical bad eye, he understood its value and greatness while appreciating how difficult a condition it was attain. It was the defect of a metaphysical defect like that of god, he experienced despair…as if something was missing in his existence… remained a heavy load on his heart, a cruel destructive feeling that he felt when he was in Paris. The reality of Abdul Rahman Sartre student days in Paris was dismal, his linguistic proficiency was such that he was unable to approach, let alone conducts a conversation with, the giant of existentialism. Incapable of learning French, he never completed his degree, his rapturous audience back in Baghdad would lovingly support Abdul Rahman, "was Sartre a philosopher because of his degree or because of his philosophy?"

True. He assumed the role of witness, the man who had seen Sartre and had arrived from Paris to tell them all about him. Unable to write in either French or Arabic and incapable of concentrating for long hours or of thinking with any systematic logic, he owned the complete works of Sartre from which he would read a few lines and swoon into day-dreaming. Our philosopher despised writing as an act of estrangement. Speech, on the other hand represented the moment, the emotion-it was as cathartic as it was euphoric. Oral discourse was integral to the culture of the coffee house of the early 1960s in Baghdad. Most of the intellectuals of his generation pontificated endlessly over dominoes in the morning and regrouped in the local bars at night, their knowledge of philosophy was limited to books titles and short summaries found in newspapers and literary magazines. Existentialism legitimized a way of life. "There was no reality, no reality to be understood". Abdel Rahman Sartre's identity was locked into that world.

His aristocratic background shielded his self-image. One of the outstanding characters in Papa Sartre is Ismael Hadoub, he first appears selling pornographic photographs in Baghdad in the mid-1950s, his most enthusiastic customer being a rich Jewish merchant, who owns a store in al Sadriyah and bargains tirelessly over prices. Saul transforms him into an obedient and grateful acolyte; some of the novel's more remarkable pages describe the boy's own unwitting transformation into a master of deceit, although he sensed hypocrisy and inequality in his dealings with Saul who represented the paradox of the rich in his Fabian ideals which nowadays is dubbed as compassionate conservatism " If Saul had paid so little for his photographs, how could he believe in a commune of happiness and purity? If, as Saul said, wealth belo