A triangle choke, or sankaku-jime in judo, is a type of figure-four chokehold that strangles the opponent by encircling the opponent's neck and one arm with the legs in a configuration similar to the shape of a triangle. The technique is a type of lateral vascular restraint that constricts the blood flow from the carotid arteries to the brain; the triangle choke was seen in early kosen judo competition. While details of its origin are unknown, it is associated to Yaichibei Kanemitsu and his apprentice Masaru Hayakawa, who featured the first registered use of the move in a kosen judo tournament in Kobe, Hyogo in November 1921. Earlier names for the technique would have been matsuba-gatame, sankaku-garami or sankaku-gyaku before settling down on sankaku-jime. According to Kanemitsu himself, a primitive version of the move had been shown by Takenouchi-ryū master Senjuro Kanaya around 1890, though it was a simpler form of neckscissors without the posterior triangle action; the sankaku-jime was adopted and endorsed by important judokas like Masami Oyama, soon met plenty of use both in kosen judo and mainstream judo.
Tsunetane Oda, a fellow kosen judoka, demonstrated the technique on video and is credited with the creation of the move in some sources. The first reported variation was the front triangle choke or mae-sankaku-jime, applied from the position known in modern times as guard after a pull down or hikikomi. Another variation was the horizontal yoko-sankaku-jime, performed from the side. Martial arts historian Toshiya Masuda has attributed its innovation to Masahiko Kimura, who would have created it during the Takudai kosen judo tournament at Takushoku University and accomplished prolonged success with it, though he deems probable that Kimura only popularized the variation instead of creating it; the inverted variation or ushiro-sankaku-jime seen in modern judo competition, was the next addition, preceding many others. Among those variations, the front triangle is favored by practitioners of Brazilian jiu-jitsu. According to a popular belief maintained by Romero Cavalcanti, the technique was introduced in Brazilian jiu-jitsu by Rolls Gracie after finding it in a judo book.
Márcio "Macarrão" Stambowsky, named by Rickson Gracie as one of the earliest Brazilian competitors to popularize the concept, has credited Rolls. Other sources, like Toshiya Masuda and Roberto Pedreira, believe it might have been introduced in Brazil much earlier by Yasuichi and Naoichi Ono, disciples of Yaichibei Kanemitsu himself, as well as other judo practitioners like Ryuzo Ogawa. Rolls trainee Mario Tallarico lends credibility to this theory; the triangle choke was first shown in mixed martial arts on December 16, 1994, when Royce Gracie used a front triangle to defeat Dan Severn and win the UFC 4 tournament. This variation has remained as the most seen in MMA, although the side or inverted triangle has been used. More complex holds, like Chris Lytle's inverted mounted triangle/straight armbar combination at UFC 116 in 2010, have surfaced. Tactically speaking, the triangle choke is a effective counterattack employed from the bottom position applied from the guard, or open guard; the choke can be applied in the mount, side mount and back mount positions by more advanced grappling practitioners.
The need for isolation of one arm could be a rationale for the frequency with which it is attempted in mixed martial arts and combat sports due to the brief vulnerability of one arm while executing hand strikes against an opponent in one of the aforementioned positions. To escape a triangle choke, the defending practitioner must first elevate the head so as the preclude the full force of the submission, subsequently the practitioner must bring his arm away from opposition with his own carotid artery. Once out of immediate danger of loss of consciousness, the practitioner can concentrate reversing or escaping the figure-four lock. In mixed martial arts, it is possible for the defender to lift the person applying the choke and slamming them down with a powerbomb to get them to release the hold. In the film Lethal Weapon, Mel Gibson's character Martin Riggs uses the triangle choke on a villain Mr. Joshua played by actor Gary Busey. Rorion Gracie is credited as the film’s special technical advisor: Brazilian jiu-jitsu.
In the film Abduction, Taylor Lautner's character uses the triangle choke on an antagonist. In the film Haywire, Gina Carano's character uses the triangle choke on Michael Fassbender's character. During a school fight in the anime Ikki Tousen, the character Ryomou Shimei uses the triangle choke on another character, Hakufu. In the 2013 film Oblivion, Tom Cruise's character subdues Tech 52 with a triangle choke, to avoid injuring him. Paul Walker, a practitioner of Brazilian Ju Jitsu, attempted to triangle Vin Diesel's character in the Fast and Furious series. In episode 5 of Game of Thrones: A Telltale Game Series, a pit fighter named'Bloodsong' uses this technique while on supine position to choke Asher, one of the 5 playable protagonists in the game. In episode 3 of the God Eater anime, Alisa Illinichina Amiella uses the triangle choke on Lenka Utsugi, the main protagonist. In Assassination Classroom, Nagisa uses the flying triangle on Karma; the Triangle by Rigan Machado with David Meyer ISBN 0-9754768-0-7 Arm triangle choke List of judo techniques Ground fighting Triangle Choke Instructional Videos
The guard is a ground grappling position in which one combatant has their back to the ground while attempting to control the other combatant using their legs. In pure grappling combat sports, the guard is considered an advantageous position, because the bottom combatant can attack with various joint locks and chokeholds, while the top combatant's priority is the transition into a more dominant position, a process known as passing the guard. In the sport of mixed martial arts, as well as hand-to-hand combat in general, it is possible to strike from the top in the guard though the bottom combatant exerts some control. There are various types of guard, with their own disadvantages; the guard is a key part of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. It is used, but not formally named, in Judo though it is sometimes referred to as dō-osae in Japanese, meaning "trunk hold", it is called the "front body scissor" in catch wrestling. Transitioning directly from standing to the guard position is known as pulling guard. Tsunetane Oda, a judo groundwork specialist who died in 1955, demonstrated the technique on video.
Sometimes referred to as full guard, the closed guard is the typical guard position. In this guard the legs are hooked behind the back of the opponent, preventing them from standing up or moving away; the opponent needs to open the legs up to be able to improve positioning. The bottom combatant might transit between the open and closed guard, as the open guard allows for better movement, but has a bigger risk of the opponent passing the guard; the open guard is used to perform various joint locks and chokeholds. The legs can be used to move the opponent, to create leverage; the open guard allows the opponent to stand up or try to pass the guard, so this position is used temporarily to set up sweeps or other techniques. Open guard is a general term that encompasses a large number of guard positions where the legs are used to push, wrap or hook the opponent without locking the ankles together around them; the butterfly guard involves both of the legs being hooked with the ankles in between the opponents legs, against the inside of the opponents thighs.
The opponent is controlled using both arms. The leverage in the butterfly guard allows powerful sweeps; the guard allows one to elevate or set the opponent off balance and because of this it is useful in avoiding damage and allows transitions to other dominant positions. The analogous technique in wrestling and catch wrestling is called double elevator; the X-guard is an open guard where one of the combatants is standing up and the other is on their back. The bottom combatant uses the legs to entangle one of the opponent's legs, which creates opportunities for powerful sweeps; the X-guard is used in combination with butterfly and half guard. In a grappling match, this is an advantageous position for the bottom combatant, but in general hand-to-hand combat, the top combatant can attack with stomps or soccer kicks. Skilled use of the x-guard can prevent the opponent from attempting a kick, or throw them off balance should they raise a leg; the x-guard has been used in Judo before being popularised by Marcelo Garcia.
The spider guard comprises a number of positions all of which involve controlling the opponents arms while using the soles of the feet to control the opponent at the biceps, thighs or a combination of them. It is most effective; the spider guard can be used for sweeps and to set up joint chokeholds. The De la Riva guard is an open guard, used in Judo before being popularized in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu by black belt Ricardo de la Riva Goded, successful with it in competition; the guard consists of one of the legs wrapped behind the opponent's leg from the outside, the ankle held with one hand, the other hand grips one of their sleeves. The De la Riva guard offers a number of sweeps and submissions, is more used in combination with spider guard; the rubber guard a position. Similar positions have been seen in Judo before being used in Brazilian jiu-jitsu by Nino Schembri popularized and made a system by Eddie Bravo. Many techniques have been developed from this position including sweeps and striking defense.
By using a leg to hold an opponent down, one arm is free to work on submissions, sweeps or to strike the opponent's trapped head. The 50-50 guard is a position popularized by Roberto “Gordo” Correa and extensively used by the Mendes Brothers and Guilherme Mendes, Bruno Frazzato, Ryan Hall and Ramon Lemos from the Atos Jiu-Jitsu Team. In other grappling systems such as catch wrestling and Sambo, it is a form of the "outside leg triangle" type of leg control. In this position, the fighter on the bottom crosses a triangle on the opponent's leg, which allows for the leg to be dominated while leaving the arms free to work on sweeps and submissions; this position has been criticized for use in competitions with restricted use of leglocks due to the potential of stalling a match when the fighter on top cannot pass the guard and the fighter on the bottom cannot perform a sweep. In order to overcome the primary defense of one's opponent, their guard, attain a more dominant position, such as side mount, full mount, or knee on stomach a practitioner must pass the guard.
There are several ways of doing so. Examples of this type of action would be digging the practitioner's forearms into the inner thigh of
An elbow strike is a strike with the point of the elbow, the part of the forearm nearest to the elbow, or the part of the upper arm nearest to the elbow. Elbows can be thrown sideways to a hook, upwards to an uppercut, downwards with the point of the elbow, diagonally or in direct movement and in several other ways like during a jump etc. Elbowing is a disallowed practice in most combat sports. However, Muay Thai, Pradal serey and several mixed martial arts organizations do allow elbowing, or allow elbowing in a specific manner; the mixed martial arts organizations disallowing it do so because elbowing the head increases the risk of lacerations in a fight. While elbows are disallowed in most modern combat sports, they are common in traditional martial arts. There are few traditional martial arts that don't use elbows though it depends on which martial art it is, if the elbows are primary or secondary weapons and in which manner, what tactics and how they are used; some well known and respected traditional martial arts that use elbows are Karate, Hung Ga, Wing Chun, Silat and Muay boran.
In Muay Thai, elbow strikes are most used while in close range but are employed while jumping toward the opponent, similar to Muay Thai's flying knee. The hardness of the elbow allows for hitting with considerable force, experienced fighters can knock out, cut, or injure their opponent with a well-placed strike. Elbows are most effective when used in combination with punches or kicks to allow the fighter to close the distance. Elbows are used in mixed martial arts as part of the ground-and-pound fighting tactic. Participants use elbow strikes in conjunction with punches while in the full guard, half guard, side mount, or full mount in order to knock out or overwhelm the opponent. In ice hockey, elbowing an opposing player is considered a rules infraction, resulting in a two-minute penalty for the offending player, leaving his team short handed. In basketball, elbowing a player, or "throwing'bows," counts as a foul. An improper elbow strike, or an elbow strike without proper conditioning can paralyze the striker's hand.
The ulnar nerve runs posterior to the elbow. For example, after an improper strike, or if the striker is not properly conditioned, the user may not be able to use the 4th and 5th digit temporarily. There may be a chance for permanent damage to the ulnar nerve with an elbow strike; this can be done in several ways, the easiest way is to practice elbow strikes on something like a punching bag/Muay Thai pad/flash pad, after a few weeks of this one will develop thicker, tougher skin on the elbow resulting in it being harder to cut or tear your skin while delivering elbow strikes. These activities will make the surrounding tissue harder to bruise due to buildup of scar tissue in the striking point of the elbow from elbow strikes, it is not recommended to strike solid objects for conditioning as micro-fractures in bone or other tissue tend to be a risk factor for repetitive strains or more acute problems. A "12-6 elbow" is a strike, brought from a high position and travels vertically toward the floor, dropping the point of the elbow directly on the target.
This type of elbow is illegal in all MMA organizations. Løvstad, Jakob; the Mixed Martial Arts Primer. Www.idi.ntnu.no. URL last accessed January 31, 2006
Arm triangle choke
Arm triangle choke, side choke, or head and arm choke are generic terms describing blood chokeholds in which the opponent is strangled in between their own shoulder and the practitioner's arm. This is as opposed to the regular triangle choke, which denotes a chokehold using the legs, albeit with a similar mechanism of strangulation against the opponent's own shoulder. An arm triangle choke where the practitioner is on the side of the opponent and presses a forearm into the opposite side of the neck of the opponent is known as a side choke, such as from the kata-gatame hold. An anaconda choke is an arm triangle from the front headlock position; the performer threads his or her arm under the opponent's neck and through the armpit, grasps the biceps of the opposing arm. The performer attempts to pin the opponent onto the trapped shoulder so as to better interrupt the flow of blood, all the while applying pressure with the grasped biceps; the performer may accomplish this by rolling the opponent over the trapped shoulder, use the momentum to turn the opponent onto his or her trapped shoulder.
The D'Arce choke, or Brabo choke, is similar to the Anaconda choke. The difference is that the choking arm is threaded under the near arm, in front of the opponent's neck, on top of the far arm; the choke gets its name from Joe D'Arce, a third-degree Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu black belt under Renzo Gracie. Though not the inventor of the choke, D'Arce performed this choke and with great success in many Jiu-Jitsu and submission grappling tournaments. During a sparring session with Jason Miller, the choke surprised Miller, who gave it the name and pronunciation "Darce" rather than the proper "D-Arsee," when D'Arce did not have a title for the technique. Pearson, Charlie. Anaconda choke. Www.lockflow.com. URL last accessed March 4, 2006. Arm Triangle - Videos and step-by-step instruction. Anaconda Choke - Video Tutorial. Home Page of Joe D'Arce
Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a martial art and combat sport system that focuses on grappling with particular emphasis on ground fighting. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu was developed from Kodokan judo ground fighting fundamentals that were taught by a number of Japanese individuals including Takeo Yano, Mitsuyo Maeda, Soshihiro Satake, Isao Okano. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu came to be its own defined combat sport through the innovations and adaptation of judo. BJJ is founded on the concept that a smaller, weaker person can defend themselves against a bigger, heavier opponent; this is done by using technique and most notably, taking the fight to the ground, applying joint locks and chokeholds to defeat the opponent. BJJ training can be used in self-defense situations. Sparring and live drilling play the practitioner's development. BJJ is considered a martial art, a sport, a method for promoting physical fitness and building character, a way of life. Geo Omori opened the first Jiu-Jitsu / judo school in Brazil in 1909.
He taught a number of individuals including Luiz França. Mitsuyo Maeda was one of five of the Kodokan's top groundwork experts that judo's founder Kano Jigoro sent overseas to demonstrate and spread his art to the world. Maeda had trained first in sumo as a teenager, after the interest generated by stories about the success of Kodokan Judo at competitions with other jujutsu schools of the time, became a student of Jigoro Kano. Maeda left Japan in 1904 and visited a number of countries giving "jiu-do" demonstrations and accepting challenges from wrestlers, savate fighters and various other martial artists before arriving in Brazil on November 14, 1914. Gastão Gracie was a business partner of the American Circus in Belém. In 1916, Italian Argentine circus Queirolo Brothers presented Maeda. In 1917 Carlos Gracie, the eldest son of Gastão Gracie, watched a demonstration by Maeda at the Da Paz Theatre and decided to learn judo. Maeda accepted Carlos as a student and Carlos learned for a few years passing his knowledge on to his brothers.
Gracie's account of the events is that his sibling Hélio Gracie further developed Gracie Jiu-Jitsu as a softer, pragmatic adaptation from judo that focused on ground fighting, since he was unable to perform many judo moves that require direct opposition to an opponent's strength. Although the Gracie family is recognized as the main family to first develop Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu as we know it today, there was another prominent lineage derived from Maeda via another Brazilian disciple, Luiz França; this lineage had been represented by Oswaldo Fadda. Fadda and his students were famous for the influential use of footlocks and the lineage still survives through Fadda's links in teams such as Nova União and Grappling Fight Team; the name "Jiu-Jitsu" derives from an older romanization of its original spelling in the West. When Maeda left Japan, judo was still referred to as "Kano jiu-jitsu", or more generically as Jiu-Jitsu. Higashi, the co-author of Kano Jiu-Jitsu wrote in the foreword: Some confusion has arisen over the employment of the term'jiudo'.
To make the matter clear I will state that jiudo is the term selected by Professor Kano as describing his system more than jiu-jitsu does. Professor Kano is one of the leading educators of Japan, it is natural that he should cast about for the technical word that would most describe his system, but the Japanese people still cling to the more popular nomenclature and call it jiu-jitsu. Outside Japan, this distinction was noted less. Thus, when Maeda and Satake arrived in Brazil in 1914, every newspaper announced their art as being "Jiu-Jitsu", despite both men being Kodokan judoka, it was not until 1925 that the Japanese government itself mandated that the correct name for the martial art taught in the Japanese public schools should be "judo" rather than "jujutsu". In Brazil, the art is still called "Jiu-Jitsu"; when the Gracies went to the United States and spread Jiu-Jitsu, they used the terms "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu" and "Gracie Jiu-Jitsu" to differentiate from the present styles using similar-sounding names.
In a 1994 interview with Yoshinori Nishi, Hélio Gracie said that he didn't know the word of judo itself until the sport came in the 1950s to Brazil, because he heard that Mitsuyo Maeda called his style "Jiu-Jitsu". The art is sometimes referred to as Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, a name trademarked by Rorion Gracie, but after a legal dispute with his cousin Carley Gracie, his trademark to the name was voided. Other members of the Gracie family call their style by personalized names, such as Ceaser Gracie Jiu-Jitsu or Renzo Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, the Machado family call their style Machado Jiu-Jitsu. While each style and its instructors have their own unique aspects, they are all basic variations of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. There are four major BJJ branches in Brazil: Gracie Humaita, Gracie Barra, Carlson Gracie Jiu-Jitsu and Alliance Jiu Jitsu; each branch traces its roots back to Mitsuyo Maeda via Donato Pires Dos Reis, through the Gracie family or Oswaldo Fadda. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has vast similarities to the original Kodokan Judo practiced before Judo became part of the Olympics, still practiced in lesser extent, as well as some similarity to earlier ryu Ju-Jitsu.
It has been
A leglock is a joint lock, directed at joints of the leg such as the ankle, knee or hip joint. A leglock, directed at joints in the foot, is sometimes referred to as a foot lock and a lock at the hip as a hip lock. Leglocks are featured, with various levels of restrictions, in combat sports and martial arts such as Sambo, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, catch wrestling, mixed martial arts and submission wrestling, but are banned in some sports featuring joint locks such as judo; as with other jointlocks, leglocks are more effective with full body leverage. Some attack the large joints of the knee or hip and involve utilizing leverage to counteract the larger muscle groups, while others directly attack ligaments in the knee or the smaller joint of the ankle. Leglocks can involve control positions such as the inside leg triangle or leg knot to maintain control while applying the attack or transitioning between two attacks, though they and some other control positions are banned in Brazilian Jiu-jitsu competition.
Some other leglock control positions have been adopted into modern BJJ and submission grappling competitions as "guards" such as the snake guard, one-legged X-guard, 50/50 Guard, where they are used for both leglocks and to reverse into dominant positions from the bottom. In training or sparring, leglocks are applied in a slow and controlled manner, are not hyperextended such as in the case of the comparatively dangerous heel hook. Instead, submission is signalled before the lock is applied. In self-defense application, or when applied improperly or with excessive force, leglocks can cause muscle and ligament damage dislocation or bone fractures; some examples of the many types of leglocks are found below. A kneebar is a leglock; the basic kneebar technique is similar to that of an armbar. The practitioner will trap the opponent's leg in between their legs and secure the leg with their arms so the opponent's kneecap points towards the body; the practitioner applies pressure with their hips, forcing the opponent's leg to straighten, hyperextending the knee joint.
A variation of the kneebar is accomplished, but instead of holding the leg with the hands, the practitioner will trap the opponent's foot behind one armpit. The practitioner will apply pressure using their upper body as well and their hips, yielding a greater amount of force applied to the knee, therefore rendering the lock much more difficult to escape before tissue or ligament damage occurs. An ankle lock is a leglock, applied to any of the joints in the ankle by hyperextending the talocrural joint through plantar hyperflexion. Ankle locks are applied in a manner which causes a compression lock to the achilles tendon, sometimes to the calf muscle; the straight ankle lock is what is thought of as an ankle lock. It is performed using the legs to isolate one of the opponent's legs, placing the opponent's foot in the armpit, while holding the foot with the forearm at the lower part of the opponent's calf at the achilles tendon. By leveraging the hips forward, the foot becomes forcefully plantar flexed, hence creating a potent joint lock on the ankle.
The forearm serves as a fulcrum in the leveraging, may cause severe pressure on the achilles tendon when the bony parts of the forearm are used. Such a straight ankle lock is sometimes referred to as an "achilles lock". A toe hold involves using the hands to hyperextend and/or hyperrotate the ankle by grabbing the foot near the toes, twisting or pushing the foot while controlling the opponent's leg. A common type of toe hold is the figure-four toe hold, where a figure-four hold is used to hold the opponent's foot; this type of toe hold is performed by holding the foot by the toes with one hand, putting the other hand under the opponent's achilles tendon, grabbing the wrist. By controlling the opponent's body, using the hands to plantar flex the foot either straight or sideways, hence putting considerable torque on the ankle; the toe hold can be applied in a similar position as an ankle lock. A heel hook is a leg lock affecting multiple joints, is applied by transversely twisting the foot either medially or laterally.
The torsional force puts severe torque on the ankle. There are several variations of heel hooks, with the most typical being performed by placing the legs around a leg of an opponent, holding the opponent's foot in the armpit on the same side; the legs are used to control the movement of the opponent's body while the opponent's foot is twisted by holding the heel with the forearm, using the whole body to generate a twisting motion, hence creating severe medial torque on the ankle. A similar heel hook can be performed by holding the opponent's foot in the opposite armpit, twisting it laterally; the heel hook is considered to be a dangerous leg lock, with a high rate of injury to ligaments in the knee. It is banned, except in advanced competition, in many combat sports featuring other leg locks such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu and Sambo. Where it is allowed, holding it for too long is considered a serious infraction. For example, the Ultimate Fighting Championship released welterweight Rousimar Palhares after he failed to release a heel hook on Mike Pierce after Pierce tapped out.
A calf crush or calf slicer (also known as calf cutter, knee slicer, or