A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is an American national park located in Southeast Alaska west of Juneau. President Calvin Coolidge proclaimed the area around Glacier Bay a national monument under the Antiquities Act on February 25, 1925. Subsequent to an expansion of the monument by President Jimmy Carter in 1978, the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act enlarged the national monument by 523,000 acres on December 2, 1980, created Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve; the national preserve encompasses 58,406 acres of public land to the immediate northwest of the park, protecting a portion of the Alsek River with its fish and wildlife habitats, while allowing sport hunting. Glacier Bay became part of a binational UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979, was inscribed as a Biosphere Reserve in 1986; the National Park Service undertook an obligation to work with Hoonah and Yakutat Tlingit Native American organizations in the management of the protected area in 1994. The park and preserve cover a total of 3,223,384 acres, with 2,770,000 acres being designated as a wilderness area.
The west side of the bay consists of a 26,000 feet thick sequence of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks massive limestones and argillite. The oldest rocks in this sequence are the Late Silurian Willoughby limestone and the youngest being the Middle Devonian Black Cap limestone. An outcrop west of Tidal Inlet includes a sandstone and limestone of unknown age. Sedimentary rocks of unknown age on the east side of Muir Inlet include tuff interbedded with limestone; the rocks exposed on the 1,205 foot high hill called. Early Cretaceous diorite stocks are exposed south of Tidal Inlet, on Sebree and Sturgress Islands. Quartz diorite outcrops on Lemesurier Island. A granitic stock is exposed in Dundas Bay. Mafic dikes up to 20 feet in width occur throughout the area. Glacial advances occurred 7,000, 5,000 and 500 years ago, with the last extending to the entrance of the bay, where it left a huge semicircular terminal moraine; the consequent surface glacial deposits include gravels as outwash and moraines. Glacial gravels extend up to 2000 feet up the mountain slopes.
Lakes have formed. Preglacial forests are found east on the east side of Muir Inlet. According to Rossman, "One of the outstanding features of the Glacier Bay area is the rapid advance and retreat of the glaciers during several substages within the last few thousand years."A molybdenite deposit occurs on The Nunatak in quartz veins associated with a quartz monzonite porphyry, which includes gold at 0.04 ounces per ton, silver at 7.07 ounces per ton. A copper deposit occurs on Observation Mountain. Quartz veins containing gold are exposed west on Gilbert Island. Placer gold is found in the bay. A silver deposit was mined on the western portion of Rendu Inlet. According to MacKevett et al. "The most extensive and best gold placer deposits...are in the beach sands near Lituya Bay." Mining of these sands started in 1894, employing up to 200 men by 1896. However, most production had ended by 1917; the granodiorite and quartz diorite area between Lamplugh Glacier and Reid Glacier contains most of the quartz vein gold lodes, which were produced by six mines.
This is known as the Reid Inlet gold area. The Monarch Mines and the Incas Mine was discovered in 1924 by J. Ibach; the Monarch No. 1 and No. 2 veins were drift mined with 150 foot adits respectively. The LeRoy Mine was the largest though, discovered in 1938 by Gustavus founder and resident A. L. Parker and his son L. F. Parker, they operated an aerial tramway. Most production had ceased by 1945 though; the region experiences tectonic activity with frequent earthquakes. Earthquake-induced landslides have been significant forces for change. Additionally, parts of the region are undergoing post-glacial rebound, the process in which land rises after the weight of the glacier has been removed. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve occupies the northernmost section of the southeastern Alaska coastline, between the Gulf of Alaska and Canada; the Canada–US border approaches to within 15 miles of the ocean in the St. Elias Mountains at Mount Fairweather, the park's tallest peak at 15,300 feet, transitioning to the Fairweather Range from there southwards.
The Brady Icefield caps the Fairweather Range on a peninsula extending from the ocean to Glacier Bay, which extends from Icy Strait to the Canada–US border at Grand Pacific Glacier, cutting off the western part of the park. To the east of Glacier Bay the Takhinsha Mountains and the Chilkat Range form a peninsula bounded by the Lynn Canal on the east, with the park's eastern boundary with Tongass National Forest running along the ridgeline; the park's northwestern boundary, which abuts Tongass National Forest, runs in the valley of the Alsek River to Dry Bay. The preserve lands comprise a small area at Dry Bay — the majority of Glacier Bay lands are national park lands; the park boundary excludes Gustavus at the mouth of Glacier Bay. The lands adjoining the park to the north in Canada are included in Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park. No roads lead to the park and it is most reached by air travel. During some summers there are ferries to the small community of Gustavus or directly to the marina at Bartlett Cove.
Despite the lack of roads, the park received an average of about 470,000 recreational visitors annually from 2007 to 2016, with 520,171 visitors in 2016. Most of the visitors arrive via cruise ships; the number of ships that may arrive each day is limited
Russian Hydrographic Service
The Russian Hydrographic Service, full current official name Department of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, is Russia's hydrographic office, with responsibility to facilitate navigation, performing hydrographic surveys and publishing nautical charts. Since the Russian state is of such a vast size and nature that it includes many different seas and indented coastlines and a great number of islands, as well as a complex system of waterways and lakes, surveying has been an indispensable activity for the Russian Navy since its modernization at the time of Czar Peter the Great in the 17th century; the hydrographic service has been attached to the Russian Navy and the agents and supervisors of hydrographic works have been naval officers throughout its history. Russia is a member of the International Hydrographic Organization. Despite having undergone a number of name changes along its history, the main functions of the Hydrographic Service of the Russian Navy have been quite the following: Providing specific services to the Navy, including other branches of the Russian Armed Forces, related to the Russian maritime and coastal areas, as well as navigable inland waters.
These services are of a strategic order and encompass the following fields: Navigation and hydrography. Hydrometeorology Surveys Navigation and hydrographic support of maritime activities within Russian waters and implementation of the international Safety of Life at Sea Convention regulations in the waters under Russian jurisdiction. At the time of Peter I hydrographic surveys were carried out following personal decrees of the emperor through the General admiral. Hydrographic tasks were always performed by Naval officers, who from 1724 onward began to work under instructions from the Admiralty Board. By 1746 important matters concerning hydrography were entrusted to Fleet Captain Alexey Nagayev who compiled the first atlas of the Bering Sea, as well as of the Baltic Sea in 1752. Nagayev's charts were detailed for its time and, despite a few shortcomings, his atlas of the Baltic Sea was republished in 1757, 1788, 1789 and 1795, serving Russian mariners for more than 50 years. In 1777 the Admiralty Board founded the Russian Hydrographic Service, implementing a plan that marked the beginning of systematic drawing of nautical charts.
In 1799 a committee for the dissemination of marine sciences and the improvement of the drawing of charts was created, in 1807 the Russian Lighthouse Administration was established so that the lighthouse system in Russian shores and islands would follow an organized pattern and be provided with regular, state-controlled maintenance. The first director of this section was Leontiy Spafaryev. In 1827 the special Office of the Hydrographer General was established. In the same year the Corps of Naval Navigators was founded, the chief of, a hydrographer; the first and only general of the newly-instituted body was hydrographer Admiral Gavril Andreevich Sarychev, after whose death the management of the office was transferred to the Chief of Naval Staff Prince A. S. Menshikov; the first and only director of the hydrographic depot was F. F. Schubert. In 1837 the former institutions dealing with hydrography were abolished and all the management of the hydrographic section was transferred to the newly-instituted Russian Hydrographic Department, the directors of which were: A. G. Villamov Baron F. v. Wrangel M. v. Reinecke S. I.
Zelenoy G. A. Vevel von Krieger T. F. Veselago P. N. Nazimov; the Hydrographic Office engaged in the periodical publication of notes, devoted both to hydrographic information, as well as information on other sectors of naval affairs. The committee, established in 1799, published: In 1801 - "Notice to Mariners" From 1807 to 1827 - "Notes of the State Admiralty Department" From 1835 to 1837 - "Notes of the Hydrographic Depot" From 1842 to 1852 - "Notes of the Hydrographic Department." 1854-83 - Annual reports of the Director of the Hydrographic Department. In 1885 the Russian Hydrographic Department was overhauled and renamed as'Main Hydrographic Office' —Главное гидрографическое управление — of the Admiralty, its chief was the former director in charge of the lighthouses and navigation of the Baltic Sea, Vice Admiral R. Bazhenov, the chairman of the Maritime Scientific Committee —Морского учёного комитета. 1886 saw the establishment of the meteorological department. In 1891 the fields of drawing, engraving and printing were integrated into the maritime cartography section and from 1897 this section began successful experiments printing nautical charts using aluminum printing plates.
In 1902 a new building with a photographic department, including a workshop introducing innovative photographic reproduction techniques, was built within the premises of the Main Hydrographic Office. By 1904 the new techniques had been mastered by the staff and high-quality material began to be printed; the duties of the Hydrographic Department at the time included: carrying out surveys. Preparation of maps, sailing directions and other guidance materials for safe navigation, as well as making periodical corrections —when needed. Erection and proper maintenance of lighthouses, electric beacons, rescue stations, day beacons, buoys and other warning devices to improve navigation safety. Supply of military tools such as maps, pilot manuals, signals manuals and other guides. Inspection and evaluation of ships' logbooks in order to gather relevant navigational, astronomical and other observations
The Fairweather Range is the unofficial name for a mountain range located in the U. S. state of Alaska and the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is the southernmost range of the Saint Elias Mountains; the northernmost section of the range is situated in Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park while the southernmost section resides in Glacier Bay National Park, in the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area. In between it goes through the southeastern corner of Yakutat Borough. Peaks of this range include Mount Fairweather, the highest point in British Columbia and Mount Quincy Adams 4,150 m. "Fairweather Range". BC Geographical Names
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano
Dionisio Alcalá Galiano was a Spanish naval officer and explorer. He mapped various coastlines in Europe and the Americas with unprecedented accuracy using new technology such as chronometers, he commanded an expedition that explored and mapped the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia, made the first European circumnavigation of Vancouver Island. He died during the Battle of Trafalgar, he sometimes signed his full surname, Alcalá-Galiano, but used just Galiano. The published journal of his 1792 voyage uses just the name Galiano, this has become the name by which he is most known. Galiano was born in Cabra, Córdoba, Spain, in 1760, he entered the Spanish navy in 1771, at the age of 11, enrolled in the Spanish naval school in 1775. After graduation in 1779 he entered active service, he became skilled in cartography. As a junior officer he spent time in the Falkland Islands, he returned to Spain in 1783. In 1784 Galiano met and worked with Alessandro Malaspina, with whom he would journey to America.
Both men were among a group of officers studying astronomy at the Royal Observatory in Cádiz under Admiral Vicente Tofiño. The association was brief, as Tofiño was called upon to create an atlas of the coast of Spain, he chose Galiano to work on the project, thus Galiano assisted Tofiño's great hydrographic study, which resulted in the Atlas Maritímo de España, published in 1789. This experience was the basis of Galiano's expertise as a professional cartographer. In 1785 Galiano married María de la Consolación Villavicencio. Soon after the marriage he left on a survey of the Strait of Magellan under another influential teacher, Antonio de Córdoba. In 1788 he was given charge of a mission to fix the location of the Azores, during which he was in command of the brig Natalia. In the same year he assisted in the final stages of Tofiño's mapping project. In 1789 was selected as the hydrographer for Malaspina's ambitious scientific and political voyage. Aboard the expedition's second ship, commanded by José Bustamante, he helped map the coastline Patagonia and most of the Pacific coast from southern Chile to Mexico.
In addition, he engaged in various scientific tasks including astronomical observations, gravity and magnetic measurements. The expedition arrived in Acapulco in March 1791. Galiano was put in charge of a group of Malaspina's scientific officers assigned to stay in Mexico for a year. Malaspina's letter to the viceroy of New Spain, Juan Vicente de Güemes, Count of Revillagigedo, read in part: Under the orders of Ship Lieutenant Don Dionisio Galiano, he, together with, will proceed to... will be charged with coordinating in that capital, in Spain, all the notes of our past tasks... Besides, he must extract all that information conducive to giving an exact idea of the former and present state of, thus Galiano remained in Mexico, compiling the expedition's hydrographic and astronomical data, making maps. He investigated the colonial archives and collected information useful in assessing the state of the colony; this was one of the political tasks of the Malaspina expedition, for which Malaspina and his officers had royal authority above that of the viceroy, authorizing access to any and all documents they might think relevant.
He spent about a year at this task, while the Malaspina expedition sailed to Alaska and Vancouver Island. Malaspina's voyage to Alaska was for the purpose of determining whether a rumored Northwest Passage existed there. Finding none, he returned to Mexico, stopping at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island, Monterey, California; the Spanish had been exploring the Pacific Northwest for some years, just as Malaspina was returning to Mexico another Spanish expedition, led by Francisco de Eliza, had discovered a large body of water inland beyond the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This was the Strait of Georgia; the pilots José María Narváez and Juan Carrasco had not had time to explore it, but had noted a promising opening leading to the east. It was the last reasonable chance of a possible Northwest Passage. One of the ships of the exploring party, the schooner Santa Saturnina, had been unable to return to Nootka and instead sailed south to Monterey, where Malaspina had just arrived, thus Malaspina learned about the Strait of Georgia before the viceroy himself, preparing another exploration expedition to the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
In 1791 he had appointed Francisco Antonio Mourelle as commander and ordered two new schooners and Sutil, to be built for the mission. When Malaspina returned to Acapulco in late 1791 he managed to have Mourelle replaced with his own officer, Alcalá Galiano. Another of Malaspina's officers, Cayetano Valdés, was assigned to command the second schooner, replacing another of the viceroy's pilots; this removed the two schooners from the viceroy's jurisdiction and placed them under Malaspina's authority. The vessels were moved from the shipyard at San Blas, where they had been built, to Acapulco, where they were fitted out under Malaspina's direction. Thus, although said have been given the command by the viceroy Revillagigedo, Galiano's exploration expedition was part of the larger Malaspina expedition. In addition, the artist José Cardero, who had accompanied Malaspina, sailed with Galiano; the expedition left Acapulco on 8 March 1792. Galiano commanded the Sutil, the expedition overall, while Valdés commanded the Mexicana.
These ships were "goletas", a Spanish term transl
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Mikhail Dmitriyevich Tebenkov was a Russian hydrographer and vice admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. From 1845 to 1850, he served as director of the Russian American Company and the governor of Russian America, he is noted for having surveyed and mapped the still little-known coast of Alaska. His Atlas of the Northwest Coasts of America: from Bering Strait to Cape Corrientes and the Aleutian Islands was published in 1852 and contained 39 engraved maps. In 1821, Mikhail Tebenkov graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps School. For the next three years, he served on different ships in the Baltic Sea. In 1824, Tebenkov was put in charge of logging for shipbuilding purposes near Narva. In January 1825, he joined the Russian American Company, which led colonizing and trade efforts in North America, he would command the company-owned brigantines Golovnin, Chichagov, a sloop named Urup in 1826–1834. Tebenkov surveyed Norton Sound on behalf of the Imperial Russian Hydrographic Service in 1831 and was the first European to sight the bay that now bears his name.
He surveyed Tebenkof Bay in 1833 before returning to St. Petersburg. In 1835 Tebenkov sailed from Cronstadt back to Alaska via Cape Horn as commander of the Russian American Company's ship Elena, he arrived in Sitka in April 1836. Between 1845 and 1850, Tebenkov served as the director of the Russian American Company and the governor of Russian America. Tebenkov was the most outstanding Russian surveyor of the time, dedicating much time and patient work to the improvement of charts of the Alaskan coast. Trebenkov's noted Atlas of the Northwest Coasts of America: from Bering Strait to Cape Corrientes and the Aleutian Islands was published in 1852; the 39 maps of this atlas were engraved at Sitka around 1849 by Kozma Terentev, an Alaskan-Russian creole man. Besides Tebenkof Bay, other geographic features of Alaska, including Tebenkof Glacier, Mount Tebenkof and Point Tebenkof were named after Captain Mikhail Tebenkov. Atlas sieverozapadnykh beregov Ameriki. Sitka. Gidrograficheskiia zamiechaniia k Atlasu sieverozapadnykh beregov Ameriki.
Sitka. Atlas, images