Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
John Forrest National Park
John Forrest National Park is a national park in the Darling Scarp, 24 km east of Perth, Western Australia. It was the first national park in Western Australia and the second in Australia after Royal National Park; as early as 1898, the land was reserved for recreation. Two years it was named Greenmount National Park, It was still being identified as National Park in the late 1930s, it was not until 1947 that the name change occurred to commemorate Sir John Forrest, the first Premier of Western Australia; the park is on the edge of the Darling Scarp east of Perth, north of the Great Eastern Highway. The suburb to the west is known as Swan View with Pechey Road as a natural western boundary. To the south of the Great Eastern Highway the suburbs adjacent are Glen Forrest. To the east Hovea is the adjacent suburb, it was dissected by the Eastern Railway when it was constructed in the 1890s and rail traffic passed through until 1966, when the line was closed due to the opening of the Avon Valley route.
The alignment through the Swan View Tunnel and through the park was known as the'National Park' railway line. During the Great Depression of the 1930s many features near the main park buildings were built as part of relief employment; some have been restored. It was a popular railway excursion location while the railway was in existence. Hovea was the nearest railway station but in 1936 the National Park railway station was built. Photographed were National Park Falls, the Hovea Falls. After the railway line was closed and removed the formation became part of the Railway Reserves Heritage Trail vested in the Mundaring Shire Council; the section within the park is now known as the John Forrest Heritage Trail. There are the Glen Brook Walk Trail and the Eagle View Walk Trail within the park. While larger kangaroos remain, significant populations of smaller marsupials have been devastated by foxes, feral cats and dogs in this park. Drought and dieback have affected the jarrah forest within the park.
At the edges of the park, introduced species of weed and problematic vegetation threaten the integrity of the park. In some areas wildflowers remain a feature to the edge of the internal roads despite the changesAlso with rationalising of staff within the Department of Environment and Conservation management, earlier levels of staffing on parks such as this one have been reduced to minimal levels. Significant damaging bushfires occurred in the western and northern sections of the park in the 1990s and early 2000s. In November 2010 a bushfire, believed to have been deliberately lit, damaged a significant area of the park including part of the Eagle's View trail. At various stages parts of the park have been accessed by mountain bike activity. John Forrest Wildflower Tavern and Restaurant was opened in 1978, it is centrally located within the park just uphill from the ranger's office. It has become a landmark for events such as orienteering clubs; the outside court yard has become a popular tourist attraction as native birds and kangaroos, seeking food, approach close to the building.
List of protected areas of Western Australia John Forrest National Park page at the Department of Parks and Wildlife website
Greenmount National Park
Greenmount National Park is a national park in the locality of Greenmount, Western Australia, 22 km east of Perth. It is one of the smaller National Parks along the Darling Scarp and is a component of the Darling Range Regional Park. Due to its proximity to John Forrest National Park, which used to be known as Greenmount National Park until 1928, relationship to subsequent reserves to the south it is a vital scarp wildlife corridor. Bus tours were available from Perth in 1933 with Hill's Bus Tours offering passengers a tour around the park on Sundays in September. Beam Transport Ltd. offered a similar service through the Park to Mundaring Weir in 1937. As a feature adjacent to the Helena River Valley it has significance in aboriginal folklore, featured early on in early European settler's diaries. Mountain Quarry, Western Australia is one of several blue stone quarries located within the park, popular with rock climbers and walkers. Vehicle access to the quarry site is restricted however a car-park and picnic facilities including toilets are within walking distance of the main site, accessible on foot.
There are several panels containing historical information about the site spread around as part of the popular Railway Reserves Heritage Trail which runs close to the quarry. The Boya/Koongamia leg of the Railway Reserves Heritage Trail known as the "Bridle Trail", curves around the south-western edge of the park, crossing through the Mountain Quarry car-park and picnic area. In the early 2000s significant bushfire damage occurred on the southern slopes of this park. Large fire-breaks dissect the park serving as popular walking routes among locals; the western and northern slopes, visible from Great Eastern Highway have extensive Watsonia infestations. In late 2005, the Government Authority in charge of the national park was taking steps to prevent vehicular access along the top of the ridge to the lookout due to non stop vandalism and issues with residents adjacent to the park; the park is situated along the side of Greenmount Hill and has majestic views over the Swan Coastal Plain below and Perth City below.
The dominant vegetation in the park is eucalypts such as Marri and Wandoo along with an array of wild flowers and heathland along the northern slopes. The hill contain several breakaways and rocky outcrops. Protected areas of Western Australia Western Australia. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. A recreational development plan for-- Kalamunda National Park, Lesmurdie Falls National Park, Gooseberry Hill National Park, Greenmount National Park Como, W. A.: Conservation and Land Management, 1989
Walpole Wilderness Area
The Walpole Wilderness Area is a group of conservation reserves on the south coast of Western Australia. The area includes vast tracts of jarrah and karri forests surrounding granite peaks, rivers and wetlands. Coastal features include sandy beaches, sheer cliffs and the Southern Ocean; the planning area, together with the Shannon and D'Entrecasteaux National Parks, provide a contiguous conservation reserve system stretching from near Augusta in the west to Denmark in the east. The Walpole Wilderness incorporates: Walpole-Nornalup National Park Shannon National Park Mount Frankland National Park William Bay National Park Mount Frankland North National Park Mount Frankland South National Park Mount Roe National Park Mount Lindesay National Park Quarram Nature Reserve Owingup Nature Reserve Mehniup Nature Reserve Mount Shadforth Nature Reserve Boynaminup National Park Kordabup Nature Reserve The concept of a Walpole Wilderness Area was first developed by Donna Selby and Cath Roberts on behalf of the South Coast Environment Group Inc. in 1998.
During the height of the old growth logging debate, the Walpole Wilderness proposal sought to realise the region's potential for nature conservation by proposing the creation of a Regional Wilderness Park which expanded and linked existing parks and reserves into a single integrated conservation reserve. The proposal extended the concept of conserving the Shannon River Basin across the Deep River and Frankland River systems; this proposal was unique as it sought to integrate the Walpole/Nornalup townships and farming districts into the Area. It proposed the development of a unique relationship between local residents and the surrounding natural areas, it would facilitate the development of a wide range of nature-based recreational activities and maximise opportunities for associated business development. Existing recreational and tourism infrastructure would be enhanced and expanded to capitalise on the significant growth in tourism to the Walpole region, while concurrently ensuring the long term ecological and economic sustainability of the region.
The Walpole Wilderness area was adopted by the Western Australian Labor government by Premier Geoff Gallop on 22 April 2001. These areas have long been recognised for their unique natural, cultural and landscape values, in particular the rich array of endemic and nationally significant flora and fauna; the planning area is important for: wilderness qualities. Department of Environment and Conservation Rainbow Coast Western Australia Forest Alliance Gondwana Link
D'Entrecasteaux National Park
D'Entrecasteaux National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 315 kilometres south of Perth. The park is named after the French Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, the first European to sight the area and name Point D'Entrecasteaux in 1792; the park received 168,497 visitors through 2008-2009. The park stretches 130 km from Black Point in the west to Long Point in the east and extends inland as far as 20 km. Black Point is made of basalt columns from a lava flow. An interesting feature in the park is Yeagarup dune, a mobile 10-kilometre long sand dune found to the west of Lake Jasper; the park contains a great variety of scenery including beaches, sand-dunes, coastal cliffs, coastal heath and pockets of Karri forest. Rivers such as the Warren, the Donnelly and the Shannon flow through the park and discharge into the waters off-shore. Important large scale wetlands, known as the Blackwater, lakes such as Lake Jasper and Lake Yeagarup are found within the park boundaries. Broke Inlet is contained within the park boundaries at the eastern end.
The gneiss basement rocks project through the shallow waters to form small islands in the Inlet. Sandy Island in Windy Harbour is part of the park; the park has an entry fee. Facilities available to visitors include barbecues, toilets, 4WD tracks, camp sites, disabled access and picnic areas. Canoeing facilities exist within the park on the Deep River. Rangers patrol the area; the Bibbulmun Track passes through the park area. The outdoor education organisation, Outward Bound, operate within the park taking school groups on hiking expeditions. Protected areas of Western Australia Quagering Island
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46