Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m in elevation; the Mount Lebanon range extends along the entire country for about 170 km, parallel to the Mediterranean coast. Their highest peak is Qurnat as Sawda', at 3,088 m; the range receives a substantial amount of precipitation, including snow, which averages around 4 m deep. Lebanon has been defined by the mountains, which provided protection for the local population. In Lebanon, changes in scenery are related less to geographical distances than to altitudes; the mountains were known for their pine forests. The last remaining old growth groves of the famous Cedar of Lebanon are on the high slopes of Mount Lebanon, in the Cedars of God World Heritage Site; the Phoenicians used the forests from Mount Lebanon to build their ship fleet and to trade with their Levantine neighbors. The Phoenicians and successor rulers replanted and restocked the range; the name Mount Lebanon traces back to the Semitic root LBN, meaning "white" a reference to the snow-covered mountains.
Mount Lebanon is mentioned in the Old Testament numerous times. King Hiram I of Tyre sent engineers with Cedar wood, abundant in Mount Lebanon, to build the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem. Since the Cedar species known scientifically as Cedrus libani is associated with Mount Lebanon; the Phoenicians used cedar to build ships in which they sailed the Mediterranean, thus they were the first to establish villages in Mount Lebanon and would live from cutting down Cedars and sending them to the coast. Eusebius records that the Emperor Constantine destroyed a temple of Venus'on the summit of Mount Lebanon.' After the 5th century AD, Christian monks who were followers of a hermit named Maron, arrived from the Orontes valley in Northern Syria and began preaching their religion to the inhabitants of the northernmost parts of the mountain range. In the late 8th century a group known as the Mardaites settled in North Lebanon following the order of the Byzantine Emperor, they merged with the local population, refusing to leave after the emperor struck a deal with the Muslim Caliph of Damascus.
In 1291 after the fall of Acre, the last crusader outpost in the Levant, the remnants of the European settlers who succeeded in escaping capture by the Mamelukes, settled in the Northern part of Lebanon and become part of the Maronite society. In the 9th century AD, tribes from the "Jabal el Summaq" area north of Aleppo in Syria began settling the southern half of the mountain range; these tribes were known as the Tanoukhiyoun and in the 11th century they converted to the Druze faith and ruled the areas of Mount Lebanon stretching from Metn in the north to Jezzine in the south. This entire area became known as the ‘Jabal ad-Duruz’. In the early 17th century, Emir Fakhr-al-Din II ascended the throne in the Druze part of the mountains known as the Chouf. In an effort to unify Mount Lebanon, Emir Fakhreddine opened the door to Christians and in particular the Maronite settlement of the Chouf and Metn. Throughout the 18th century and into the 19th century more and more Maronites settled in the Druze regions of the Mount.
The Druze viewed these Maronite settlements as a threat to their power in Mount Lebanon and in a series of clashes in the 1840s and 1860s, a miniature civil war erupted in the area resulting in the massacre of thousands of Christians. The Druze won militarily, but not politically, because European powers intervened on behalf of the Maronites and divided Mount Lebanon into two areas. Seeing their authority decline in Mount Lebanon, a few Lebanese Druze began migrating to the new Jabal ad-Duruz in southern Syria. In 1861, the "Mount Lebanon" autonomous district was established within the Ottoman system, under an international guarantee. For centuries, the Maronites of the region have been protected by the noble Khazen family, endowed the responsibility by Pope Clement X and King Louis XIV and given Cheikh status in return for guarding the princes Fakhr-al-Din II and Younès al-Maani; the Khazen crest reflects the family's special closeness to Mount Lebanon, with snowy mountains and a cedar tree depicted.
Mount Lebanon lent its name to two political designations: an semi-autonomous province in Ottoman Syria, established in 1861 and the central Governorate of modern Lebanon. The Mount Lebanon administrative region emerged in a time of rise of nationalism after the civil war of 1860: France intervened on behalf of the local Christian population and Britain on behalf of the Druze after the 1860 massacres, when 10,000 Christians were killed in clashes with the Druze. In 1861 the "Mount Lebanon" autonomous district was established within the Ottoman system, under an international guarantee, it was ruled by a non-Lebanese Christian subject of the Ottoman Empire known locally as the "Mutasarrıf". Christians formed the majority of the population of Mount Lebanon, with a significant number of Druze. For decades the Christians pressured the European powers, to award them self determination by extending their small Lebanese territory to what they dubbed "Greater Lebanon", referring to a geographic unit comprising Mount Lebanon and its coast, the Beqaa Valley to its east.
After the First World War, France took hold of the Ottoman holdings in the
Jonathan Anthony Wisniski is an American professional wrestler, better known as Greg "The Hammer" Valentine. He is the son of wrestler Johnny Valentine. In the course of his career, which has spanned over four decades, Valentine has held more than 40 championships, including the NWA United States Heavyweight Championship, WWF Intercontinental Heavyweight Championship, NWA World tag team title, WWF World Tag Team Championship. An alumnus of Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling, the World Wrestling Federation and World Championship Wrestling, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame Class of 2004 and the Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame in 2016. Born in Seattle, Wisniski traveled around Texas in his teens with his father. During a summer vacation, he decided to become a wrestler, his father tried to deter him, but ceded to his wishes and sent him to Canada in 1970 to train under Stu Hart in Calgary. Wisniski was trained to wrestle by Stu Hart, wrestling his debut match in July 1970 against Angelo "King Kong" Mosca.
Six months Wisniski relocated to Detroit to complete his training under the Sheik. Reluctant to take his father's ring name, Wisniski wrestled as Baby Face Nelson before becoming Johnny Fargo, one half of the Fargo Brothers with Don Fargo between 1971 and 1974; the Fargo Brothers competed in the Buffalo and Cleveland based National Wrestling Federation before moving on to Texas. They split in 1974 and Wisniski went to Florida, where he began performing as Johnny Valentine Jr. hopeful that he could live up to his father's legacy. He changed his ring name to Greg "the Hammer" Valentine, was billed as Johnny Valentine's brother, not his son, because of fears that the elder Valentine would be thought of as too old to be a legitimate threat. Valentine remained in Florida for a year while working in Los Angeles and in Japan under Antonio Inoki in 1975 and early 1976. In August 1976, Valentine debuted in Jim Crockett Jr. and George Scott's Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling, an affiliate of the National Wrestling Alliance based in the Carolinas and Virginias.
Valentine was hired to replace his father, forced to retire after he broke his back in a plane crash in 1975. He began feuding with Johnny Weaver, who he "retired" with a top rope elbow drop. Valentine's elbow drop was promoted as a deadly move, with tapes of him breaking wooden boards with his elbow shown to the audiences before his debut. Valentine formed a tag team with Ric Flair, with whom he twice won the NWA World tag team title and held the NWA Mid-Atlantic Tag Team Championship, they first defeated Gene and Ole Anderson on December 26, 1976 in Greensboro, injuring Gene so badly that he had to be stretchered out. They held the titles until May 8, 1977, when the Andersons defeated them in a steel cage match in the old Charlotte Coliseum. Flair and Valentine regained the tag titles from the Andersons on October 30, this time leaving Ole unable to leave under his own power; the team split after they were stripped of the titles in April 1978 by NWA president Eddie Graham as a result of their "unprofessional conduct".
Flair set his sights on the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, while Valentine held the NWA World Tag Team Championships once more with Baron von Raschke in 1978. At the same time, Valentine feuded with Chief Wahoo McDaniel over the NWA Mid-Atlantic Heavyweight Championship. Wahoo had cost Valentine and Flair their first tag team championships, so Valentine was eager for revenge. On June 11, 1977 in Raleigh he defeated Wahoo. Though Wahoo's legs were too thick for Valentine to apply his signature Figure Four leglock, he managed to break Wahoo's ankle using a leg/ankle suplex; the heel Valentine began wearing a T-shirt with the slogan "I broke Wahoo's leg" on the front and "No more Wahoo" on the back. Wahoo took back the title. Valentine would hold the title once more, defeating Wahoo again on September 10 and losing to Ken Patera on April 9, 1978. Valentine began working on a casual basis for the World Wide Wrestling Federation owned by Vincent J. McMahon, in November 1978. Managed by The Grand Wizard, he was given the gimmick of a methodical wrestler who broke the legs of all his opponents, including Chief Jay Strongbow.
In February 1979, he wrestled WWWF Heavyweight Champion Bob Backlund to a one-hour time-limit draw at Madison Square Garden. Valentine asked Flair to reform their tag team. Flair, by a face, declined. Valentine held the NWA World Tag Team Championship once more with Ray Stevens in 1980. Four days after their victory, the promoter, David Crockett told Valentine and Stevens that he possessed film which proved that the illegal man had been pinned in the tag match, nullifying the win; when Crockett threatened to send the film to NWA president Bob Geigel who said he would overturned their victory and Valentine attacked him and cut the film up with a pocketknife, destroying the evidence. Valentine claimed to have "seen the light", re-formed his team with Flair, who believed that Valentine was now a face. In a tag match against Jimmy Snuka and the Iron Sheik, Valentine abandoned Flair, leaving him outnumbered. Flair was beaten, Valentine snapped Gene Anderson’s hickory cane over Anderson's head, legitimately breaking his nose and splitting his lips.
The former partners began feuding over Flair's NWA United States Heavyweight Championship, with
John W. Donohue, AIA was an American architect, active in Western Massachusetts during the first half of the 20th century. Donohue was born in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1869, his father was associated with the engineering department of a local railroad and designed an office building for that railroad in Springfield. The young Donohue was educated in the local schools including Central High School. After working for a local firm Donohue was appointed architect for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield MA, which at the time included the Roman Catholic Diocese of Worcester, MA. In this capacity Donohoe would design over 100 churches, schools and other buildings for Catholic Clients Worcester Diocese: St. Bernard Church, Worcester, MA Blessed Sacrament Church, Worcester, MA St. Casmir Church, Worcester, MA St. Peter Church, Worcester, MA St. Stephen Church, Worcester, MA St. Joseph Church, Webster, MA St. Mary Church, Uxbridge, MA Sacred Heart Church, Southbridge, MA Our Lady Immaculate Church, Athol, MASpringfield Diocese: Our Lady of Hope Church, Springfield, MA Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Church, Springfield, MA Holy Family Church, Springfield, MA Immaculate Conception Church, West Springfield, MA Sacred Heart Church, Northampton, MA St. John Cantus Church Northampton, MA Corpus Christi Church, Housatonic, MA St. Teresa Church, West Springfield, MA St. Thomas Church, West Springfield, MA St. Mary Church, Pittsfield, MA Holy Cross Church, Holyoke, MA buildings for The College of Our Lady of the Elms, Massachusetts St. Anne Church, Chicopee, MA St. Brigid Church Amherst, MA Kervick, Francis W. Architects in America of Catholic tradition.
Top Country Albums is a chart that ranks the top-performing country music albums in the United States, published by Billboard. In 1970, 10 different albums topped the chart, at the time published under the title Top Country LP's, based on sales reports submitted by a representative sample of stores nationwide. In the issue of Billboard dated January 3, Charley Pride was at number one with the compilation album The Best of Charley Pride, the record's third week in the top spot, it remained the atop the chart for a further 10 weeks before being displaced by Okie from Muskogee by Merle Haggard. Pride would go on to achieve two further number ones during the year. In the issue of Billboard dated April 25, six weeks after his compilation album vacated the top spot, he returned to the peak position with the album Just Plain Charley, which spent nine non-consecutive weeks atop the listing. Just three weeks after that album fell from number one for the second time he was back atop the chart with Charley Pride's 10th Album.
In total Pride spent 28 weeks at number one during the year, more than twice as many as any other act. The first African-American performer to become a major star in the country music field, Pride was at the peak of his success between 1969 and 1971, when he achieved a succession of number one singles as well as his chart-topping albums. In addition to Pride and Johnny Cash each had more than one number one during the year. Haggard followed Okie from Muskogee, which spent five non-consecutive weeks at number one, with The Fightin' Side of Me, which had a seven-week run atop the listing in the fall. Both albums were live recordings hurriedly released to cash in the popularity of their respective title songs, both of which topped the country singles chart. Cash topped the albums listing with Hello, I'm Johnny Cash in March and The Johnny Cash Show in December; the latter album, released to tie in with his TV series of the same title which ran from June 7, 1969 to March 31, 1971 on ABC, was the year's final chart-topper.
In the fall Conway Twitty achieved his first number-one album when Hello Darlin' topped the chart for a single week. Having experienced success with rock and roll recordings in the 1950s, Twitty had switched to country music in the mid-1960s and would go on to become one of the genre's most successful singers of all time, topping the singles chart a record-breaking 40 times
The Tati Goldfields are a mineral-rich band in Botswana and Zimbabwe in southern Africa. The band runs 130 kilometres long by 5 kilometres wide, crosses the Tati River, it is the southernmost of the gold-bearing bands in the Archaen greenstone belts of Zimbabwe. It is estimated that between 1866 and 1963 over 200,000 ounces of gold were produced from mines in the Tati Goldfields; the area along the Tati River was pit mined by the Bakalanga before the arrival of Europeans. It may have been one of the sources of wealth for the Great Zimbabwe empire. In 1866 Karl Mauch discovered the Tati goldfield, making it the first one discovered by Europeans in southern Africa; this led to the first South African gold rush. The gold mineralization occurs in quartz veins, intruded into the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Tati greenstone belt. Other economic minerals occur including copper; the major formation is the Selkirk Formation, up to 1000 meters thick. The Selkirk is composed of redeposited dacite and rhyolite, with some darker volcanics, minor quartzites and quartzitic schists.
Águila was the first naval vessel of the Chilean Navy. She was renamed Pueyrredón, she was the old US-smuggler Eagle, a 220-ton brig with sixteen guns launched in England in 1796. Coming from Buenos Aires without documents or license with a contraband of lingerie the ship was captured by the Spaniards in Coquimbo but this capture was not informed to the Spanish Navy in Callao; the ship with the new crew sailed to Spanish Valparaíso and refitted as a 50-gun ship and was put under the command of Spanish Captain José Anacleto Goñi and manned with 50 Chileans. The next time the ship was seen in Paita in November 1816 and few days sailed to the port of destination Galápagos; the Spanish commandant of Callao, Antonio Vacaro, was informed from Paita about this new ship in his naval division, but due to the circumstances he mistrusted Captain Goñi and his crew. Moreover, he learned, he ordered the commandants of the ports of Guayaquil and Paita to replace Goñi with a trustworthy captain, to man the ship with at least 2/3 Spaniards and to send the ship to Callao on its return from Panama.
The Spanish author Gaspar Pérez Turrado supposes that Goñi was a supporter of the Chilean Independence and that as he learned about the triumph of the Chileans he sailed to Valparaíso in order to hand the ship over to the revolutionaries. Meanwhile, after the defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco the Spaniards lost the control of Valparaíso albeit they were able to blockade the port temporarily with the ships Esmeralda and Pezuela. On 26 February 1817 the ship entered Valparaíso and the Chilean Authority assumed command over the ship; some sources assert. Anyway, she came under the command of Raymond Morris an Irish mercenary and former lieutenant in the British Royal Navy; the ship sailed on 17 March 1817 to rescue a group of 78 Chilean patriots being held prisoners in the Juan Fernández Islands and came back to Valparaíso fourteen days later. The group included Manuel Blanco Encalada, who subsequently led the Navy and, in years, became the first President of Chile and Francisco de la Lastra Intendant of Santiago and Privy Councillor.
As such, he became temporary Supreme Director. On 14 July 1818 she had been renamed Pueyrredón to honour the Argentine Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata who supported the independence of Chile, she captured on 8 October 1818 the Spanish corvette Perla. On 9 October 1818, Pueyrredón sailed from Valparaíso with others ships to deter a Spanish expedition from Cadiz made up of eleven transports and the-then Spanish frigate María Isabel, it carried 2000 soldiers as well as weapons and supplies to reinforce the Viceroyalty of Perú. The Chilean squadron under commander Blanco Encalada captured María Isabel on 28 October in Talcahuano. On 11 November 1818 they captured Dolores, Elena and Carlota at Santa Maria Island. On 16 January 1819, Pueyrredónsailed from Valparaíso with the First Chilean Navy Squadron, under the command of Admiral Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane to the first blockade of Callao Pueyrredón, Galvarino and Araucano under the command of Blanco Encalada.
In June were all the Chilean ships back in Valparaíso. On 12 September 1819, Pueyrredón sailed Cochrane and Blanco Encalada again to the second blockade of Callao with a squadron composed of O'Higgins, San Martín, Independencia and Araucano. Pueyrredón was used to shell Callao with the Congreve rocket and ordered to Guayaquil to search for the Spanish Prueba. In December 1819 were most of the Chilean ships back in Valparaíso. On 21 August 1820 the Freedom Expedition Force of Peru sailed with Pueyrredón under the ships of the squadron. On 28 September 1821, despite Cochrane's efforts to retrieve the ship, she sank in Ancón. List of decommissioned ships of the Chilean Navy