Syriac known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family, written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet. Having first appeared in the early first century CE in Edessa, classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature. Indeed, Syriac literature comprises 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. Syriac was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Eastern Arabia. Syriac originated in Mesopotamia and spread west of Iraq in which it became the lingua franca of the region during the Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian period; the Old Aramaic language was adopted by the Neo-Assyrian Empire when the Assyrians conquered the various Syro-Hittite states to its west. The Achaemenid Empire, which rose after the fall of the Assyrian Empire retained Old Aramaic as its official language, Old Aramaic remained the lingua franca of the region.
During the course of the third and fourth centuries AD, the inhabitants of the region began to embrace Christianity. Because of theological differences, Syriac-speaking Christians bifurcated during the 5th century into the Church of the East, or East Syrians under Sasanian rule, the Syriac Orthodox, or West Syrians under the Byzantine empire. After this separation, the two groups developed distinct dialects differing in the pronunciation and written symbolisation of vowels; the modern, vastly spoken, Syriac varieties today include Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo, among others, which, in turn, have their own subdialects as well. Along with Latin and Greek, Syriac became one of "the three most important Christian languages in the early centuries" of the Common Era. From the 1st century AD, Syriac became the vehicle of Syriac Christianity and culture, the liturgical language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Maronite Church, the Church of the East, along with its descendants: the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church.
Syriac Christianity and language spread throughout Asia as far as the Indian Malabar Coast and Eastern China, was the medium of communication and cultural dissemination for the Arabs and, to a lesser extent, the Parthian Empire and Sasanian Empire. A Christian medium of expression, Syriac had a fundamental cultural and literary influence on the development of Arabic, which replaced it towards the 14th century. Syriac remains the sacred language of Syriac Christianity to this day. Syriac was the local accent of Aramaic in Edessa, evolved under the influence of the Church of the East and the Syriac Orthodox Church into its current form. Before Arabic became the dominant language, Syriac was a major language among Christian communities in the Middle East, Central Asia and Kerala, remains so among the Syriac Christians to this day, it has been found as far afield as Hadrian's Wall in Great Britain, with inscriptions written by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers of the Roman Empire. The history of Syriac can be divided into three distinct periods: Old Aramaic, the language of the Syro-Hittite states of the Levant in the Early Iron Age, was adopted as a lingua franca beside Akkadian in the Neo-Assyrian Empire Middle Syriac/Middle Syriac Aramaic, divided into: Eastern Middle Syriac/Eastern Middle Syriac Aramaic Western Middle Syriac/Western Middle Syriac Aramaic.
"Modern Syriac"/"Modern Syriac Aramaic" is a term used to refer to the modern Neo-Aramaic languages. If they cannot be positively identified as the direct descendants of attested Middle Syriac, they must have developed from related dialects belonging to the same branch of Aramaic, the varieties spoken in Christian communities have long co-existed with and been influenced by Middle Syriac as a liturgical and literary language. In this terminology, Modern Syriac is divided into: Modern Western Syriac Aramaic. Note however that these are sometimes excluded from the category of "Modern Syriac". Modern Eastern Syriac Aramaic; the name "Syriac", when used with no qualification refers to one specific dialect of Middle Aramaic but not to Old Aramaic or to the various present-day Eastern and Central Neo-Aramaic languages descended from it or from close relatives. The modern varieties are, not discussed in this article. In 132 BC, the kingdom of Osroene was founded in Proto-Syriac evolved in that kingdom.
Many Syriac-speakers still look to Edessa as the cradle of their language. There are about eighty extant early Syriac inscriptions, dated to the first three centuries AD. All of
Michiel Vos is a Dutch-American journalist, lawyer and United States-based correspondent. He is married to filmmaker Alexandra Pelosi, daughter of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, they met in Amsterdam when Vos was working for the broadcasting station VPRO, as a presenter for special film nights. The couple has two children. Vos hosts a Dutch/Belgian TV series called My America about his experiences as a European living in America, he appears on Dutch and Belgian television and radio commenting on American political affairs and news as well as on his experiences in the USA. For over a decade he has had a weekly spot on the Ruud de Wild show. Mr. Vos appears as an American correspondent for the late-night talk show Pauw and Jinek and EenVandaag; the HBO film Citizen USA was based on Vos's journey to become an American Citizen. Vos worked as producer on the HBO films: The Trials of Ted Haggard, Right America: Feeling Wronged, Friends of God, his wife Alexandra Pelosi is the sister-in-law of Peter Kaufman, the son of filmmaker Philip Kaufman.
Michiel Vos married Alexandra Pelosi in Greenwich Village on June 18, 2005. In November 2006, they had their first son Paul, named after Alexandra Pelosi's father Paul Pelosi, they had their second son on December 7, 2007, named Thomas, after Alexandra Pelosi's grand-father Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. Vos's sons appear in his television programs, his American family is featured throughout his show. The San Francisco Chronicle pointed out that when Mr Vos has screenings "a healthy contingent of Pelosi's" are always present, they live in Greenwich Village in New York City. Vos wrote a book about his favorite places in New York City. Michiel Vos on IMDb My America
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madang is a Metropolitan Archdiocese in Papua New Guinea with suffragan dioceses of Aitape, Lae and Wewak. The Archdiocese was created in 1966; the Metropolitan Archbishop of Madang, appointed by Pope Francis on 26 July 2019, is the former Bishop of Kundiawa, Papua New Guinea, Anton Bal. He succeeded Archbishop Stephen Joseph Reichert, O. F. M. Cap. Whose resignation was accepted; the proposed coat of arms was created by Marek Sobola, a heraldic specialist from Slovakia, who made a redesign of coat of arms for the archbishop Stephen Joseph Reichert, O. F. M. Cap. Everardo Limbrock, S. V. D. Francesco Wolf, S. V. D. Stephen A. Appelhans, S. V. D. Adolph Alexander Noser, S. V. D. Leo Clement Andrew Arkfeld, S. V. D. Benedict To Varpin - presently Archbishop Emeritus William Joseph Kurtz, S. V. D. - presently Archbishop Emeritus Stephen Joseph Reichert, O. F. M. Cap. A Capuchin - presently Archbishop Emeritus Anton Bal. V. D. "Archdiocese of Madang". Catholic-Hierarchy. Retrieved 2007-01-06