Mount Shasta is a active volcano at the southern end of the Cascade Range in Siskiyou County, California. At an elevation of 14,179 feet, it is the second-highest peak in the Cascades and the fifth-highest in the state. Mount Shasta has an estimated volume of 85 cubic miles, which makes it the most voluminous stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc; the mountain and surrounding area are part of the Shasta–Trinity National Forest. Mount Shasta is connected to its satellite cone of Shastina, together they dominate the landscape. Shasta rises abruptly to tower nearly 10,000 feet above its surroundings. On a clear winter day, the mountain can be seen from the floor of the Central Valley 140 miles to the south; the mountain has attracted the attention of poets and presidents. The mountain consists of four overlapping dormant volcanic cones that have built a complex shape, including the main summit and the prominent satellite cone of 12,330 ft Shastina, which has a visibly conical form. If Shastina were a separate mountain, it would rank as the fourth-highest peak of the Cascade Range.
Mount Shasta's surface is free of deep glacial erosion except, for its south side where Sargents Ridge runs parallel to the U-shaped Avalanche Gulch. This is the largest glacial valley on the volcano. There are seven named glaciers on Mount Shasta, with the four largest radiating down from high on the main summit cone to below 10,000 ft on the north and east sides; the Whitney Glacier is the longest, the Hotlum is the most voluminous glacier in the state of California. Three of the smaller named glaciers occupy cirques near and above 11,000 ft on the south and southeast sides, including the Watkins and Mud Creek glaciers; the oldest-known human settlement in the area dates to about 7,000 years ago. At the time of Euro-American contact in the 1820s, the Native American tribes who lived within view of Mount Shasta included the Shasta, Modoc, Atsugewi, Klamath and Yana tribes. A historic eruption of Mount Shasta in 1786 may have been observed by Lapérouse, but this is disputed. Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program says that the 1786 eruption is discredited, that the last known eruption of Mount Shasta was around 1250 AD, proved by uncorrected radiocarbon dating.
Although first seen by Spanish explorers, the first reliably reported land sighting of Mount Shasta by a European or American was by Peter Skene Ogden in 1826. In 1827, the name "Sasty" or "Sastise" was given to nearby Mount McLoughlin by Ogden. An 1839 map by David Burr lists the mountain as Rogers Peak; this name was dropped, the name Shasta was transferred to present-day Mount Shasta in 1841 as a result of work by the United States Exploring Expedition. Beginning in the 1820s, Mount Shasta was a prominent landmark along what became known as the Siskiyou Trail, which runs at Mount Shasta's base; the Siskiyou Trail was on the track of an ancient trade and travel route of Native American footpaths between California's Central Valley and the Pacific Northwest. The California Gold Rush brought the first Euro-American settlements into the area in the early 1850s, including at Yreka and Upper Soda Springs; the first recorded ascent of Mount Shasta occurred after several earlier failed attempts. In 1856, the first women reached the summit.
By the 1860s and 1870s, Mount Shasta was the subject of literary interest. In 1854 John Rollin Ridge titled a poem "Mount Shasta." A book by California pioneer and entrepreneur James Hutchings, titled Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California, contained an account of an early summit trip in 1855. The summit was achieved by John Muir, Josiah Whitney, Clarence King, John Wesley Powell. In 1877, Muir wrote a dramatic popular article about his surviving an overnight blizzard on Mount Shasta by lying in the hot sulfur springs near the summit; this experience was inspiration to Kim Stanley Robinson's short story "Muir on Shasta". The 1887 completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, built along the line of the Siskiyou Trail between California and Oregon, brought a substantial increase in tourism and population into the area around Mount Shasta. Early resorts and hotels, such as Shasta Springs and Upper Soda Springs, grew up along the Siskiyou Trail around Mount Shasta, catering to these early adventuresome tourists and mountaineers.
In the early 20th century, the Pacific Highway followed the track of the Siskiyou Trail to the base of Mount Shasta, leading to still more access to the mountain. Today's version of the Siskiyou Trail, Interstate 5, brings thousands of people each year to Mount Shasta. From February 13–19, 1959, the Mount Shasta Ski Bowl obtained the record for the most snowfall during one storm in the U. S. with a total of 15.75 feet. Mount Shasta was declared a National Natural Landmark in December 1976; the lore of some of the Klamath Tribes in the area held that Mount Shasta is inhabited by the Spirit of the Above-World, who descended from heaven to the mountain's summit at the request of a Klamath chief. Skell fought with Spirit of the Below-World, who resided at Mount Mazama by throwing hot rocks and lava representing the volcanic eruptions at both mountains. Italian settlers arrived in the early 1900s to work in the mills as stonemasons and established a strong Cathol
Husein Rovčanin was a Bosniak commander of a detachment of Sandžak Muslim militia from Komaran during the Second World War. When Axis forces occupied Yugoslavia in April 1941, Ustaše forces of the Independent State of Croatia occupied Sandžak and established detachments of Muslim militia. Rovčanin was a commander of a detachment of Sandžak Muslim militia from Komaran. Together with other commanders of Muslim militia he participated on the conference in village Godijevo and agreed to attack Serb villages near Sjenica and other parts of Sandžak. After the Capitulation of Italy in September 1943, communists tried to negotiate surrender of Rovčanin and his troops. Since Rovčanin insisted that Komaran and Brodarevo should remain under the control of his detachment of Muslim militia, negotiations failed. At the end of October 1943 Partisans captured Komaran and Rovčanin and his militia had to retreat toward Sjenica. Germans promoted him to the rank of Captain. On 7 November 1943 Rovčanin led his forces of 300 — 400 militiamen from Sjenica toward Bijelo Polje.
On 8 November Partisans defeated them. Rovčanin was killed in the battle against Partisans on 26 April 1944 in the Biokovac village, his militiamen wore German uniforms. There are controversial interpretations of Rovčanin's role during the Second World War. According to some of them he cooperated with Chetniks and died protecting the retreat of Pavle Đurišić. According to this predominantly Chetnik view, Rovčanin belonged to small group of commanders of Muslim Militia who refrained from attacks on Christian population and who pursued the policy of cooperation with Chetniks and correct attitude toward Serbs. According to this view, this policy saved lives of many civilians in Brodarevo and Bijelo Polje; some Chetnik sources say that Captain Rovčanin and his detachment from Komaran joined Chetniks without any conditions, protected their region from communists. Rovca Rovčanin
Carnage is a 2011 black comedy-drama film directed by Roman Polanski, based on the Tony Award-winning play Le Dieu du carnage by French playwright Yasmina Reza. The screenplay is by Polanski; the film is an international co-production of France, Germany and Spain, Paraguay. It stars Jodie Foster, Kate Winslet, Christoph Waltz, John C. Reilly. In the film, presented in a classic case of much ado about nothing, two sets of parents try to resolve a situation in a civilised manner. But, the actual matter aside, it is their own idiosyncrasies. Carnage premiered at the 2011 Venice International Film Festival on 1 September 2011, where it competed for the Golden Lion, it was theatrically released on 18 November 2011. The film received positive reviews with critics drawing major acclaim towards the performances of Foster and Winslet and Polanski's direction. At the 69th Golden Globe Awards and Winslet received nominations for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, it is Polanski's last film to be shot in English.
When two grade-school boys get into a fight in the park that results in one boy, Zachary Cowan, hitting the other, Ethan Longstreet, in the face with a stick, their parents meet in a Brooklyn apartment to discuss the matter. Zachary's parents and Nancy Cowan, visit the home of Michael and Penelope Longstreet, Ethan's parents, their meeting is intended to be short, but due to various circumstances, the conversation continues to draw out. In fact and Nancy begin to leave the apartment on two occasions, but are drawn back in to further discussion. At first, the couples are friendly to each other, but their respective comments start to hurt feelings, making everyone argue with one another. Apart from fighting amongst themselves, the couples blame each other about, responsible for the fight between their sons. Nancy calls the Longstreets "superficially fair-minded" and Penelope and Michael complain about Alan's arrogant and dull attitude. Everyone gets irritated with Alan when he accepts endless business phone calls on his BlackBerry, interrupting the discussion, showing he has more interest in his business problems than the matter at hand.
Michael receives many phone calls from his ailing mother, to his frustration. Nancy accuses Michael of being a murderer because he, annoyed by the constant noise it made during the night, had earlier turned his daughter Courtney's pet hamster loose in the street. Penelope becomes emotional with everyone arguing with each other. Other issues include a risky drug Alan is working to defend and Michael's mother has been prescribed, the question of idealism and responsibility, part of Penelope's current work. Michael offers everyone a glass of fine scotch. Penelope claims she doesn't "get drunk" and Nancy drinks way too many and stops Alan's phone calls by dropping his cellphone in Penelope's flower vase full of tulips and water. Penelope and Nancy both laugh uproariously while Alan try to blow-dry the BlackBerry; the conversation continues to decay into personal attacks and opinionated statements and epithets are uttered. Penelope is ranting, calling Nancy's son a'snitch', Nancy's true colors are revealed when she destroys the tulips and drunkenly and vulgarly states she is glad that her son beat up Penelope's and Michael's son.
The couples realize. Alan's BlackBerry, lying on the coffee table and all four stare at it; the film cuts to the hamster and well in the park, where Ethan and Zachary are reconciling on their own. Jodie Foster as Penelope Longstreet John C. Reilly as Michael Longstreet Kate Winslet as Nancy Cowan Christoph Waltz as Alan Cowan Elvis Polanski as Zachary Cowan Eliot Berger as Ethan Longstreet Roman Polanski as a neighbor Although set in Brooklyn, New York, the film was shot in Paris, because of Polanski's fugitive status; the opening and closing scenes, ostensibly filmed in Brooklyn Bridge Park, were shot in France against a green screen. Polanski's son Elvis, seen only in long shots in the opening and closing scenes, portrays the Cowans' son. Actress Julie Adams voices Alan Cowan's secretary on the phone, was a dialect coach for Waltz; the apartment, in which the whole film takes place, was designed in a sound studio on the outskirts of Paris. Production designer Dean Tavoularis placed a priority on making the set look authentically American, having numerous products and appliances shipped from the US, renting American ironmongery for the doors.
The film premiered at the 68th Venice International Film Festival. The film was released in the United States on 16 December 2011 by Sony Pictures Classics. Carnage received positive reviews from critics, it holds a 71% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, which notes that "it isn't as compelling on the screen as it was on the stage, but Carnage makes up for its flaws with Polanski's smooth direction and assured performances from Winslet and Foster." On Metacritic, which uses an average of the critics' reviews, the film holds a 61/100, indicating "Generally favorable reviews". John Anderson of Newsday compared the film to Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and said: "The astonishing Waltz steals the picture because he's the one with a rational perspective. He sees the whole exercise as pointless. So do we." Giuseppe Sedia of the Krakow Post remarked that the descent of four adults to a thuggish level has been featured as well in Polanski's short film Rozbijemy zabawę. He added that "it is interesting to speculate on what Hitchcock might have made