The Premier Range is a group of mountains within the Cariboo Mountains of east-central British Columbia, Canada. The range is bounded by the Raush River and Kiwa Creek to the north, the North Thompson River on the south and west and the Fraser River and its tributaries to the east. In 1927, the year of Canada's Diamond Jubilee, it was decided that the names of the higher peaks in this range would be reserved to pay tribute to prime ministers of Canada, prime ministers of the United Kingdom, premiers of the province of British Columbia. In practice, only one British prime minister and one British Columbia premier have been so honoured, recent changes to Canadian geographic naming regulations make it unlikely that any British prime minister or other non-Canadian will receive such an honour in the future; the named summits of the Premier Range are, in order of elevation: Before the Premier Range was selected, many mountains outside this area were named after Canadian prime ministers. Mount Mackenzie, Mount Tupper, Mount Macdonald and Mount Laurier rise over the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks that travel through the Rogers Pass near Golden, British Columbia.
Mount Robert in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia honours Sir Robert Borden. There is a Mount John Diefenbaker in British Columbia named after John Diefenbaker. Other than Laurier, none of these prime ministers have received the honour of having a mountain named for them in the Premier Range. Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia on the Premier Range Place Names in the Canadian Rockies Government of British Columbia Information Services data sheet on Premier Range Mountains of Canada from Canadian Geographic "Premier Range". BC Geographical Names
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Kettle River Range
The Kettle River Range called the Kettle Range, is the southernmost range of the Monashee Mountains, located in far southeastern British Columbia and Ferry County, Washington, in the United States. Most of the northern half of the range is protected by the Colville National Forest and the southern half of the range is located on the Colville Indian Reservation; the highest peak is Copper Butte. The range is crossed by Washington State Route 20 at Sherman Pass; the Kettle River Range encompasses an area of 2,700 square miles and is a subrange of the Monashee Mountains, which in turn form part of the Columbia Mountains. The range runs north to south, bordered on the east by the Kettle River and the Columbia River, on the west by the Kettle River, the Curlew Valley and the San Poil River; the mountainous region begins north of the Canada–US border, at Grand Forks, British Columbia, extending 110 miles south to the bend of the Columbia River and Lake Roosevelt, formed by Grand Coulee Dam, where it terminates.
The Okanogan Highlands are adjacent to the range on the west, the Selkirk Mountains are adjacent on the east. The Sherman Pass Scenic Byway runs 40 miles east from the town of Republic, Washington across the center of the Kettle River Range and reaches its highest point at Sherman Pass, 5,575 feet, the highest mountain pass open all year in Washington state; the route is named for American Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, who crossed the range in 1883. Prospectors and low-paid Chinese miners working claims in the Kettle River Range produced more than 839,000 ounces of gold between 1896 and 1959; the largest amounts came from the Republic District although 6,000 ounces of gold came from the Danville and Columbia River Districts. Terrace deposits 30 and 100 feet above the Columbia River at Keller produced gold. Records state that during this time period, 164 lode mines, where thick mineral veins were worked with pick axes and shovels, 35 placer mines, where minerals exposed by erosion were recovered from rivers and loose surface soil, operated in Ferry County.—From 1904 to 1928, the Kettle River Range was the largest producer of gold in the state.
Mining operations yielded silver, lead, platinum, cobalt, tungsten and iron pyrite, as well. The White Mountain wildfire burnt and destroyed 21,000 acres of timber in the southern half of the range in 1988, including all but the easternmost flanks of White Mountain, Edds Mountain, Bald Mountain, Snow Peak, north to Sherman Peak; the State of Washington has built several interesting interpretive sites and pull-outs along roads in the region that explain the devastation. The Kettle Complex fires occurred in late summer of 2015; the complex included three fires – the Stickpin and Graves Mountain fires – burning south of the Canada–US border, west of Highway 395, north of State Route 20 and east of Highway 21. An estimated 73,392 acres were burned. Today, the Kettle River Range is a popular, all-season recreation area for hiking and aided climbing and cross-country skiing; the Kettle Crest National Recreation Trail follows the backbone of the range, may be accessed at the Kettle Crest Trailhead on the north or the Deer Creek Summit South/Sno-Park Trailhead on the south.
Copper Butte, 7,142 feet, the highest summit in the Kettle River Range Snow Peak, 7,103 feet, 48°34′55″N 118°28′56″W Scar Mountain, 7,046 feet, 48°40′52″N 118°27′36″W Wapaloosie Mountain, 7,018 feet, 48°39′52″N 118°27′47″W Sherman Peak, 7,011 feet, 48°35′48″N 118°28′39″W Bald Mountain, 6,940 feet, 48°33′33″N 118°30′09″W White Mountain, 6,923 feet, 48°30′41″N 118°27′12″W Columbia Mountain, 6,782 feet, 48°37′13″N 118°28′55″W Midnight Mountain, 6,660 feet, 48°35′48″N 118°28′39″W King Mountain, 6,634 feet, 48°40′36″N 118°24′11″W Edds Mountain, 6,540 feet, 48°33′27″N 118°32′16″W List of mountain ranges in Washington LOJ Peaks List, Ferry County, list of all significant peaks in the range SummitPost.org, Kettle River Range, includes photos
The Columbia Mountains are a group of mountain ranges along the upper Columbia River in southeastern British Columbia, in Montana and Washington. The mountain range covers 135,952 km²; the range is bounded by the Rocky Mountain Trench on the east, the Kootenay River on the south. Seventy-five percent of the range is located in Canada and the remaining twenty-five percent in the United States. Mount Sir Sandford is the highest mountain in the range; the Columbia Mountains are made up of four large ranges containing many subranges: Cariboo Mountains Lunn Icefield Mowdish Range Premier Range Vimy Ridge Wavy Range Monashee Mountains Anstey Range Christina Range Gold Range Jordan Range Kettle River Range Malton Range Midway Range Ratchford Range Rossland Range Scrip Range Whatshan Range The Pinnacles Selkirk Mountains Asulkan Range Battle Range Big Bend Ranges Adamant Range Sir Sandford Range Windy Range Bishops Range Bonnington Range Clachnacudainn Range Dawson Range Duncan Ranges Badshot Range Goat Range Hermit Range Kokanee Range Slocan Ranges Lardeau Range Nelson Range Purity Range Sir Donald Range Valhalla Ranges Ruby Range Valkyr Range Norns Range Purcell Mountains The Bugaboos Group Carbonate Range Dogtooth Range Farnham Group MacBeth Group McGillivary Range Moyie Range Septet Range Spillimacheen Range Starbird Ridge Commander Group Stockdale Group Toby Glacier Truce Group Yahk RangeAdditionally lower areas to the west of the main ranges are sometimes included in the description of the Cariboo Mountains: Quesnel Highland Gosse Range Palmer Range Goose Range Palmer Range Shuswap Highland Hunters Range Mabel Range Park Range Sawtooth Range Seymour Range Shuswap Range Silver Hills Trinity Hills Okanagan Highland Beaverdell RangeSome classification systems end the Columbia Mountains at the North Thompson River, such that the Cariboo Mountains are assigned to the Interior Plateau.
Where the Columbia Mountains meet the Interior Plateau there are intermediary areas known as highlands - the Quesnel Highland, the Shuswap Highland, the Okanagan Highland. These are listed here but are considered to be part of the Interior Plateau; some geographic classifications include the Cabinet Mountains and Salish Mountains, which lie south of the Purcells between the Kootenai River and the Clark Fork of the Columbia, but in US classification systems they are considered to be part of the Rocky Mountains. Physiographically, they are a distinct province of the larger Rocky Mountain System physiographic division; the following mountains are the 10 highest mountains contained within the Columbian Mountains:"Columbia Mountains". Peakbagger.com. Mount Sir Sandford Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier Mount Farnham Mount Jumbo Howser Spire Mount Delphine Mount Sir John Abbott Mount Hammond Mount Dawson Eyebrow Peak The following passes are located within or on the perimeter of the Columbia Mountains: Cedarside Pass Canal Flats Rogers Pass Kootenay Pass Eagle Pass Monashee Pass Bonanza Pass "Columbia Mountains".
BC Geographical Names. "Columbia Mountains". Peakbagger.com. Columbia Mountains on Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
The Anstey Range is a mountain range in southeastern British Columbia, located east of the Seymour Arm of Shuswap Lake, south of Ratchford Creek and between the Perry River on the east. It has an area of 507 km2 and is a subrange of the Monashee Mountains which in turn form part of the Columbia Mountains. List of mountain ranges
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show