Allan Dwan was a pioneering Canadian-born American motion picture director and screenwriter. Born Joseph Aloysius Dwan in Toronto, Canada, was the younger son of commercial traveler of woolen clothing Joseph Michael Dwan and his wife Mary Jane Dwan, née Hunt; the family moved to the United States when he was seven years old on 4 December 1892 by ferry from Windsor to Detroit, according to his naturalization petition of August 1939. His elder brother, Leo Garnet Dwan, became a physician. Allan Dwan studied engineering at the University of Notre Dame and worked for a lighting company in Chicago, he had a strong interest in the fledgling motion picture industry, when Essanay Studios offered him the opportunity to become a scriptwriter, he took the job. At that time, some of the East Coast movie makers began to spend winters in California where the climate allowed them to continue productions requiring warm weather. Soon, a number of movie companies worked there year-round, in 1911, Dwan began working part-time in Hollywood.
While still in New York, in 1917 he was the founding president of the East Coast chapter of the Motion Picture Directors Association. Dwan operated Flying A Studios in La Mesa, California from August 1911 to July 1912. Flying A was one of the first motion pictures studios in California history. On 12 August 2011, a plaque was unveiled on the Wolff building at Third Avenue and La Mesa Boulevard commemorating Dwan and the Flying A Studios origins in La Mesa, California. After making a series of westerns and comedies, Dwan directed fellow Canadian-American Mary Pickford in several successful movies as well as her husband, Douglas Fairbanks, notably in the acclaimed 1922 Robin Hood. Dwan directed Gloria Swanson in eight feature films, one short film made in the short-lived sound-on-film process Phonofilm; this short featuring Thomas Meighan and Henri de la Falaise, was produced as a joke, for the 26 April 1925 "Lambs' Gambol" for The Lambs, with the film showing Swanson crashing the all-male club.
Following the introduction of the talkies, Dwan directed child-star Shirley Temple in Heidi and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Dwan helped launch the career of two other successful Hollywood directors, Victor Fleming, who went on to direct The Wizard of Oz and Gone With the Wind, Marshall Neilan, who became an actor, director and producer. Over a long career spanning 50 years, Dwan directed 125 motion pictures, some of which were acclaimed, such as the 1949 box office hit, Sands of Iwo Jima, he directed his last movie in 1961. He died in Los Angeles at the age of ninety-six, is interred in the San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Mission Hills, California. Dwan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6263 Hollywood Boulevard. Daniel Eagan of Film Journal International described Dwan as one of the early pioneers of cinema, stating that his style "is so basic as to seem invisible, but he treats his characters with uncommon sympathy and compassion." Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood Brownlow, The Parade's Gone By...
ISBN 0520030680 ISBN 978-0520030688 Bogdanovich, Allan Dwan: The Last Pioneer ISBN 0289701228 ISBN 978-0289701225 Foster, Charles and Shadows: Canadians in Early Hollywood ISBN 1-55002-348-9 Lombardi, Allan Dwan and the Rise and Decline of the Hollywood Studios Print ISBN 978-0-7864-3485-5 E-book ISBN 978-0-7864-9040-0 Allan Dwan on IMDb Allan Dwan profile, virtual-history.com.
Clinton Eastwood Jr. is an American actor, filmmaker and politician. After achieving success in the Western TV series Rawhide, he rose to international fame with his role as the Man with No Name in Italian filmmaker Sergio Leone's Dollars Trilogy of spaghetti Westerns during the 1960s, as antihero cop Harry Callahan in the five Dirty Harry films throughout the 1970s and 1980s; these roles, among others, have made Eastwood an enduring cultural icon of masculinity. For his work in the Western film Unforgiven and the sports drama Million Dollar Baby, Eastwood won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture, as well as receiving nominations for Best Actor. Eastwood's greatest commercial successes have been the adventure comedy Every Which Way But Loose and its sequel, the action comedy Any Which Way You Can, after adjustment for inflation. Other popular films include the Western Hang'Em High, the psychological thriller Play Misty for Me, the crime film Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, the Western The Outlaw Josey Wales, the prison film Escape from Alcatraz, the action film Firefox, the suspense thriller Tightrope, the Western Pale Rider, the war films Where Eagles Dare, Kelly's Heroes, Heartbreak Ridge, the action thriller In the Line of Fire, the romantic drama The Bridges of Madison County, the drama Gran Torino.
In addition to directing many of his own star vehicles, Eastwood has directed films in which he did not appear, such as the mystery drama Mystic River and the war film Letters from Iwo Jima, for which he received Academy Award nominations, the drama Changeling, the South African biographical political sports drama Invictus. The war drama biopic American Sniper set box-office records for the largest January release and was the largest opening for an Eastwood film. Eastwood received considerable critical praise in France for several films, including some that were not well received in the United States. Eastwood has been awarded two of France's highest honors: in 1994 he became a recipient of the Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, in 2007 he was awarded the Legion of Honour medal. In 2000, Eastwood was awarded the Italian Venice Film Festival Golden Lion for lifetime achievement. Since 1967, Eastwood's Malpaso Productions has produced all but four of his American films. Elected in 1986, Eastwood served for two years as mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, a non-partisan office.
Eastwood was born on May 31, 1930, in San Francisco, the son of Clinton Eastwood and Ruth Wood. Ruth took the surname of her second husband, John Belden Wood, whom she married after the death of Clinton Sr. Eastwood was nicknamed "Samson" by the hospital nurses because he weighed 11 pounds 6 ounces at birth, he has Jeanne Bernhardt. Eastwood is of English, Irish and Dutch ancestry, he is descended from Mayflower passenger William Bradford, through this line is the 12th generation of his family born in North America. During the 1930s, his family moved as his father worked at jobs along the West Coast. Contrary to what Eastwood has indicated in media interviews, they did not move between 1940 and 1949. Settled in Piedmont, the Eastwoods lived in a wealthy part of the town, had a swimming pool, belonged to a country club, each parent drove their own car. Eastwood attended Piedmont Middle School. From January 1945 until at least January 1946, he attended Piedmont High School, but was asked to leave for writing an obscene suggestion to a school official on the athletic field scoreboard, for burying someone in effigy on the school lawn, on top of other school infractions.
He transferred to Oakland Technical High School and was scheduled in January 1949 to graduate midyear, although it is not clear if did. "Clint graduated from the airplane shop. I think, his major," joked classmate Don Kincade. Another high school friend, Don Loomis, echoed "I don't think he was spending that much time at school because he was having a pretty good time elsewhere." "I think what happened is he started having a good time. I just don't think he finished high school," explained Fritz Manes, a boyhood friend two years younger than Eastwood, who remained associated with him until their falling out in the mid-1980s. Biographer Patrick McGilligan notes that high school graduation records are a matter of strict legal confidentiality. Eastwood held a number of jobs, including as a lifeguard, paper carrier, grocery clerk, forest firefighter, golf caddy. Eastwood has said that he tried to enroll at Seattle University in 1951 but instead was drafted into the United States Army during the Korean War.
"He always dropped the Korean War reference, hoping everyone would conclude that he was in combat and might be some sort of hero. He'd been a lifeguard at Fort Ord in northern California for his entire stint in the military," commented Eastwood's former longtime companion, Sondra Locke. Don Loomis recalled hearing that Eastwood was romancing one of the daughters of a Fort Ord officer, who might have been entreated to watch out for him when names came up for postings. While returning from a prearranged tryst in Seattle, Washington, he was a passenger on a Douglas AD bomber that ran out of fuel and crashed into the ocean near Point Reyes. Using a life raft, he and the pilot swam 2 miles to safety. According to the CBS press release for Rawhide, the Universal film company
Chichijima known as Peel Island and in the 19th century known to the English as part of the Bonin Islands, is the largest island in the Ogasawara archipelago. Chichijima is about 240 km north of Iwo Jima; the island is within the political boundaries of Ogasawara Village, Ogasawara Subprefecture, Japan. Around 2,000 people live on its land area of 24 km2; the first European discovery of the Bonin Islands is said to have taken place in 1549 by the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre. Archeological excavations show that Micronesians lived on the island in the past, though no details are yet known; the Tokugawa Shogunate made a map of the island. It remained uninhabited until May 1830. Western ships visited the island on several occasions in the 19th century, including: The Beechey Pacific expedition in 1827 Naturalist Heinrich von Kittlitz in 1828 with the Russian Senjawin expedition, led by Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke A whaling ship established an American colony in 1830. Commodore Matthew Perry's U.
S. expedition to Japan in 1853 Naturalist William Stimpson of the Rodgers-Ringgold North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition came in 1854. Two shipwrecked sailors who were picked up by Beechey in 1827 suggested that the island would make a good stopover station for whalers due to natural springs found on the island; the first settlement on the island was established in May 1830 by 36-year-old Massachusetts native Nathaniel Savory along with four other whites and 20 Hawaiian men and women from Oahu. Descendants of Nathaniel Savory continue to live on the island to this day. Commodore Perry's flagship Susquehanna anchored for 3 days in Chichijima's harbor on June 15, 1853, on the way to his historic visit to Tokyo Bay to open up the country to western trade. Perry laid claim to the island for the United States for a coaling station for steamships, appointing Nathaniel Savory as an official agent of the US Navy and formed a governing council with Savory as the leader. On behalf of the US government, Perry "purchased" 50 acres from Savory.
On January 17, 1862, a Tokugawa Shogunate ship entered a harbor at Chichijima and proclaimed Japanese sovereignty over the Ogasawara Islands. Japanese immigrants were introduced from Hachijōjima under the direction of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Forty members of the Savory colony were allowed to stay on the island. Following the Meiji restoration, a group of 37 Japanese colonists arrived on the island under the sponsorship of the Japanese Home Ministry in March 1876; the island was incorporated into Tokyo Metropolis on October 28, 1880. Emperor Hirohito made an official visit aboard the battleship Yamashiro. A small naval base had been established on Chichijima in 1914; the island was the primary site of long range Japanese radio stations during World War II, as well as being the central base of supply and communication between Japan and the Bonin Islands. As behooved this status it had the heaviest garrison in the Nanpō Shotō. According to one source: "At the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor an Army force of about 3,700-3,800 men garrisoned Chichi Jima.
In addition, about 1,200 naval personnel manned the Chichi Jima Naval Base, a small seaplane base, the radio and weather station, various gunboat and minesweeping units." The garrison included a heavy artillery fortress regiment, it was a frequent target of US attacks. A young George H. W. Bush was shot down while on one of these raids. In 1944, all of the 6,886 civilian inhabitants were ordered to evacuate from the Ogasawara islands. Japanese troops and resources from Chichijima were used in reinforcing the strategic point of Iwo Jima before the historic battle that took place there from February 19 to March 24, 1945; the island served as a major point for Japanese radio relay communication and surveillance operations in the Pacific, with two radio stations atop its two mountains being the primary goal of multiple bombing attempts by the US Navy. Chichijima was the subject of a book by James Bradley entitled Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, a factual account of the lives of a group of young World War II pilots, including George H. W. Bush.
The book tells the story of United States Navy pilots who bombed the island's two radio stations, details the stories of the US pilots who were captured, executed, in some cases eaten in February 1945. The island was never captured, at the end of World War II, some 25,000 troops in the island chain surrendered. Thirty Japanese soldiers were court-martialled for class "B" war crimes in connection with the Chichijima incident and four officers were found guilty and hanged. All enlisted. At least two US citizens of Japanese descent served in the Japanese military on Chichijima during the war, including Nobuaki "Warren" Iwatake, a Japanese-American from Hawaii, drafted into the Japanese Imperial Army while living with his family back in Hiroshima; the United States maintained the former Japanese naval base and attached seaplane base after the war. After World War II, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers allowed only 129 locals of Western origin to go back to the island, destroyed the rest of the housing.
In 1960, the harbor facilities were devastated by tsunami after the Great Chilean earthquake. Several Japanese islands, including Chichijima, were used by the United States in the 1950s to store nuclear arms, according to Robert S. Norris, William M. Arkin, William Burr, writing for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists in early 2000; this is despite the Japanese Constitution bein
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed'Duke', was an American actor and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. He was among the top box office draws for three decades. Wayne grew up in Southern California, he was president of Glendale High School class of 1925. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a bodysurfing accident working for the Fox Film Corporation, he appeared in bit parts, but his first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's Western The Big Trail, an early widescreen film epic, a box-office failure. Only leading roles in numerous B movies followed during the 1930s, most of them Westerns. Wayne's career was rejuvenated, he starred in 142 motion pictures altogether, including the dozens with his name above the title produced before 1939. According to one biographer, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, in them he played cowboys and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth."Wayne's other roles in Westerns include a cattleman driving his herd on the Chisholm Trail in Red River, a Civil War veteran whose niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers, a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman's hand in marriage in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, a cantankerous one-eyed marshal in True Grit.
He is remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo with Dean Martin, The Longest Day. In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist, he appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, made his last public appearance at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa; the local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907 that Wayne weighed 13 lbs. at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison, was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison. Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown, was from Nebraska. Wayne's ancestry included English and Irish, he was raised Presbyterian. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in academics. Wayne was part of its debating team, he was the president of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke, he preferred "Duke" to "Marion", the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale; as a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man. He was active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, he played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. Wayne applied to the U. S. Naval was not accepted. Instead, he attended the University of Southern California, he was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities. Wayne played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career, he lost his athletic scholarship, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to USC football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne credited his walk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard, The Dropkick, Salute and Columbia's Maker of Men. While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music. Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail. For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian". Walsh suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, the name was set. Wayne was not present for the discussion, his pay was raised to $105 a week. The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film p
Flags of Our Fathers
Flags of Our Fathers is a New York Times bestselling book by James Bradley with Ron Powers about the six United States Marines who would be made famous by Joe Rosenthal's lauded photograph of the flag raising at Iwo Jima, one of the costliest and most horrifying battles of World War II's Pacific Theater. The flag raisers were Harold Schultz, Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, Mike Strank, Harlon Block, Franklin Sousley. Strank was a Sergeant who refused several promotions during the battle in order to "Bring his boys back to their mothers." Block was a corporal who reported to Strank, the rest were privates in the Marines, except for John Bradley, a Navy Corpsman who administered first aid to Easy Company of 2nd Battalion, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division, the company to which all the flag raisers were assigned. The book, published in May 2000 by Bantam Books, a division of Random House, spent 46 weeks on the New York Times nonfiction bestseller list, spending six weeks at number one. Shortly after the book's publication, Steven Spielberg acquired the option on the film rights for DreamWorks Pictures.
The book follows the lives of the six flag-raisers through their early lives of innocence, military training, fierce combat and afterward, when they were sent on tours to raise money for war bonds. The film adaptation Flags of Our Fathers, which opened in the U. S. on October 20, 2006, was directed by Clint Eastwood and produced by Steven Spielberg, with a screenplay written by William Broyles, Jr. and Paul Haggis. EFilmCritic.com interview with James Bradley about Flags of Our Fathers Booknotes interview with Bradley on Flags of Our Fathers, July 9, 2000
The Bonin Islands known as the Ogasawara Islands, or, Yslas del Arzobispo, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some 1,000 kilometres directly south of Tokyo, Japan. The name "Bonin Islands" comes from the Japanese word bunin, meaning "no people" or "uninhabited"; the only inhabited islands of the group are Chichijima, the seat of the municipal government, Hahajima. Ogasawara Municipality and Ogasawara Subprefecture take their names from the Ogasawara Group. Ogasawara Archipelago is used as a wider collective term that includes other islands in Ogasawara Municipality, such as the Volcano Islands, along with three other remote islands. Geographically speaking, all of these islands are part of the Nanpō Islands. A total population of 2,440, 2,000 on Chichijima and 440 on Hahajima, lives in the Ogasawara Group, which has a total area of 84 square kilometres; because the Ogasawara Islands have never been connected to a continent, many of their animals and plants have undergone unique evolutionary processes.
This has led to the islands' nickname of "The Galápagos of the Orient", their nomination as a natural World Heritage Site on June 24, 2011. The giant squid was photographed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on 30 September 2004, was filmed alive in December 2006. A 25-meter-diameter radio telescope is located in Chichijima, one of the stations of the very-long-baseline interferometry Exploration of Radio Astrometry project, is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Bonin Islands consist of three subgroups, which are listed below along with their main islands: Muko-jima Group – Parry Group: Muko-jima. Geographically, they are not traditionally considered part of the Bonin Islands, which are the Mukojima and Hahajima island clusters. In other words, the historical range of the Bonin Islands is not the precise equivalent of the Japanese governmental unit; the Bonin Islands is a geographical term excluding the other islands which are today associated within the boundaries of a collective term, Ogasawara Shotō.
Prehistoric tools and carved stones, discovered on North Iwo Jima at the end of the 20th century, as well as stone tools discovered on Chichi-jima, indicate the islands might have been populated in ancient times. The first recorded visit by Europeans to the islands happened on 2 October 1543, when the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre on the San Juan sighted Haha-jima, which he charted as Forfana. At that time, the islands were not populated. Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpō 3; the islands were referred to as Bunin jima "the uninhabited islands". Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands. In 1727, Ogasawara Sadatō, a rōnin, claimed that the islands were discovered by his ancestor Ogasawara Sadayori, in 1593, the territory was granted as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
However, investigation of the claim found that it was a fraud and the existence of Sadayori was doubtful. The first published description of the islands in the West was brought to Europe by Isaac Titsingh in 1796, his small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu by Hayashi Shihei. This book, published in Japan in 1785 described the Ogasawara Islands; these groups were collectively called Islas del Arzobispo in Spanish sources of the 18th–19th century. This name is most due to an expedition organized by the Arzobispo Pedro Moya de Contreras, Viceroy of New Spain, to explore the northern Pacific and the islands of Japan, its main objective was to find the long sought and legendary islands of Rica de Oro, Rica de Plata and the Islas del Armenio. After several years of planning and frustrated attempts the expedition set sail on 12 July 1587 c