Mountain biking is a sport of riding bicycles off-road over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain. Mountain biking can be broken down into multiple categories: cross country, trail riding, all mountain, downhill and dirt jumping; this sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, self-reliance. Advanced riders pursue high incline climbs. In the case of freeride and dirt jumping, aerial maneuvers are performed off both natural features and specially constructed jumps and ramps. Mountain bikers ride on off-road trails such as singletrack, back-country roads, wider bike park trails, fire roads, some advanced trails are designed with jumps and drop-off to add excitement to the trail. Riders with enduro and downhill bikes will visit ski resorts that stay open in the summer to ride downhill specific trails, using the ski lifts to return to the top with their bikes.
Because riders are far from civilization, there is a strong ethic of self-reliance in the sport. Riders learn to repair flat tires to avoid being stranded. Many riders carry a backpack, including water, tools for trailside repairs, a first aid kit in case of injury. Group rides are common on longer treks. Mountain bike orienteering adds the skill of map navigation to mountain biking. One of the first examples of bicycles modified for off-road use is the expedition of Buffalo Soldiers from Missoula, Montana, to Yellowstone in August 1896; the Swiss military had its first bike regiment in 1891. Bicycles were ridden off-road by road racing cyclists who used cyclocross as a means of keeping fit during the winter. Cyclo-cross became a sport in its own right in the 1940s, with the first world championship taking place in 1950; the Rough Stuff Fellowship was established in 1955 by off-road cyclists in the United Kingdom. In Oregon, one Chemeketan club member, D. Gwynn, built a rough terrain trail bicycle in 1966.
He named it a "mountain bicycle" for its intended place of use. This may be the first use of that name. In England in 1968, Geoff Apps, a motorbike trials rider, began experimenting with off-road bicycle designs. By 1979 he had developed a custom-built lightweight bicycle, uniquely suited to the wet and muddy off-road conditions found in the south-east of England, they were designed around 2 inch x 650b Nokian snow tires though a 700x47c version was produced. These were sold under the Cleland Cycles brand until late 1984. Bikes based on the Cleland design were sold by English Cycles and Highpath Engineering until the early 1990s. There were several groups of riders in different areas of the U. S. A. who can make valid claims to playing a part in the birth of the sport. Riders in Crested Butte and Cupertino, tinkered with bikes and adapted them to the rigors of off-road riding. Modified heavy cruiser bicycles, old 1930s and'40s Schwinn bicycles retrofitted with better brakes and fat tires, were used for freewheeling down mountain trails in Marin County, California, in the mid-to-late 1970s.
At the time, there were no mountain bikes. The earliest ancestors of modern mountain bikes were based around frames from cruiser bicycles such as those made by Schwinn; the Schwinn Excelsior was the frame of choice due to its geometry. Riders used balloon-tired cruisers and modified them with gears and motocross or BMX-style handlebars, creating "klunkers"; the term would be used as a verb since the term "mountain biking" was not yet in use. Riders would race down mountain fireroads, causing the hub brake to burn the grease inside, requiring the riders to repack the bearings; these were called "Repack Races" and triggered the first innovations in mountain bike technology as well as the initial interest of the public. The sport originated in California on Marin County's Mount Tamalpais, it was not until the late 1970s and early 1980s that road bicycle companies started to manufacture mountain bicycles using high-tech lightweight materials. Joe Breeze is credited with introducing the first purpose-built mountain bike in 1978.
Tom Ritchey went on to make frames for a company called MountainBikes, a partnership between Gary Fisher, Charlie Kelly, John Frey and Tom Ritchey. Tom Ritchey, a welder with skills in frame building built the original bikes; the company's three partners dissolved their partnership, the company became Fisher Mountain Bikes, while Tom Ritchey started his own frame shop. The first mountain bikes were road bicycle frames with a wider frame and fork to allow for a wider tire; the handlebars were different in that they were a straight, transverse-mounted handlebar, rather than the dropped, curved handlebars that are installed on road racing bicycles. Some of the parts on early production mountain bicycles were taken from the BMX bicycle. Other contributors were Keith Bontrager. Tom Ritchey built the first available mountain bike frame, accessorized by Gary Fisher and Charlie Kelly and sold by their company called MountainBikes; the first two mass-produced mountain bikes were sold in the early 1980s: the Specialized Stumpjumper and Univega Alpina Pro.
In 1988, The Grea
Goldie Vance is a comic book series created by Eisner award winning writer Hope Larson and artist Brittney Williams. It was a monthly ongoing series from 2016 to 2017 switched to a series of original graphic novels in 2018. In 2019, the comic's publisher, Boom! Studios, partnered with Little, Brown Books to continue Goldie Vance as a series of novels for young readers; the series centers on Marigold "Goldie" Vance, the sixteen-year-old daughter of the manager of a Miami resort, whose dream is to become the resort's in-house detective. The first volume centers around Goldie searching a necklace reported missing by guest Dieter Lugwig, uncovering a plot to escape Russian agents and sell NASA a brand new formula for rocket fuel. In the second volume and Cheryl encounter a woman in an astronaut suit washed up on a beach. Cheryl and the woman vanish shortly thereafter, Goldie tracks their trail leading to a mysterious rogue astronaut training program. Sugar Maple, Goldie's longtime rival, recruits her to find out, sabotaging her prize race car before the big race she'll be competing in.
Bands need to be found before the town's big music festival. Marigold "Goldie" Vance: The protagonist of the series. Goldie is a car valet at the Crossed Palms Resort, she is skilled in discovering clues and repairing cars, making friends, breaking rules. Cheryl Lebeaux: Goldie's best friend, who works at the front desk of the hotel, she is a bookworm and studying to become an astronaut. Arthur Vance: Goldie's father, the manager of Crossed Palms, he is professional and seeks to keep the staff busy. Rob: Another valet at the hotel, he is nervous and desperate, has a crush on Cheryl. Walter Tooey: The hired detective at Crossed Palms, he is exasperated by Goldie's hijacking of his job, but grudgingly tolerates her for the results she gets. Diane: A record seller at Wax and Wane Records. After helping Goldie on the necklace case, the two begin dating. Sylvia Vance: A mermaid swimmer at the local club, she and Mr. Vance are divorced, it is unclear if she has kept her married name or returned to her maiden name after her divorce from Goldie’s dad.
Sugar Maple: The daughter of Mr. Maple, the owner of Crossed Palms, she is rich, a competitive racer, hot-tempered. She and Goldie have been bitter rivals since they were children. Simpson Street for Fox will produce a movie based on the comic. Rashida Jones will write and direct the movie, while Kerry Washington will produce it
Anna Mazzotta is a British visual artist of Italian descent. She is best known for her paintings and charcoal drawings, based on observations of life, revivalist glamour underpinned by humour, bitter sweet. Mazzotta studied Fine Art at the Wimbledon College of Arts, where she gained a First Class Honours Degree and afterwards earned her Masters at the Royal College of Art under the tutelage of Paula Rego, John Bellany and Ken Kiff. Critics note that her art has a depth of narrative that makes her work unique with a distinctive style, recognisable, she works in Bristol and London, United Kingdom. Jerwood Drawing Prize: Major Award Winner Society of Women Artists: Great Art Winner Susan Kasan Summer Fellowship, USA Official website