Mountain pass

A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.

Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.

Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. One of the famous but non-motorable mountain pass include Thorong La at 5,416 metres in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons


Cavnic is a former mining town situated in the valley of the river Cavnic, 26 km east of Baia Mare, in Maramureș County, northern Romania. The town covers 47.17 km2, at altitudes ranging from 500 to 1050 meters above sea level. Cavnic was first documented as Capnic, it was named after the river, which got its name from a Slavic word, kopanе, which refers to digging. Mining activity in the area dates back to the Roman age; the town was destroyed by the Ottomans in 1460 and by the Tatars in 1717, but the Tatars invasion ended with their defeat from the people of Cavnic, making from it the last Tatar invasion to take place in the current territory of Romania. As a proof of the last Tatar invasion, the town hosts a 7.2 m tall obelisk on which a Latin inscription states "Anno 1717 usque hic fuerunt tartari" meaning "During the year 1717 the Tatars have arrived here". The obelisk is known among locals as "Tatar Pole" or "Written Rock"; the exact date when the obelisk was built is unknown. In the 1910 Census of the Kingdom of Hungary, Kapnikbánya was in Nagybánya district.

It had a population of 3517, out of which 1864 were Hungarians, 49 were Germans and 1604 were Romanians. 1497 identified as Catholic, 1890 as Greek Catholic, 89 as Jewish. The town's mines tended to close and reopen not remaining operational for any great length of time. In the 1970s, Cavnic underwent a great deal of development. Two ski slopes were built at Icoana, the town gained motels, boardinghouses and a hotel to take advantage of its touristic potential; as an interesting detail of touristic interest, it appears that one of the oldest inscriptions found in European mines has been uncovered in Voievod Gallery belonging to the former town's mine. The inscription states "Hier hats erschlagen Iacob Huber"; the text, dated 1511, was most written to commemorate a mining accident. In 2011 it had 4,862 residents, of whom 4,026 were Romanians, 705 Hungarians, 28 Roma, 4 Germans and 97 others. Ignaz von Born, was born here on December 26, 1742. Jenő Jendrassik, Hungarian professor and philosopher, was born here in 1824.

Simon Papp, Hungarian geologist, was born here on February 14, 1886. This article is based on a translation of the equivalent article from the Hungarian Wikipedia on 22 February 2007. Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains


Ultratumbita is a Mexican luchador enmascarado, or masked professional wrestler, best known for his work in Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's, Minis division. In 1992 then-CMLL booker Antonio Peña left CMLL to form his own promotion, Asistencia Asesoría y Administración. Ultratumbita and a number of other wrestlers were brought in to replenish the division. Ultratumbita is a miniature version of regular sized wrestler Ultratumba. On September 11, 1993, Ultratumbita defeated Orito to win the CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship, becoming the third champion. Ultratumbita held the Minis title for 520 days before losing it to Máscarita Mágica on February 13, 1995. In April 1995, Ultratumbita won a Lucha de Apuesta, or "bet match" over Máscarita Mágica as part of their storyline and forced Mágica to unmask. Ultratumbita has not wrestled since late 1995 / early 1996, the most reason is that the man behind the Ultratumbita mask was "repackaged" and given a new ring name and mask, but it has never been documented if this the case or not.

Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship