Unicycle trials is a form of unicycling which involves participants attempting to ride a unicycle over obstacles without any part of the rider touching the ground. The obstacles traversed can be set up for the purpose of unicycle trials, but are walls, railings and other "street furniture" found in an urban environment; the sport is derived from bike trials and motorcycle trials. Obstacles are traversed using various moves. Hopping is achieved by forcing the unicycle pedals downwards while holding the seat, the reactive forces resulting from the compression of the tyre lift the unicycle into the air. Jumping is a similar to hopping, except that the unicycle seat is held in front of the rider to allow greater height to be achieved. Pedal grabs and crank grabs involve a hop or jump to land the unicycles pedal or crank on the edge of an object, a second hop or jump to land the unicycle on the object. Although unicycle trials can be performed on a standard unicycle, many are not designed for the forces which are caused by unicycle trials.
A trials unicycle is built with unicycle trials in mind, is therefore designed to better cope with these stresses. A trials unicycle is a unicycle designed for unicycle trials. Trials unicycles are stronger than standard unicycles in order to withstand the stresses caused by jumping and supporting the weight of the unicycle and rider on components such as the pedals and cranks; the wheel diameter on a trials unicycle is 19" or 20", as this allows greater maneuverability due to the short circumference of the wheel. Most Trials unicycles come with 19" rear rims as used on 20" trials bicycles; this allows for larger tyres to be fitted which can help provide bounce and preload for jumping, aid stability being quite wide. A smaller wheel means the unicycle is lighter, although some riders prefer larger wheels; the tire is wide and thick, giving a large air volume. This is to allow large hops and jumps; the tire will have a deep tread to allow greater grip to obstacles. Strong high tension spokes and a strong rim wheel rim is used to prevent the wheel from deforming under the great stresses exerted on it by jumping.
Unicycle wheels have to withstand large lateral stresses because, unlike in conventional riding, the rider may jump sideways. Many trials unicycles have a splined hub and cranks, as this design tends to be more resistant to bending and breaking than the more common cotterless, or square taper, equivalent. Long cranks give the rider extra torque and pedals with a large amount of grip are used to prevent the rider's feet from slipping. Unicycles with shorter cranks are referred to as street unicycles, as they let the rider keep up their momentum easier and do smooth tricks. Whereas Trials unicycles have longer cranks that are better for hopping, as the rider has better control of the rotation of the wheel, can therefore keep the unicycle from slipping out from under him. Mountain unicycling Unicycle Bike trials
Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
A unicycle is a vehicle that touches the ground with only one wheel. The most common variation has a frame with a saddle, has a pedal-driven direct drive. A two speed hub is commercially available for faster unicycling. Unicycling is practiced professionally in circuses, by street performers, in festivals, as a hobby. Unicycles have been used to create new sports such as unicycle hockey. In recent years, unicycles have been used in mountain unicycling, an activity similar to mountain biking or trials. US patents for single-wheeled'velocipedes' were published in 1869 by Frederick Myers and in 1881 by Battista Scuri. Unicycle design has developed since the Penny Farthing and the advent of the first unicycle into many variations including: the seatless unicycle and the tall unicycle. During the late 1980s some extreme sportsmen took an interest in the unicycle and modified unicycles to enable them to engage in off-road or mountain unicycling, trials unicycling and street unicycling. Bicycles and quadracycles share several basic parts including wheels, cranks and the saddle with unicycles.
Without a rider, unicycles lack stability – however, a proficient unicyclist is more stable than a proficient rider on a bicycle as the wheel is not constrained by the linear axis of a frame. Unicycles but not always, lack brakes and the ability to freewheel. Unicycles have a few key parts: The wheel The cranks The hub Pedals Fork-style frame Seatpost Saddle The wheel is similar to a bicycle wheel with a special hub designed so the axle is a fixed part of the hub; this means. The frame sits on top of the axle bearings, while the cranks attach to the ends of the axle, the seatpost slides into the frame to allow the saddle to be height adjusted. Types of unicycle include: Freestyle unicycles Trials unicycles Mountain unicycles Giraffe unicycles Commuter unicycles Street unicycles Cruiser unicycles Road unicyclesEach type has various combinations of frame strength, wheel diameter, crank length. Used for flatland skills and freestyle routines, freestyle unicycles have a high seatpost, a narrow saddle, a squared fork.
These unicycles are used to flatland bicycles. Wheel size is 20 inches, but smaller riders may use 16-or-12-inch unicycles; some people prefer 24-inch wheels. Designed for unicycle trials, these unicycles are stronger than standard unicycles in order to withstand the stresses caused by jumping and supporting the weight of the unicycle and rider on components such as the pedals and cranks. Many trials unicycles have wide, 19- or 20-inch knobby tires to absorb some of the impact on drops. Mountain unicycling consists of riding specialized unicycles on mountain bike trails or otherwise off-roading. Mountain unicycles have wider tires for shock absorption. Many riders choose to use long cranks to increase power when riding up over rough terrain. A disk brake is sometimes used for descents, the brake handle is attached to the underside of the handle on the front of the saddle Used for long distances, these unicycles are specially made to cover distances, they have a large wheel diameter, between 36 in.
So more distance is covered in less pedal rotation. A 36" unicycle made by the Coker Tire company started the big wheel trend; some variations on the traditional touring unicycle include the Schlumpf "GUni", which uses a two-speed internal fixed-geared hub. Larger direct-drive wheels tend to have shorter cranks to allow for more speed. Geared wheels, with an effective diameter larger than the wheel itself, tend to use longer cranks to increase torque as they are not required to achieve such high cadences as direct-drive wheels, but demand greater force per pedal stroke. A 36" Commuter unicycle was used by Bob Mueller to complete a cross-country unicycle trek from Cape Elizabeth, ME to Westport, WA on August 8, 2011. Giraffe, a chain-driven unicycle. Use of a chain or multiple wheels in a gear-like configuration can make the unicycle much taller than standard unicycles. Standard unicycles don't have a chain, which limits the seat height based on how long the rider's legs are, because there the crank is attached directly to the wheel axle.
Giraffe unicycles can range in heights from 3 feet to over 10 feet high. Geared unicycle, or GUni, a unicycle whose wheel rotates faster than the pedal cadence, they are used for distance racing. Multi-wheeled unicycle, a unicycle with more than one wheel, stacked on top of each other so that only one wheel touches the ground; the wheels are linked together by direct contact with each other. These unicycles can be called Giraffes. Kangaroo unicycle, a unicycle that has both the cranks facing in the same direction, they are so named due to the hopping motion of the rider's legs resembling the jumping of a kangaroo. Eccentric unicycle, a unicycle that has the hub off-center in the wheel. Putting an eccentric wheel on a kangaroo unicycle can make riding easier, the rider's motion appear more kangaroo-like. Ultimate wheel, a unicycle with no frame or seat, just a wheel and pedals. Impossible wheel, or BC wheel, a wheel with pegs or metal plates connect
Surly Bikes is a bicycle company based in Bloomington, Minnesota founded in 1998. They design bicycles, and, most notably, steel frames which are manufactured in Taiwan using 4130 chromoly steel. Surly shares facilities with Quality Bicycle Products. Components made by Surly include the dingle cog, cranksets with separately detachable spiders, a reversible chain tensioner, fatbike rims. Surly markets branded lifetstyle products. In 2005, Surly began selling the Pugsley, a mountain bike with large volume tires — up to 5 inches wide — for deep snow and sand riding; the front and rear wheels share a common hub size and can be interchanged, allowing for redundancy and additional gearing combinations. Noted bicycle technical authority Sheldon Brown said, "Pugsley is, in its way, as revolutionary as the original mountain bikes were in the early 1980s." Bicycling Magazine wrote, "It's not ideal for everyday use, but it can handle a wide variety of demands and conditions well." In 2006 Surly introduced the Big Dummy, a longtail bike frame designed for the Xtracycle Free Radical extension that can carry 200 lbs of gear in addition to a 200 lb rider.
In 2016, Surly announced an updated version of this cargo bike, which they called "The Big Fat Dummy." This model is similar to the original Big Dummy, but with fat tires, a longer top tube and a slacker head tube. Other Surly bike models include: Steamroller: single-speed bicycle Pacer: road racing bike / Has been discontinued since 2018 Cross-Check: cyclo-cross bicycle Cross-Check SS: a single-speed version of the Cross-Check cyclo-cross bicycle Straggler: cyclo-cross bicycle w/ disc brakes Straggler 650b: Straggler with 650b option for wheels; this bike is more agile than their larger counterparts. Travelers Check: a cyclo-cross bicycle with S and S Bicycle Torque Couplings. Long Haul Trucker: touring bicycle Disc Trucker: touring bicycle w/ disc brakes, frame based on the Long Haul Trucker Pack Rat: A touring bike which has front-loading capability. Latest in the offering, this bike is effective as a commuter, it comes with a 24 pack-rack fitted on the complete bike. Troll: mountain/touring/commuter bike with 26-inch wheels Karate Monkey: 29er mountain bike Ogre: 29er mountain and touring bicycle.
Krampus: 29er mountain bike with 3inch tires on 50mm rims Ice Cream Truck: "fatbike", accommodates wide 5" tires on 100mm rims Big Dummy: Designed to haul cargo and passengers. Big Fat Dummy: Designed to haul large loads with a max tire width of 5.25" Midnight Special: a road "plus" bike with flat-mount disc brakes, 12 mm front and rear through axles. Can accommodate 650b x 60mm or 700c x 42 cm tyres" Bridge Club: A dirt/pavement touring bike with 26" or 650b tires up to 3" ECR: An off-road touring bike with 29er 3" tires Lowside: A 650b mountain bike Wednesday: A 4" fatbike that fixes the offset frame of the Pugsley The following Surly cycles have been discontinued: Conundrum: a mountain unicycle Instigator: a Hardtail mountain Bike, reintroduced in 2014 1x1: single-speed mountain bike Trucker Deluxe: Long Haul Trucker with S and S Bicycle Torque Couplings, allowing it to be disassembled for travel Moonlander: "fatbike", accommodates wide 4.7" tires on 100mm rims World Troller: This is a Troll frame fitted with Torque Coupling and S Bicycle Torque Couplings.
World Troller can be packed in a compact box for air-travel. Dingle cog: A two-speed track cog for fixed gear bicycles, it was released in early 2007. It is a multi-speed fixed-gear cog, compatible with standard track hubs and lockrings. Three gear combinations are 17t and 19t, 17t and 20t, as well as 17t and 21t; when used with two appropriately sized chainrings, the rear axle's position in the dropouts can remain the same and still allow a large difference in gear ratio between the two combinations. Bicycle Fixation's Harold Ikerd wrote, "The ability to change gear ratios while on the trail, road, or lost is heavenly!" Singleator: A simple and inexpensive way to convert bike to a singlespeed. It will adjust spring tension. Cranks: MR. WHIRLY It is an versatile crank; the modular design allows to replace bits of parts, instead of replacing the whole crankset. It swaps spindles to use it with 68,73, 100 mm bottom brackets. Armsets of various sizes are available in 180 and 185 mm lengths. Spiders come in 3 BCD's.
There are complete options in singlespeed and triplespeed. Surlyville: Surly Bikes home page
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s