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Mozambique Defence Armed Forces

The Mozambique Defence Armed Forces or FADM are the national armed forces of Mozambique. They include the General Staff of the Armed Forces and three branches of service: Army, Air Force and Navy; the FADM were formed in mid August 1994, by the integration of the People's Forces of Liberation of Mozambique with the military wing of RENAMO, following the end of the civil war. The Mozambique Defence Armed Forces were formed in mid August 1994 from the previous warring factions of the Mozambique Civil War, which ended in 1992; the new armed forces were formed through a commission, the Comissão Conjunta para a Formação das Forças Armadas de Defesa e Segurança de Moçambique, chaired by the Organization of the United Nations to Mozambique ONUMOZ. The new armed forces were formed by integrating those soldiers of the former Popular Forces for the Liberation of Mozambique and the rebels, the Mozambican National Resistance who wished to stay in uniform. Two Generals were appointed to lead the new forces, one from FRELIMO, Lieutenant General Lagos Lidimo, named Chief of the Defence Force and Major General Mateus Ngonhamo from RENAMO as Vice-Chief of the Defence Force.

The former Chief of the Army, Lieutenant General Antonio Hama Thai, was retired. On 20 March 2008, Reuters reported that President Guebuza had dismissed the Chief and Vice Chief of the Defence Force, Lieutenant General Lagos Lidimo and Lieutenant General Mateus Ngonhamo, replacing them with Brigadier General Paulino Macaringue as Chief of Defence Force and Major General Olímpio Cambora as Vice-Chief of Defence Force. Filipe Nyussi took office as Minister of Defense on 27 March 2008. Nyussi's appointment came exactly one year after a fire and resulting explosions of munitions at the Malhazine armoury in Maputo killed more than 100 people and destroyed 14,000 homes. A government-appointed investigative commission concluded that negligence played a role in the disaster, Dai "was blamed by many for failing to act on time to prevent the loss of life". Although no official reason was given for Dai's removal, it may have been a "delayed reaction" to the Malhazine disaster; the first three infantry battalions were stationed at Chokwe and Quelimane.

In April 2010 it was announced that "the People's Republic of China donated to the FADM material for agriculture worth 4 million euros, including trucks, agricultural implements and motorbikes in the framework of bilateral cooperation in the military. Under a protocol of cooperation in the military field, the Government of China will provide support to the Ministry of Defence of Mozambique with about 1 million euros for the areas of training and logistics; the protocol for granting aid to the Armed Forces for the Defence of Mozambique was signed by Defense Minister of Mozambique, Filipe Nyusi, the charge d'affaires of the Chinese embassy in Maputo, Lee Tongli."Mozambique has been involved in many peacekeeping operations in Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor and Sudan. They have actively participated in joint military operations such Blue Hungwe in Zimbabwe in 1997 and Blue Crane in South Africa in 1999. All which are at attempt to build trust in the Southern African region.

The Mozambican Army was formed in 1976 from three conventional battalions, two of which were trained in Tanzania and a third of, trained in Zambia. Army officer candidates were trained in Maputo by Chinese military instructors. In March 1977, following Mozambique's Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union, officer candidates became eligible for training in various Warsaw Pact member states; the Soviet military mission in Mozambique assisted in raising a new army composed of five infantry brigades and an armored brigade. At the height of the civil war, this was increased to eight infantry brigades, an armored brigade, a counter-insurgency brigade modeled after the Zimbabwean 5th Brigade; the preexisting army was abolished after the end of the civil war under the auspices of the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force, which included advisers from Portugal and the United Kingdom. The CCFADM recommended that former army personnel and an equal number of demobilised RENAMO insurgents be integrated into a single force numbering about 30,000.

Due to logistics problems and budgetary constraints, the army only numbered about 12,195 in 1995. Force levels fluctuated between 1995 and the mid-2000s due to the army's limited resources and low budget priority. In 2016, the Mozambican Army consisted of 10,000 troops organised into three special forces battalions, seven light infantry battalions, two engineer battalions, two artillery battalions, a single logistics battalion; as of 2017, the serving chief of the army was Major General Eugènio Dias Da Silva. Between 1977 and 1989, the Mozambican Army was lavishly supplied with Soviet weapons, as well as a Soviet-supervised technical programme to oversee their logistics needs and maintenance. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, along with the resulting departure of Soviet technical staff, much of this equipment was rendered inoperable; the bulk of the army's hardware remained vested in this ageing and obsolescent Soviet equipment throughout the 2000s, serviceability rates have remained low.

In 2016, less than 10% of the army's artillery and armoured vehicles were operational. The Mozambique Air Force or FAM was part of the national army and from 1985 to 1990 was known as the People's Liberation Air Force. Due to Mozamb

Jo Bradwell

A. R. Bradwell is a British philanthropist and businessman. Bradwell donated £15 million to Birmingham University to establish new forestry research centre; the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research is being established. BIFoR will focus on the impact of climate and environmental change on woodlands, the resilience of trees to pests and diseases. Bradwell graduated from Birmingham University with an MBChB degree in medicine in 1968, he was a Professor of Immunology at Birmingham University’s Medical School. Bradwell founded a university medical school ‘spin-out’ company in 1983 which developed a range of cancer tests, in addition to diagnostic products for immune deficiency and autoimmunity. Bradwell’s company won the Queens Award for Export Achievement, as well as the Queens Award for Enterprise. Bradwell was awarded the honorary degree of DSc by the University of Birmingham in 2012, he is chairman and founder of the Birmingham Medical Research Expeditionary Society

Qaidjoher Ezzuddin

Mukasir-al-Dawat Shahzada Dr. Qaidjoher Ezzuddin is the eldest son of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, the grandson of Syedna Taher Saifuddin and the eldest brother of the incumbent Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, he is one of four the rectors of Al Jamea tus Saifiyah. Dr. Qaidjoher Ezzuddin was born on 27 November 1942, he is the eldest son of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, thus Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin selected his teknonym Kunya as Abu-al-Qaidjoher. Qaidjoher Ezzuddin has served under the administration of Dawat-e-Hadiyah under the Da'i al-Mutlaq for over 50 years and has administered numerous community development and public relation projects, he heads the legal department of Dawat-e-Hadiyah missions in governing the various trusts and foundations of the Dawoodi Bohra community. In 1987 he was appointed one of four the rectors of Al Jamea tus Saifiyah, he headed the Dawoodi Bohra youth organization Shabab ul-Eidiz Zahabi. He was a member of the Haj Committee of India from June 1999 to March 2003, he is the Chairman of the Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust.

Dr. Ezzuddin headed the project for the revival and restoration of the Great Mosque of Kufa in 2010, during the tenure of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, he was appointed by Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin as one of the witnesses of the Nass on Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin in 2005. In 2011, he was instructed to make a public announcement of this appointment in a Majlis held in al Masjid ul Husseini in Northolt; the video of this Majlis was recorded and was broadcast on the same day in Dawoodi Bohra community centers worldwide. On 27 Jumada al-Thani 1440H, he was appointed in the position of Mukasir by Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin. India - The Mithaq of Qaidjoher Ezzuddin was taken by his grand father Syedna Taher Saifuddin on the 27th of Dhu al-Qi'dah 1379H, during the 75th birthday celebrations of Syedna Taher Saifuddin. Sri Lanka - The Open International University for Complementary Medicines, Sri Lanka conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in January 2011. United States - On 23 October 1995 he was presented the Key to the City of Irving, Texas by Dr. Morris Parrish.

United Kingdom - He was awarded an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Business Administration from the University of East London on 20 November 2013

Operation Ostra Brama

Operation Ostra Brama was an armed conflict during World War II between the Polish Home Army and the Nazi German occupiers of Vilnius. It began on 7 July 1944, as part of a Polish national uprising, Operation Tempest, lasted until 14 July 1944. Though the Germans were defeated, the following day the Soviet Red Army entered the city and the Soviet NKVD interned Polish soldiers and arrested their officers. Several days the remains of the Polish Home Army retreated into the forests, the Soviets were in control of the city. From the Polish point of view, while the German defeat constituted a Polish tactical victory, the ensuing destruction of the Polish units by the Soviets resulted in a strategic defeat considering the goals of Operation Tempest. From the Soviet point of view, the operation was a complete success, as both the Germans and the Poles loyal to the London government suffered a defeat; the main reason for the operation was for propaganda purposes – to claim full rights to Vilnius by retaking it before the Soviet Army arrived to reinforce the Polish Army.

Operation'Ostra Brama' was meant to be carried out during an expected state of confusion among German units in Vilnius, who would be in fear of the impending arrival of overwhelming Soviet forces. Since the Polish command did not anticipate taking the city with Kraków Army forces alone, as the Germans held strong positions in the fortified city, the plan for capturing Vilnius resembled plans for the Warsaw Uprising; the Polish and Soviet armies would take enemy outposts around the city, expecting the Germans to retreat in the face of overwhelming forces. On 12 June 1944 General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Commander-in-Chief of the Home Army, issued an order to prepare a plan of liberating Vilnius from German hands; the Home Army districts of Vilnius and Navahrudak planned to take control of the city before the Soviets could reach it. The Commander of the Home Army District in Vilnius, lieutenant colonel Aleksander "Wilk" Krzyżanowski, decided to regroup all the partisan units in the northeastern part of Poland for the assault, both from inside and outside of the city.

On 26 June 1944 major Teodor "Slaw" Cetys and lieutenant colonel Zygmunt "Strychański" Blumski suggested a plan to Wilk.'Ostra Brama order number 1' comprised an overall outline for an assault on Vilnius, where the Home Army forces of the combined districts Vilnius and Navahrudak would strike from the outside under the lead of lieutenant colonel Poleszczuk. The Polish forces were organized into five groups: Combat Group 1'East' - included the 3rd, 8th and 13th Brigade. Units inside the city were under the command of lieutenant colonel "Ludwik". According to the plan, the main attack was prepared from the southeast on 8 July; when the second Red Army crossed the front, equivalent to where it was in 1916, the uprising would begin. On 7 July, at dawn Wilk made the decision to launch operations early as the Soviet Army was approaching the city; as a result of this change, only one of the three designated battalions managed to get in position when the battle began. In spite of the incomplete mobilization, around 4,000 Polish soldiers, supported by two anti-tank guns and a few mortars attacked Germans' lines.

The Polish Army had to fight against German forces which had tanks, anti-tanks, strong artillery and air cover provided from a nearby airfield in Porubanek at their disposal. In the meantime, a few hundred Polish Army soldiers engaged in actions inside the city from the district "A"-Kalwaryjska, but most of the units failed to mobilize on time and did not take part in the fighting. After bitter fighting, the 3rd and 5th Battalions from Combat Group 1 captured Góry and neutralized an armored train in the vicinity of Kolonia Wileńska, but they could not proceed under heavy fire. At mid-day, the first units of the Red Army appeared on the battlefield; the first contacts with Soviet units took place. The commander of the Soviet 35th Tank Brigade insisted on taking command of Combat Group 1. Pohorecki, without Polish Army approval, joined his forces under Soviet command. Combat Group 3, having not yet made a reconnaissance of German defenses, pushed forward; the 1st and 6th battalions reached the first line of fortifications on the boundary of the village of Lipówka and crossed the Vilnius-Pabradė railroad tracks.

They were soon repulsed to their initial positions by a German counterattack, which pinned down the 9th Brigade at blockhouses in Hrybiszek. The 3rd Brigade of Combat Group 1 achieved the greatest success. After crossing Wileńka, they reached Zarzecze and Trakt Batorego, remaining in their positions until 8 July before taking up the offensive again, joining the

Thayer, Nebraska

Thayer is a village in York County, United States. The population was 62 at the 2010 census. Thayer was platted in 1887, it was named for John Milton Thayer, a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War and a postbellum United States Senator from Nebraska. Thayer is located at 40°58′5″N 97°29′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.29 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 62 people, 28 households, 20 families residing in the village; the population density was 213.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30 housing units at an average density of 103.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.0% White. There were 28 households of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 3.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.6% were non-families. 21.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.55. The median age in the village was 50.8 years. 19.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.4 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 71 people, 26 households, 19 families residing in the village; the population density was 235.9 people per square mile. There were 30 housing units at an average density of 99.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 26 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.2% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.1% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.10. In the village, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 32.4% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.2 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $50,313, the median income for a family was $48,438. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $25,625 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,164. There were 10.5% of families and 22.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including 42.1% of under eighteens and none of those over 64

Late Roman ridge helmet

The Late Roman ridge helmet was a type of combat helmet of Late Antiquity used by soldiers of the Late Roman army. It was characterized by the possession of a bowl made up of two or four parts, united by a longitudinal ridge. In the late 3rd century, a complete break in Roman helmet design occurred. Previous Roman helmet types, based on Celtic designs, were replaced by new forms derived from helmets developed in the Sassanid Empire. A related form to the Roman ridge helmets is represented by a single helmet from Dura Europos, of similar construction, but has a much higher-vaulted skull, it belonged to a Sassanid warrior of the 3rd century. This reinforces the evidence for a Sassanid origin of this type of helmet. Two main forms of helmet construction were adopted by the Romans at much the same time: the ridge helmet, described here, the spangenhelm, adopted from the Sarmatians; the earliest confirmed example of a Late Roman ridge helmet is the Richborough helmet, which dates to about 280 AD. Unlike earlier Roman helmets, the skull of the ridge helmet is constructed from more than one element.

Roman ridge helmets can be classified into two types of skull construction: bipartite and quadripartite referred to as Intercisa-type and Berkasovo-type, respectively. The bipartite construction method is characterized by a two-part bowl united by a central ridge running from front to back and small cheekpieces it lacks a base-ring running around the rim of the bowl; some examples of the bipartite construction utilize metal crests, such as in the Intercisa-IV and River Maas examples. The second type of helmet has a quadripartite construction, characterized by a four-piece bowl connected by a central ridge, with two plates on each side of the ridge, a base-ring uniting the elements of the skull at the rim of the helmet. Many examples of this helmet have a nasal. An example from Budapest may have had attachments for a horsehair plume. In all types it is believed that the cheekpieces were attached to skull by a helmet liner and the separate neck guard was attached by flexible leather straps, the buckles of which survive on some examples.

There are notable exceptions to this classification method, which include the Iatrus and Worms helmets, which have large cheekpieces and a base ring respectively. Other helmets contain minor variations; the majority of examples excavated to date, have evidence of either decorative silvering of the iron, or are covered by costly silver or silver-gilt sheathing. For example the Deurne helmet has the weight of silver recorded on the outside and had 368/9 grams of silver and a small amount of gold in the gilding. Additional decoration is found on some surviving helmets, for example the Berkasovo-I example is decorated with many glass gems on the bowl and neckguard; the emperors Constantine I and Valentinian I are recorded as owning gem-encrusted gold helmets, in the case of the emperors the gems would have been of precious stones, rather than paste. For a number of extant helmets all that remains is the decorative silver or gold sheathing, the iron having corroded away entirely. A single helmet found at Intercisa in Hungary, where a hoard of 15-20 helmets was unearthed, has a tall, iron crest attached to the ridge.

A similar helmet found at Augst has three slots in its ridge for the attachment of a separate crest. There have been finds of unattached crest pieces, or ones attached to only the ridge of the helmet. </ref>213 Earlier Roman cavalry helmet types have cheek guards that have a section covering the ears, whereas infantry helmets do not. Many authors have extrapolated from this that the Intercisa-type helmets were infantry helmets, while the Berkasovo-type helmets were cavalry examples, based on the existence of ear-holes in the Intercisa-type. One Berkasovo-type helmet, the Deurne helmet, has an inscription to a cavalry unit of the equites stablesiani, tending to support this hypothesis. However, both types of helmet are depicted being worn by infantry and cavalry in Roman art, some finds of these helmets, such as the Burgh Castle example, show they were used interchangeably. Late Roman ridge helmets are depicted for the first time on coins of Constantine the Great and are believed to have come into use between 270 and 300 AD.

The last archaeological examples date to the early 5th century, include the River Maas Helmet, dated to 409–411 by coins of Constantine III, the Concești example, found in a Hunnic burial. The ridge helmet remained in artistic usage well into the 7th century and later. Helmets with a rounded shape are illustrated in Byzantine manuscripts of the 10-12th centuries, may have been derived from the earlier Roman'ridge helmet'. Early copies of ridge helmets include the Fernpass example, dated to the 4th century and found in Austria, believed to belong to a Germanic Warrior who had his own helmet modified to look like a ridge helmet. Many helmets of the Germanic states of Western and Northern Europe in the Early Middle Ages are derivations of the Roman ridge helmet, these include the Anglo-Saxon Coppergate helmet. Mahand Vogt: Spangenhelme. Baldenheim und verwandte Typen. Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 39. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2007. ISBN 978-3-7954-2006-2.

Simon MacDowall and Christa Hook: Late Roman Cavalryman AD 236-565. ISBN 1-85532-567-5 Peter Wilcox und Angus McBride: Rome's Enemies 3: Parthians and Sassanid Persians. ISBN 0-85045-688-6 John Warry: War