Lee Haney is an American former IFBB professional bodybuilder. Haney shares the all-time record for most Mr. Olympia titles at eight with Ronnie Coleman. Haney grew up in South Carolina, he is a graduate of Spartanburg Methodist College. He and his wife, reside in Atlanta, Georgia, they have two children. President Bill Clinton appointed Haney chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. A devout born again Christian, Haney has his own program on the Trinity Broadcasting Network called "TotaLee Fit with Lee Haney," where he is joined by famous Christian sportsmen, on occasion his wife. On the show he teaches the importance of both spiritual growth. One of his most famous quotes is that we should "train to stimulate, not annihilate." Height: 5 ft 11.5 in Off Season Weight: 260 pounds Competition Weight: the lightest 230 pounds 1984 Mr. Olympia and the heaviest 250 pounds 1989 Mr. Olympia Chest size: 56 in Neck size: 20 in Arm Size: 21 in Waist: 31.5 in Thigh Size: 30 in Calf Size: 20 in 1979 Teen Mr. America 1979 Teen Mr. America Tall, 1st 1982 Junior Nationals Heavyweight & Overall, 1st 1982 Nationals Heavyweight & Overall, 1st 1982 World Amateur Championships Heavyweight, 1st 1983 Grand Prix England, 2nd 1983 Grand Prix Las Vegas, 1st 1983 Grand Prix Sweden, 2nd 1983 Grand Prix Switzerland, 3rd 1983 Night of Champions, 1st 1983 Mr. Olympia, 3rd 1983 World Pro Championships, 3rd 1984 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1985 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1986 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1987 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1987 Grand Prix Germany, 1st 1988 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1989 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1990 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1991 Mr. Olympia, 1st List of male professional bodybuilders Lee Haney's website Lee Haney on Twitter Lee Haney on IMDb Lee Haney Gallery
Serge Nubret was a French professional bodybuilder, bodybuilding federation leader, movie actor and author. He was awarded many bodybuilding titles, including IFBB Mr. Europe Tall, NABBA Mr. Universe and WBBG Pro. Mr. World. Serge Nubret was nicknamed "The Black Panther." Serge Nubret was born on October 1938 in Anse-Bertrand, Guadeloupe. After a happy childhood, running around and playing in the fresh air of such an environment, he moved to France with his family in 1950 to pursue his scholarship, when he was 12 years old. Soon enough, he became aware of his exceptional potential for athletics. Thus, in 1958, back in Guadeloupe after accounting studies, he decided to dedicate himself to bodybuilding, to become, in his own words, his "reason for being." Gifted with real artistic aptitudes, Serge Nubret was ready to fulfill his potential of becoming the "sculptor of his own body." Serge's inspiration was British bodybuilder Lee Price. All were amazed and perplexed when he started to talk about his intention to become a world champion after only 2 years of training.
Living up to his words, in 1960 he joined the International Federation of Bodybuilders, was declared World's Most Muscular Man in Montreal. From this day forward, this exceptional athlete kept improving, winning the most prestigious titles including NABBA Mr. Universe in 1976, WBBG Pro. Mr. World and Mr. Olympus in 1977 and another World champion title in 1981. In 1983, 23 years after his first world class achievement, further demonstrating his lifetime dedication, he became the WABBA World Champion in Rome, winning his fifth major title. In 2003, Serge Nubret offered a stunning last show to his public during the World championships in France, he was 65 years old. Additionally to being recognized by experts and fans as a reference in the bodybuilding field, Serge Nubret has dedicated himself to development and promotion of Bodybuilding, he became the head of the France and Europe IFBB bodybuilding federation from 1970 to 1975. He is the founder of the WABBA since 1976 with one objective in mind: ensuring that affiliated athletes receive the best support via representing organisations.
The cinema could not miss out on such a character. Thus, Serge Nubret featured in 25 movies including Arrivano i titani with Giuliano Gemma César et Rosalie with Romy Schneider and Yves Montand and The Professional with Jean-Paul Belmondo. Serge Nubret remains one of the most significant figure and for lots of bodybuilders, he represents the out-of-the-box aesthetic reference, his legacy is well alive, witnessing the Golden Age of bodybuilding when balance and harmony were keys to all achievements. Nubret is best known in the bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron where he competed as a last-minute entry against Arnold Schwarzenegger for the title of Mr. Olympia in 1975. While he looked fantastic, Serge finished second in the Tall Man category to Schwarzenegger, while Lou Ferrigno finished third, he was known for his excellent chest development. The documentary film Pumping Iron follows the events occurring before the Mr. Olympia 1975—the preparation for the competition as well as its final phase.
For contract reasons, his part is comparatively brief. These episodes are discussed further in his autobiography. In the 1980s, Serge appeared in 60 episodes of the television series Breakfast Included, with Pierre Mondy and Marie-Christine Barrault, in which he played a role that mirrored his real life as a bodybuilder/gym owner in Paris. In 2006, 68-year-old Serge Nubret penned the book I am…Me and God in collaboration with Louis-Xavier Babin-Lachaud; the book is not only autobiographical in nature, but includes his personal reflections on his Christian faith and mysticism. Through his life narrative, it adopts a definite position on the role of God in this world, on the conflict between destiny and free will, on the illusion of this world; the book indicates the will to succeed and to follow the way traced by God, love of the author's "reason for being." A second work is a 400 + page autobiography entitled Seventy Years Young. It is autobiographical and recounts his days as a bodybuilder; this last work details his unique training routine, famed for high volume to maximize the pump and plenty of food to fuel his body, including up to 6 pounds of horse meat in a day with rice and beans.
A lot of Serge's training advice can be found on forums he posted on, including www.bodybuilding.com and www.getbig.com Nubret was father to three daughters and a son from two marriages and one relationship. His second marriage was with Jacqueline Nubret, a female bodybuilder with various competition titles. In March 2009, Nubret fell into a coma dying on April 19, 2011 of natural causes, his competitive bodybuilding career spanned 25 years. Serge Nubret is the only athlete to have won six world titles with four different federations. IFBB/NABBA/WBBG/WABBA He would guest pose at the WABBA world championships in 2003 at 65 years old, 20 years after his retirement from competition. Serge was active on up to 15 bodybuilding forums from 2006 to 2009 in three different languages, giving training advice to young athletes and beginners in his spare time. Inspired by the movies Hercules and The Last Days of Pompeii starring Steve Reeves, Serge began lifting weights in 1958 and soon got noticed by Italian film producers which led to a rich career in movies, including Arrivano i titani and Sette baschi rossi.
Serge Nubret would pay trib
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat, enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading, to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights. Bodybuilders may use other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles; the winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder; the winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder.
The title is held by Juliana Malacarne, who has won every year since 2014. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Winners go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt and Tamilakam. Western weightlifting developed in Europe from 1880 to 1953, with strongmen displaying feats of strength for the public and challenging each other; the focus was not on their physique, they had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow, now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding", he allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through Florenz Ziegfeld.
The Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he created several businesses around his fame, was among the first to market products branded with his name, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, spring pulleys, tension bands. His image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men's physiques were judged by how they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, 1901, called the "Great Competition", it was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members.
The trophy presented to the winner was a gold statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham; the silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. Cooper; the bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A. C. Smythe. In 1950, this same bronze trophy was presented to Steve Reeves for winning the inaugural NABBA Mr. Universe contest, it would not resurface again until 1977 when the winner of the IFBB Mr. Olympia contest, Frank Zane, was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy. Since Mr. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. On January 16, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City; the competition was promoted by Bernarr Macfadden, the father of physical culture and publisher of original bodybuilding magazines such as Health & Strength. The winner was Al Treloar, declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World".
Treloar won a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had made two films of Sandow a few years before; those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman, Zishe Breitbart, Georg Hackenschmidt, Emy Nkemena, George F. Jowett, Finn Hateral, Frank Saldo, Monte Saldo, William Bankier, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort, Gustav Frištenský, Ralph Parcaut, Alan P. Mead. Actor Francis X. Bushman, a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, the opportunity to enter physique contests.
Larry Scott (bodybuilder)
Larry Dee Scott, nicknamed "The Legend" and "The Golden Boy," was an American IFBB professional bodybuilder. He won the inaugural 1965 Mr. Olympia competition and defended the crown at the 1966 Mr. Olympia contest before retiring. Larry Dee Scott was born in Idaho to Thea Scott and machinist Wayne Scott, he began training at age 16 and won the Mr. Idaho competition in 1959 at age 20. After moving to California, he promptly won Mr. California, Mr. Pacific Coast, Mr. America, Mr. Universe; when Joe Weider created the IFBB's Mr. Olympia title, Scott won the first two contests in 1965 and 1966. Although retiring after his 1966 Olympia win, he staged a brief comeback in 1979 before he retired from competition in 1980, he studied electronics at the California Air College, was known to be a devout Mormon. He married Rachel Scott; the Scotts had five children: daughter Susan, sons Erin, Nathan and Michael. Derek died in a motorcycle accident in 1992, Michael died in 1993, he played a minor role in the 1964 movie Muscle Beach Party.
When he started weight training in 1956, his narrow shoulders were a particular weak spot. He trained with Vince Gironda, a well-known bodybuilder of the time, became best known for his arm development his impressive and unusually long biceps, he attributed his biceps to an exercise called the "Preacher Curl", invented by Gironda known as the "Scott Curl" due to its association with Scott. Scott was a popular physique model during the early to mid-1960s, working for photographers Bruce of Los Angeles, Don Whitman, Pat Milo. Milo introduced Scott to a larger audience and helped him hone his posing and photographic persona: the "boy next door". Larry appeared in all of Joe Weider's bodybuilding magazines, including Mr. America and Muscle Builder appearing in Demi Gods, Muscles a Go-Go and The Young Physique; as an IFBB member, he wrote for Joe Weider's publications. From 1960 until his first retirement in 1966, Scott was bodybuilding's top superstar. Bodybuilding magazines soon began capitalizing on his all-American image.
His popularity become known as "Larry Fever" and reached its apex at the first Mr. Olympia competition in 1965, winning the "jewel"-encrusted crown against Harold Poole. Scott won the 1966 Mr. Olympia title, receiving a $1,000 prize. News of his retirement at the age of 28 shocked the sport, but he prioritized his second marriage and felt he had done all he could in competitive bodybuilding after two Olympia wins. Rod Labbe, a freelance writer and fan, collaborated with Scott on five articles: a two-part interview in Flex magazine, two articles in Ironman, the "Poetry in Motion" article in MuscleMag International, a promotional article/interview for Scarlet: the Film Magazine about American International's Muscle Beach Party, with.. Five years after his passing, Labbe wrote a Scott tribute article for the March 2019 issue of Muscle & Fitness entitled, "My friend, Larry Scott." Scott retired to Salt Lake City, operating his personal training company Larry Scott Fitness & Nutrition. The company sold custom gym equipment and health supplements.
He was inducted into the IFBB Hall of Fame in 1999. On March 8, 2014, Scott died of complications from Alzheimer's disease at his home in Salt Lake City, Utah, he was 75 years old. The first IFBB professional bodybuilder to build 20" upper arms, using Vince Gironda's principles, popularizing Vince's preacher curl bench so much it is now known as "Scott curls"; the first bodybuilder to win Mr. America, Mr. Universe, Mr. Olympia competitions. Won the first two Mr Olympia contests, 1965 and 1966; the only bodybuilder never to lose a Mr. Olympia competition. Popularized an exercise combination of a dumbbell press and side lateral raise, known as the "Scott press". 1959 Mr. Idaho, 1st 1960 Mr. California – AAU, Winner 1960 Mr. California – AAU, Most Muscular, 1st 1960 Mr. Los Angeles – AAU, Most Muscular, 3rd 1960 Mr. Los Angeles – AAU, 3rd 1961 Mr. Pacific Coast – AAU, Most Muscular, 1st 1961 Mr. Pacific Coast – AAU, Winner 1962 Mr. America, Medium, 2 and Overall 1963 Mr. Universe, Medium, 1st 1964 Mr. Universe, Medium, 1st and Overall 1965 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1966 Mr. Olympia, 1st 1979 Canada Diamond Pro Cup, 9th 1979 Grand Prix Vancouver, Did not place List of male professional bodybuilders List of female professional bodybuilders The official Larry Scott website Larry Scott on IMDb Larry Scott Gallery
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti