Muay Thai or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. This discipline is known as the "art of eight limbs" as it is characterized by the combined use of fists, elbows and shins. Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the late 20th to 21st century, when westernized practitioners from Thailand began competing in kickboxing, mixed rules matches, as well as matches under Muay Thai rules around the world; the professional league is governed by The Professional Boxing Association of Thailand sanctioned by The Sports Authority of Thailand, World Professional Muaythai Federation overseas. It is similar to related styles in other parts of the Indian cultural sphere, namely Lethwei in Myanmar, Pradal Serey in Cambodia, Muay Lao in Laos, Tomoi in Malaysia; the history of Muay Thai can be traced to the middle of the 18th century. During the battles between the Burmese of the Konbaung Dynasty and Ayutthaya Kingdom Burmese–Siamese War Muay boran, therefore Muay Thai, was called by more generic names such as Toi muay or muay.
As well as being a practical fighting technique for use in actual warfare, muay became a sport in which the opponents fought in front of spectators who went to watch for entertainment. These muay contests became an integral part of local festivals and celebrations those held at temples; the bare-fisted fighters started wearing lengths of hemp rope around their hands and forearms. This type of match was called muay khat chueak. Kickboxing was a component of military training and gained prominence during the reign of King Naresuan the Great in 1560 CE. Muay Thai is referred to as the "Art of Eight Limbs" or the "Science of Eight Limbs", because it makes use of punches, kicks and knee strikes, thus using eight "points of contact", as opposed to "two points" in boxing and "four points" used in other more regulated combat sports, such as kickboxing and savate. A practitioner of Muay Thai is known as a nak muay. Western practitioners are sometimes called Nak Muay Farang, meaning "foreign boxer"; the ascension of King Chulalongkorn to the throne in 1868 ushered in a golden age not only for muay but for the whole country of Thailand.
Muay progressed during the reign of Rama V as a direct result of the king's personal interest in the sport. The country was at peace and muay functioned as a means of physical exercise, self-defense, attacking and personal advancement. 1909-1910: King Chulalongkorn formalizes Muay by awarding 3 muen to victors at the funeral fights for his son. The region style: Lopburi and Chaiya. 1913: British boxing introduced into the curriculum of the Suan Kulap College. The 1st descriptive use of the term “Muay Thai”. 1919: British boxing and Muay taught as one sport in the curriculum of the Suan Kulap College. Judo offered. 1921: 1st permanent ring in Siam at Suan Kulap College. Used for both Muay and British Boxing. 1923: Suan Sanuk Stadium. First international style 3-rope ring near Lumpinee Park. Muay and British Boxing. King Rama VII pushed for codified rules for muay, they were put into place. Thailand's first boxing ring was built in 1921 at Suan Kularp. Referees were introduced and rounds were now timed by kick.
Fighters at the Lumpinee Boxing Stadium began wearing modern gloves, as well as hard groin protectors, during training and in boxing matches against foreigners. Traditional rope-binding made the hands a dangerous striking tool; the use of knots in the rope over the knuckles made the strikes more abrasive and damaging for the opponent while protecting the hands of the fighter. This rope-binding was still used in fights between Thais but after the occurrence of a death in the ring, it was decided that fighters should wear gloves and cotton coverlets over the feet and ankles, it was around this time that the term "Muay Thai" became used, while the older form of the style came to be known as "Muay Boran", now performed as an exhibition art form. In 1993, the International Federation of Muaythai Amateur, or IFMA was inaugurated, it became the governing body of amateur Muay Thai consisting of 128 member countries worldwide and is recognized by Olympic Council of Asia. In 1995, World Muaythai Council, the oldest and largest professional sanctioning organizations of Muay Thai was set up by the Royal Thai Government and sanctioned by the Sports Authority of Thailand.
In 1995, the World Muay Thai Federation was founded via the merger of two existing organizations, established in Bangkok becoming the federation governing international Muay Thai. As of August 2012, it had over 70 member countries, its President is elected at the World Muay Thai Congress. In 2006, Muay Thai was included in SportAccord with IFMA. One of the requirements of SportAccord was; as a result, an amendment was made in the IFMA constitution to change the name of the sport from "Muay Thai" to "Muaythai" – written as one word in accordance with Olympic requirements. In 2014 Muay Thai was included in the International World Games Association and will be represented in the official programme of The World Games 2017 in Wrocław, Poland. In January 2015, Muay Thai was granted the Patronage of the International University Sports Federation and on March the 16th to the 23rd, 2015 the first University World Muaythai Cup was held in Bangkok. Today, there are thousands of gyms spread out across the globe, including in Canada, the United Sta
The 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division was a unit of the Bavarian Army, part of the Imperial German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on August 21, 1914, as the "Reinforced Bavarian Landwehr Division" and was known as the Wening Division, named after its commander, Otto Wening, it became the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division in September 1914. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I; the division was formed from various separate Landwehr units. Although called Bavarian, the division included several non-Bavarian units: the 14th Landwehr Infantry Brigade included one Bavarian and one Württemberg regiment; the 60th Landwehr Infantry Brigade would be transferred to the newly formed 13th Landwehr Division in May 1915. In January 1916, the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division became all-Bavarian; the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division served on the Western Front seeing action in the Battle of the Frontiers. From September 1914 to the end of May 1915, it fought south of Dieuze.
From June 1915 to November 1918, the division occupied the line in Lorraine. Allied intelligence rated the division as fourth class; the 1st Bavarian Landwehr Division was formed as a two-brigade square division, received a third brigade in September 1914. The order of battle of the division on December 4, 1914, was as follows: 13. Bayerische Landwehr-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 8 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 10 14. Bayerische Landwehr-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Württemb. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 122 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 15 60. Landwehr-Infanterie-Brigade Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 60 Thüringisches Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 71 Kavallerie-Ersatz-Abteilung/2. Garde-Ulanen-Regiment 1. Landwehr-Eskadron/II. Bayerisches Armeekorps Ersatz-Abteilung/2. Westfälisches Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 22 Ersatz-Abteilung/Straßburger Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 84 Kgl. Bayerische Landsturm-Batterie Landau 1. Landwehr-Pionier-Kompanie/II.
Bayerisches Armeekorps The division underwent a number of organizational changes over the course of the war. It was triangularized in September 1916. Cavalry was reduced and signals commands were formed, combat engineer support was expanded to a full battalion; the order of battle on February 15, 1918, was as follows: 5. Bayerische Landwehr-Infanterie-Brigade Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 4 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 6 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 7 Maschinengewehr-Scharfschützen-Abteilung Nr. 6 3. Eskadron/Kgl. Bayer. 8. Chevaulegers-Regiment Kgl. Bayer. Artillerie-Kommandeur 22 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 1 Stab Kgl. Bayer. Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 24 Kgl. Bayer. Reserve-Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 18 Kgl. Bayer. Landwehr-Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 1 Kgl. Bayer. Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 301 Kgl. Bayer. Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 501 1. Bayerische Landwehr-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Hermann Cron et al. Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1825-1939.
Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919
Harold Ambellan was an American sculptor. Born in Buffalo, Ambellan provided sculpture for New Deal-era projects and served as President of the Sculptors Guild in 1941, prior to his service in the U. S. military. Ambellan exiled himself to France in 1954 because of his political views. Ambellan was born on May 1912 in Buffalo, New York. While studying sculpture and fine arts in Buffalo, he was awarded a scholarship to the Art Students League of New York in 1930, where he spent the following two years. Beginning in 1932 Ambellan was based in Greenwich Village and became a significant figure in its social history of the 1930s and early 1940s. For instance in the 1940s Ambellan and his fiancee Elisabeth Higgins hosted both Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie at 31 East 21st Street. Guthrie contributed his song, for their wedding. From 1935-1939 he was one of the many American artists who benefited from Roosevelt's Federal Art Project. With fellow sculptor Robert Cronbach, Ambellan created a series of semi-abstract tinted-concrete mural sculptures entitled Family and Learning, for the Willert Park Courts, a public housing project in Buffalo, New York, as well as a sculpture for Brooklyn College in New York.
He was one of the artists featured in the 1938 group show, Subway Art, at the Museum of Modern Art. Ambellan was elected President of the Sculptors Guild in 1941, the same year that his work was exhibited in group shows at both the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, he founded a tile business with Higgins. In 1944, as a member of the U. S. Navy, Ambellan participated in the liberation of Normandy. Upon his return to New York, he spent two years teaching three dimensional art at the Workshop School. Although the artists who became known as the Abstract Expressionists were among his friends in New York, Ambellan remained committed to the figurative in both his sculpture and painting. Ambellan's name was published in 1948 documents of the House Un-American Activities Committee in connection with his support for the American Artists' Congress and the Artists' Front to Win the War. For his political views he became a victim of the tide of McCarthyism sweeping the country, which culminated in his decision to exile to France in 1954.
He intended to stay in France for one year, but decided to make his home there. After living several years in Montparnasse, one of the principal artistic communities of Paris, Ambellan decided to settle in the Greek-Roman enclave town of Antibes on the Côte d'Azur. In 1980, he settled in the Provençal town of Arles. In France, he continued his exploration of the human figure in art, with the emphasis shifting over time from sculpture to painting. While exhibiting throughout Europe, he created, most notably, a collection of medals for the Monnaie de Paris, as well as a monumental sculpture and several smaller pieces for the Nathan Cummings Collection. Ambellan pointed to sources as varied as German Expressionism and cubism to Greek and African art as his sources of inspiration. Surrounded by family and friends, Ambellan died in Arles on April 21, 2006. Biography in English Biography in French
Didrik Ficks Gränd is an alley in Gamla stan, the old town of Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching from Västerlånggatan to Stora Nygatan, it forms a parallel street to Sven Vintappares Gränd and Yxsmedsgränd while passing on the south side of the small square Sven Vintappares Torg. Mentioned as Dirich Fiskes grendh in 1617, Diedrik Fischers gränd in 1674, Diedrich Ficks Gränd in 1800, the alley is named after a merchant and innkeeper, most bearing the genuine name Didrich Fischer and immigrating from Germany; the man in question is mentioned in 1620 as living in a building in the alley owned by an Erik Jöransson Tegel. The alley was named Jöran Perssons gränd in 1563 after the latter's father, Jöran Persson, one of the advisers of King Eric XIV; the name of the alley appears as Swedish variations of the name the German man, before being named Didrich Fischs gränd on a map dated 1733. In Number 3 facing the small square was a poorhouse in the 18th century, following the unsuccessful wars of Charles XII crowded with soldiers and vagrants forcing the authorities to issue a decree urging idle people to give precedence to disabled.
List of streets and squares in Gamla stan hitta.se - location map
The Chalcolithic Temple of Ein Gedi is a Ghassulian public building dating from about 3500 BCE. It lies on a scarp above the oasis of Ein Gedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea, within modern-day Israel. Archaeologist David Ussishkin has described the site as "a monumental edifice in terms of contemporary architecture"; the temple was discovered in 1956 by Yohanan Aharoni during an archaeological survey of the Ein Gedi region. Yosef Naveh carried out a trial excavation in the following year, finding animal bones, flint flakes and sherds identifying the site as a public building from the Chalcolithic-Ghassulian period a shrine. Systematic exploration of the temple started in 1962 under the supervision of Benjamin Mazar, part of the Ein Gedi excavations carried out by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Israel Exploration Society. No domestic ware nor remains of dwellings were found at the site, while its character and plan resemble the Chalcolithic sanctuary found in stratum XIX at Megiddo, confirming its identification as a temple.
The excavations at the temple have unearthed a compound consisting of a main building on the north, a smaller one in the east, a small circular structure, 3 metres in diameter and serving some cultic purpose, in the center. The entire complex was enclosed by stone walls preserved to a considerable height, linking the buildings into one rectangular unit. In the southern wall stood a gatehouse leading to the spring of Ein Gedi, a smaller gate in the northern wall, next to the small building, led to another spring in Nahal David. Reaching the cliff walls on three sides, it appears; the main building was a broadhouse, 20 metres long and 5.5 metres wide, with an entrance along its long southern wall. Opposite the entrance stood a hoof-shaped niche surrounded by a stone fence. Within were found animal bones, sherds, an accumulation of ashes and the clay statuette of a bull laden with a pair of churns; these indicate. A round piece of white crystalline limestone, found at the back of the altar, may have served as the base for a statue of a deity.
Stone benches stood along both long walls, while along the short walls the excavators found groups of small pits sunk into the floors. These were found to contain the remains of burnt bones, pottery, a great quantity of ash. A piece of painted plaster indicates the walls were even painted and decorated, like those from the Ghassulian type site at Teleilat al-Ghassul; the smaller building at the eastern end of the enclosure is a broadhouse, measuring 7.5 metres by 4.5 metres. Its floor was found to have been coated with a light-colored plaster and a stone bench was built along its facade, it may have served the priests of housing their vestments and ritual utensils. The gatehouse contained an inner and outer entrances, in the gate chamber stood a stone bench, about nine to twelve inches high; the circular installation stands at the highest point in the courtyard and features a round basin, 16 inches in diameter and about 1 foot deep. In the stone wall between the smaller building and the small gate, excavators have uncovered the outlet of a channel which appears to have been used to dispose of liquids water, from the installation.
In the installation was found a fragment of a cylindrical alabaster vessel, the oldest example of alabaster in Palestine. Imported from Egypt, it is indicative of cultural connections between the Ghalussian culture and pre-dynastic Egypt; the location of the temple between two springs, the orientation of the gates and the circular structure in the courtyard indicate the cultic nature of the Temple seems to have been connected to water. Pottery found at the site is exclusively of four types: bowls on fenestrated pedestals, small bowls and animal figurines; this limited variety may reflect its cultic significance — bowls on fenestrated pedestals have been found in the Chalcolithic temple in Megiddo. The temple complex shows no evidence of various stages of construction nor of repairs, indicating it belongs to one limited period of time. All pottery finds at the site place it in the late Ghassulian stage and have parallels in pottery found in other Chalcolithic sites in the region. With no dwellings and little Calcholithic remains in the immediate vicinity, the site appears to have served as a focus for pilgrimage, serving a wide region.
Excavations in the nearby Morinaga cave have yielded domestic Chalcolithic pottery, including bowls, storage jars and chalices, leading archaeologist Hanan Eshel to believe that the cave had housed the temple priests. The site shows no sign of deliberate destruction, it appears to have been abandoned and its cultic furniture removed, carried away by the priests. Other Ghassulian sites display signs of abandonment, the temple may represent the last phase of the Ghassulian settlements. David Ussishkin has suggested that the Nahal Mishmar hoard, discovered 7 miles south of Ein Gedi in 1961 by Pessah Bar-Adon, was in fact the temple's cult objects. Containing 429 articles, 416 of which are copper objects including maceheads and small crowns, the hoard forms "a unique collection of equipment for use in the Ghassulian ritual" and must have been used in a central sanctuary, it may have been hidden in Nahal Mishmar because of some calamity or approaching danger, never to be recovered. There does not exist a single find to directly link the hoard to the temple at Ein Gedi.
Bar-Adon has suggested some fragmentary ruins near the cave where the hoard was found might have been a comparable cultic location and a possible alternate source. Ein Gedi Excavations
Shiraz is a 1928 silent film, directed by Franz Osten and starring Himansu Rai and Enakshi Rama Rau. It was adapted from a stage play of the same name by Niranjan Pal, based on the story of the commissioning of the Taj Mahal – the great monument of a Moghul prince for his dead queen, it was an Indian/British/German co-production, the second of three silent films made on location in India by star and producer Himansu Rai. The others are A Throw of Dice. All three films draw on Indian classical legend. Shiraz is a potter's son, brought up as brother to Selima, a girl of unknown but royal lineage, rescued from an ambush in childhood. Shiraz falls in love with Selima as a young adult and when she is kidnapped by slavers and sold to Prince Khurram, Shiraz follows her to Agra, where he will risk a horrible death to protect her and one day design her great memorial. Himansu Rai as Shiraz Enakshi Rama Rau as Selima/Empress Mumtaz Mahal Charu Roy as Prince Khurram/Emperor Shah Jahan Seeta Devi as Dalia Shiraz was restored from original film elements by the BFI in 2017, had its premiere as a gala screening at the 2017 London Film Festival, accompanied by a new score composed and performed by Anoushka Shankar.
The Guardian's film critic Peter Bradshaw praised the film as " a startlingly ambitious epic weepie-romance". The restored version subsequently played in a number of venues in India in late 2017. Shiraz on IMDb Silver screen magic: inside the British Film Institute vaults on YouTube by the Financial Times discusses the restoration process for Shiraz