Egyptian revolution of 1952
The Egyptian coup d'état of 1952 known as the 1952 Coup d'état or July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The coup was aimed at overthrowing King Farouk. However, the movement had more political ambitions, soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, secure the independence of Sudan; the revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, international non-alignment. The coup d'état was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, Africa; the ongoing state of war with Israel posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's strong support of the Palestinians.
These two issues conflated four years after the coup when Egypt was invaded by Britain and Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956. Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation; this strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other African countries. Wholesale agrarian reform, huge industrialisation programmes were initiated in the first decade and half of the coup, leading to an unprecedented period of infrastructure building, urbanisation. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, the conflict with Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, the prohibition of a multi-party system.
These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed. The early successes of the coup encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, African countries, such as Algeria, Kenya, where there were anti-colonial rebellions against European empires, it inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent. The revolution is commemorated each year on July 23. In 1882, British forces intervened in Egypt during the Anglo-Egyptian War. In 1888 at the Convention of Constantinople, Britain won the right to protect the Suez Canal with military force, giving Britain a base to dominate Egyptian politics. Though nominally still an Ottoman vassal, Egypt became a British protectorate. After World War I, Britain placed a reliable member of Muhammad Ali's dynasty on the throne and declared Egypt a protectorate.
During World War II, Egypt was a major Allied base for the North African campaign. After the war, British policy continued to focus on control of the Suez Canal, vital for imperial trade. However, during World War II, Egyptian nationalists within the armed forces gained influence; the 1948 Arab–Israeli War humiliated these nationalists, who blamed the British-backed king, King Farouk. The loss of the 1948 war with Israel led to the Free Officers' accusations of corruption towards the King and his court and the promotion of that feeling among the Egyptian people; the Free Officers Movement was formed by a group of reform-minded officers which, backed by the Soviet Union and the United States, coalesced around a young officer named Gamal Abdel Nasser. They used an army general, Muhammad Naguib, as its head to show their seriousness and attract more army followers. In the warning that General Naguib conveyed to King Farouk on 26 July upon the king's abdication, he provided a summary of the reasons for the Coup: In view of what the country has suffered in the recent past, the complete vacuity prevailing in all corners as a result of your bad behavior, your toying with the constitution, your disdain for the wants of the people, no one rests assured of life and honor.
Egypt's reputation among the peoples of the world has been debased as a result of your excesses in these areas to the extent that traitors and bribe-takers find protection beneath your shadow in addition to security, excessive wealth, many extravagances at the expense of the hungry and impoverished people. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice. Therefore, the army, representing the power of the people, has empowered me to demand that Your Majesty abdicate the throne to His Highness Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad, provided that this is accomplished at the fixed time of 12 o'clock noon today, that you depart the country before 6 o'clock in the evening of the same day; the army places upon Your Majesty the burden of everything that may result from your failure to abdicate according to the wishes of the people. The Egyptian monarchy was seen as both corrupt and pro-British, with its lavish lifestyle that seemed provocative to the free officers movement who lived in poverty.
Its policies completed the image of the Egyptian government being a puppet-
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, the 15th-largest in the world, is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Middle East, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media and organizations have regional headquarters in the city.
With a population of over 9 million spread over 3,085 square kilometers, Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of traffic. Cairo's metro, one of two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides; the economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians refer to Cairo as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country, its official name al-Qāhirah means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror" due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir, was rising at the time when the city was founded also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams.
The Coptic name of the city is Kashromi which means "man breaker", akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro by people from Alexandria; the area around present-day Cairo Memphis, the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city are traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile; this fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.
Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. A tented camp Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital; this was known as al-Askar. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government; this was al-Qatta ` closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Since 1860s, Cairo expanded west as far as what is called now In 968, the Fatimids were led by general Jawhar al-Siqilli to establish a new capital for the Fatimid dynasty.
Egypt was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. It took four years to build the city known as al-Manṣūriyyah, to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo would become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books; when Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, al-Qāhiratu. For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders. Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of
Burke's Peerage Limited is a British genealogical publisher founded in 1826, when Irish genealogist John Burke began releasing books devoted to the ancestry and heraldry of the peerage, baronetage and landed gentry of the United Kingdom. His first publication, a Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom, was updated sporadically until 1847, when the company began releasing new editions every year as Burke's Peerage and Knightage. Other books followed, including Burke's Landed Gentry, Burke's Colonial Gentry, Burke's General Armory. In addition to the peerage, Burke's published books on royal families of Europe and Latin America, ruling families of Africa and the Middle East, distinguished families of the United States and historical families of Ireland; the firm was established in 1826 by progenitor of a dynasty of genealogists and heralds. His son Sir John Bernard Burke was Ulster King of Arms and his grandson, Sir Henry Farnham Burke, was Garter Principal King of Arms.
After his death, ownership passed through a variety of people. Apart from the Burke family, editors have included Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, Alfred Trego Butler, Leslie Gilbert Pine, Peter Townend, Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd. From the start, Burke's works suffered from pomposity and carelessness. Readers may have accepted as a minor eccentricity of style the idolisation of medieval figures who were little more than brigands and the ludicrously reverential tone adopted towards otherwise insignificant people who happened to possess a title or were related to a titled person; the major fault of substance, was the frequent and evident inaccuracy of the articles. Without much knowledge of history or genealogy, one could see improbabilities and inconsistencies both within articles and between articles. Errors in existing articles remained uncorrected between editions and new errors were added in new articles. A minor example can be found as late as 1953, where the article on the Baden-Powell barony contained a statement about the relationship of the first baron to the family of the first Earl Nelson, not supported by the article on the Nelson earldom, because there was no relationship and the statement was untrue.
When such carelessness was shown over recent links, what hope had readers of finding accurate guidance over titles with complicated ascents going back to remote medieval times? Serious scholars have always taken little account of Burke's books, exposing their flaws from time to time. In 1877, the Oxford professor Edward Augustus Freeman attacked in language of unexampled scorn, the fables and the fictions in Burke's, where he could find a pedigree, purely mythical – if indeed mythical is not too respectable a name for what must be in many cases the work of deliberate invention …. All but invariably false; as a rule, it is not only false, but impossible … not fictions, but that kind of fiction which is, in its beginning and interested falsehood. The reputation of the imprint in informed circles was well established by 1893 when Oscar Wilde in the play A Woman of No Importance wrote: "You should study the Peerage, Gerald, it is the one book a young man about town should know and it is the best thing in fiction the English have done!"
Such barbs had little effect for, writing in 1901, the historian J. Horace Round aimed many blows at the old fables and grotesquely impossible tales still being perpetuated by Burke's. More recent editions have been more scrupulously checked and rewritten for accuracy, notably under the chief editorship, from 1949-59, of L. G. Pine-, sceptical regarding many families' claims to antiquity: - and Hugh Massingberd. Almanach de Gotha Burke’s Landed Gentry Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage European royalty Hereditary peers Life Peers Baronets Burke's Peerage website Burke's Peerage Foundation website College of Arms website Lyon Court website Standing Council of the Baronetage website 1st edition - 1826 - Hathitrust 3rd edition - 1830 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 4th edition - 1832 - Vol 2 - Google Books 4th edition - corrected to 1833 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 5th edition - 1838 - Google Books 6th edition - 1839 - Hathitrust 7th edition - 1843 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 10th edition - 1848 - Hathitrust 12th edition - 1850 - Hathitrust 20th edition - 1858 - Hathitrust 22nd edition - 1860 - Hathitrust 23rd edition - 1861 - Hathitrust 27th edition - 1865 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Google Books 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 30th edition - 1868 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 1 - Hathitrust 31st edition - 1869 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 37th edition - 1875 - Vol 2 - Hathitrust 48th edition - 1886 - University of Dusseldorf 53rd edition - 1891 - University of Dusseldorf 76th edition - 1914 - Archive.org 99th edition - 1949 - Archive.org 102nd edition - 1959 - Hathitrust
Pasha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system granted to governors, generals and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, was one of the highest titles in the 20th century Kingdom of Egypt. According to Etymonline, pasha is derived from the earlier "basha", itself from Turkish "baş/bash", itself from Old Persian pati- "master", the root of the Persian word shah. According to the Oxford Online Dictionary, the word has its origins in the mid-17th century, was formed as a result of the combination of the Pahlavi words pati- "lord", shah. According to Josef W. Meri and Jere L. Bacharach, the word is "more than derived from the Persian Padishah"; the same view is held by Nicholas Ostler, who mentions that the word was formed as a shortening of the Persian word Padishah. According to etymologist Sevan Nişanyan, the word is derived from Turkish beşe, cognate with Persian baççe.
Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/, the word was spelled başa still in the 15th century. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b"; the English forms bashaw, bucha etc. general in the 16th and 17th century, derive through the medieval Latin and Italian word bassa. Due to the Ottoman presence in the Arab World, the title became used in Arabic, though pronounced basha due to the absence of the /p/ sound in Arabic. Within the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman Sultan had the right to bestow the title of Pasha, it was through this custom that the title came to be used in Egypt, conquered by the Ottomans in 1517. The rise to power in Egypt in 1805 by Muhammad Ali, an Albanian military commander established Egypt as a de facto independent state, however, it still owed technical fealty to the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, Muhammad Ali harboured ambitions of supplanting the Osman Dynasty in Constantinople, sought to style his Egyptian realm as a successor sultanate to the Ottoman Empire.
As such, he bore the title of Pasha, in addition to the official title of Wāli, the self-declared title of Khedive. His successors to the Egyptian and Sudanese throne, Abbas, Sa'id, Isma'il inherited these titles, with Pasha, Wāli ceasing to be used in 1867, when the Ottoman Sultan, Abdülaziz recognised Isma'il as Khedive; the title Pasha appears to have applied to military commanders and only high ranking family of the Sultans, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour. It was part of the official style of the Kapudan Pasha. Pashas below Khedives and Viziers. Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of horse-tails or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief; the following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha: The Vizier-i-Azam Mushir Ferik Liva The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapı Palace.
If a Pasha governed a provincial territory, it could be called a pashaluk after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. eyalet, vilayet/walayah. Both Beylerbeys and valis/wālis were entitled to the style of Pasha; the word pashalik designated any province or other jurisdiction of a Pasha, such as the Pasha or Bashaw of Tripoli. Ottoman and Egyptian authorities conferred the title upon both Muslims and Christians without distinction, they frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the Ottoman Empire, or of the Egyptian Khedivate, e.g. Hobart Pasha. In an Egyptian context, the Abaza Family is known as "the family of the pashas" for having produced the largest number of nobles holding this title under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was noted in Egyptian media as one of the main "families that rule Egypt" to this day, as "deeply rooted in Egyptian society and… in the history of the country." As an honorific, the title Pasha was an aristocratic title and could be hereditary or non-hereditary, stipulated in the "Firman" issued by the Sultan carrying the imperial seal "Tughra".
The title did not bestow rank or title to the wife nor was any religious leader elevated to the title. In contrast to western nobility titles, where the title is added before the given name, Ottoman titles followed the given name. In contacts with foreign emissaries and representatives, holders of the title Pasha were referred to as "Your Excellency"; the sons of a Pasha were styled Pasha-zade, which means just that. In modern Egyptian and Levantine Arabic, it is used as an honorific closer to "Sir" than "Lord" by older people. Among Egyptians born since the
Morocco the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country located in the Maghreb region of North West Africa with an area of 710,850 km2. Its capital is the largest city Casablanca, it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Morocco claims the areas of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa; the Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, it regained its independence in 1956, has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards.
Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco occupies two thirds of the territory, peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock; the unitary sovereign state of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors; the king can issue decrees called dahirs. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and Berber. E; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, French are widely spoken. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Sephardi Jews, West African and European influences. Morocco is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union, it has the fifth largest economy of Africa. The full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to "Kingdom of the West". For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers sometimes referred to Morocco as al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá to distinguish it from neighbouring historical regions called al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ and al-Maghrib al-Adná; the basis of Morocco's English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad Caliphate. The origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most from the Berber words amur akush or "Land of God"; the modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc. In Turkish, Morocco is known as a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes.
However, this was not the case in other parts of the Islamic world: until the middle of the 20th century, the common name of Morocco in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Arabic literature was Marrakesh. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish "Marruecos", from which derives the Tuscan "Morrocco", the origin of the Italian "Marocco"; the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. A recent publication may demonstrate an earlier habitation period, as Homo sapiens fossils discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were dated to 315,000 years before present. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna more than today's arid landscape. Twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" burials and European Cro-Magnon remains.
The Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered the Saami of Scandinavia; this supports theories that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers who repopulated northern Europe after the last ice age. Northwest Africa and Morocco were drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Substantial Phoenician settlements were at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador was a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC. Morocco became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancie
Nazli Sabri was the first Queen of Egypt from 1919 to 1936 as the second wife of King Fuad. Nazli was born on 25 June 1894 into a family of French origin, her father was Abdur Rahim Sabri Pasha, minister of agriculture and governor of Cairo, her mother was Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Nazli had a brother, Sherif Sabri Pasha, a sister, Amina Sabri, she was the maternal granddaughter of Major General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, of Turkish origin. She was a great-granddaughter of the French-born officer Suleiman Pasha. Nazli first went to the Lycée de la Mère-de-Dieu in Cairo, to the Collège Notre-Dame de Sion in Alexandria. Following the death of her mother and her sister were sent to a boardingschool in Paris, for two years. After returning, Nazli was forced to marry Khalil Sabri. However, the marriage ended in divorce after eleven months. After the separation, she stayed at the house of Safiya Zaghloul where she met Zaghloul's nephew Saeed Zaghloul; the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad.
On 12 May 1919, Fuad proposed to her. On 24 May 1919 Nazli married Sultan Fuad I at Cairo, it was the second marriage for both Fuad. She moved to the haramlek in the Abbasiya Palace, she was under pressure from her husband to produce a son, was warned that she would be confined to the haremlek if she did not do so. After the birth of their only son, she was allowed to move into Koubbeh Palace -the official royal residence- with her husband; when Fuad's title was altered to King, she was given the title of Queen. She had four daughters: Fawzia, Faiza and Fathiya. Restricted to the palace throughout most of Fuad's reign, she was permitted to attend opera performances, flower shows, other ladies-only cultural events; as her upbringing had left her remarkably educated and emancipated for an Egyptian woman of the time, she found this prescribed existence backward and stifling. It was said that whenever the royal couple fought, she was slapped by the king and confined to her suite for weeks, it was alleged that she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on aspirin.
Nazli accompanied the king during part of his four-month tour of Europe in 1927, was much fêted in France because of her French ancestry. With the inauguration of Parliament in 1924, she was among the royal attendees at the opening ceremony, seated in a special section of the guest gallery. Following the death of King Fuad in 1936, her son Farouk became the new King of Egypt, she became the Queen Mother, her brother Sherif Sabri Pasha served on the three-member Regency Council, formed during Farouk's minority. In 1946, Nazli went to the United States for treatment for a kidney ailment. In August 1950, King Farouk deprived the Queen Mother, her daughter Princess Fathia of their rights and titles; this was due to latter's marriage, which Nazli supported, but was against Farouk's wishes, to Riyad Ghali Effendi, a Coptic Christian. Nazli converted to Christianity, changing her name to Mary-Elizabeth. In 1955 Nazli purchased, for $63,000, a 28-room mansion in Beverley Hills, where she lived with Fathia, her son-in-law, their two children, led an active social life.
In 1965, Nazli attended the funeral of Farouk, in Rome. Following Fathia's divorce, Nazli moved to a small apartment in Westwood, Los Angeles, where Fathia joined her after temporarily moving to Hawaii. To meet debt demands, in 1975 Nazli sent her principal jewellery to auction at Sothebys, including a magnificent art deco tiara and matching necklace commissioned in 1938 from Van Cleef & Arpels, they sold for $127,500 and $140,000 respectively. However and Fathia still ended up in bankruptcy court. In 1978, Fathia's jewellery was sold to meet debts. In 1976, Nazli sent a request to the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, that passports be provided to her and Princess Fathia to give them right of return to Egypt, she settled in the US, due to her painful illness. She died on 29 May 1978 in California. Queen Nazli's art deco necklace reappeared at a Sotheby's sale in December 2015; the Queen ordered the necklace with a matching tiara for her daughter's wedding. The necklace is formed by 600 baguette diamonds arranged in a sunburst motif.
26 May 1919 – 15 March 1922: Her Gloriness The Sultana 15 March 1922 – 20 January 1938: Her Majesty The Queen 20 January 1938 – 8 August 1950: Her Majesty The Queen Mother House of Muhammad Ali: Former Grand Mistress Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Virtues, Supreme Class Iran: Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of Aftab In 2007, Queen Nazli was played by Egyptian actress Wafaa Amer in the Drama "El-malek Farouk". In 2008, Rawia Rashed published a book about Queen Nazli, titled Nazli, Malika Fi El Manfa. Based on this book, an Egyptian TV series provided an account for the life of Queen Nazli, Queen in Exile, starring Egyptian actress Nadia Al Jundi in 2010. عودة، تيسير ، « اَلمَملَكَة اَلمَصريَة » ، چاپ دمنهور، سال 1959 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed.. "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. Pp. 20–37. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936. Egyptian Royalty by Ahmed S. Kame